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Sonic Automotive Inc (SAH) SEC Filing 10-K Annual report for the fiscal year ending Monday, December 31, 2018

Sonic Automotive Inc

CIK: 1043509 Ticker: SAH

Exhibit 99.1

Sonic Automotive, Inc. Reports Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results
EchoPark Grows Retail Unit Volume 95%

CHARLOTTE, N.C. – February 20, 2019Sonic Automotive, Inc. (NYSE: SAH), one of the nation’s largest automotive retailers, today reported financial results for the fourth quarter and full year ended December 31, 2018.

Fourth quarter revenue and gross profit of $2.6 billion and $370.7 million, respectively
Record fourth quarter pre-owned retail unit sales of 35,135 units
Record quarterly F&I gross profit per retail unit of $1,659
Record quarterly F&I gross of $109.6 million
EchoPark stores retailed 8,762 units during the fourth quarter, up 94.9% from the fourth quarter of 2017
GAAP continuing operations earnings per diluted share of $0.51 per diluted share in the fourth quarter of 2018
GAAP continuing operations earnings per diluted share of $1.22 per diluted share for the full year 2018
Adjusted continuing operations earnings per diluted share of $0.76 per diluted share in the fourth quarter of 2018
Adjusted continuing operations earnings per diluted share of $1.79 per diluted share for the full year 2018
Increased quarterly cash dividend 67%, to $0.10 per share

Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2018 Results

GAAP Basis

Net income from continuing operations for the fourth quarter of 2018 was $22.0 million, or $0.51 per diluted share. Comparatively, net income from continuing operations for the fourth quarter of 2017 was $62.1 million, or $1.42 per diluted share.

Net income from continuing operations for the full year 2018 was $52.4 million, or $1.22 per diluted share. Comparatively, net income from continuing operations for the full year 2017 was $94.2 million, or $2.12 per diluted share.

Adjusted Basis

Adjusted net income from continuing operations and related earnings per diluted share are non-GAAP financial measures. The schedules included in this press release reconcile these non-GAAP financial measures to the most directly comparable GAAP financial measures.

Adjusted net income from continuing operations for the fourth quarter of 2018 was $32.7 million, or $0.76 per diluted share. The adjustments in the fourth quarter of 2018 relate to lease-related matters and fixed asset and franchise asset impairments. Adjusted net income from continuing operations for the fourth quarter of 2017 was $36.6 million, or $0.84 per diluted share. The adjustments in the 2017 quarterly period relate to the benefit of the change in the federal income tax rate in future periods, a gain related to the disposal of franchises, adjustments to physical damage accruals and charges related to fixed asset and franchise asset impairments and legal matters.

Adjusted net income from continuing operations for the full year 2018 was $76.9 million, or $1.79 per diluted share. The adjustments in the 2018 annual period relate to fixed asset and franchise asset impairments, legal, storm damage and lease exit charges, long-term compensation related charges and executive transition costs, offset partially by gains related to the disposal of franchises. Adjusted net income from continuing operations for the full year 2017 was $82.2 million, or $1.85 per diluted share. The adjustments in the 2017 annual period relate to the benefit of the change in the federal income tax rate in future periods, gains related to the disposal of franchises and charges related to fixed asset and franchise asset impairments, debt refinance costs and legal matters.



The following information was filed by Sonic Automotive Inc (SAH) on Wednesday, February 20, 2019 as an 8K 2.02 statement, which is an earnings press release pertaining to results of operations and financial condition. It may be helpful to assess the quality of management by comparing the information in the press release to the information in the accompanying 10-K Annual Report statement of earnings and operation as management may choose to highlight particular information in the press release.


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549

FORM 10-K 

☒ ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018 
or
☐ TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from                      to                     
Commission file number:  1-13395

SONIC AUTOMOTIVE, INC.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

Delaware56-2010790
(State or other jurisdiction of(I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)Identification No.)
 
4401 Colwick Road
Charlotte, North Carolina28211 
(Address of principal executive offices)(Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (704) 566-2400
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act: 
Title of each className of each exchange on which registered
Class A common stock, $0.01 par valueNew York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
______________________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.    Yes  ☐    No  ☒
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    ☒  Yes     ☐  No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    ☒  Yes    ☐  No
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.    ☐  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large Accelerated Filer
Accelerated filer  ☐
Non-accelerated filer  ☐
Smaller Reporting Company  ☐
Emerging growth company  ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.    ☐  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    ☐  Yes    ☒  No
The aggregate market value of the voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $599.3 million based upon the closing sales price of the registrant’s Class A Common Stock on June 30, 2018 of $20.60 per share.
As of February 20, 2019, there were 30,916,226 shares of Class A Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, and 12,029,375 shares of Class B Common Stock, par value $0.01 per share, outstanding.
Documents incorporated by reference. Portions of the registrant’s definitive Proxy Statement for the 2019 Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held April 24, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III of this Form 10-K.




UNCERTAINTY OF FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS AND INFORMATION
This Annual Report on Form 10-K contains, and written or oral statements made from time to time by us or by our authorized officers may contain, “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. These forward-looking statements address our future objectives, plans and goals, as well as our intent, beliefs and current expectations regarding future operating performance, results and events, and can generally be identified by words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “believe,” “expect,” “estimate,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “foresee” and other similar words or phrases.
These forward-looking statements are based on our current estimates and assumptions and involve various risks and uncertainties. As a result, you are cautioned that these forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance, and that actual results could differ materially from those projected in these forward-looking statements. Factors which may cause actual results to differ materially from our projections include those risks described in “Item 1A. Risk Factors” of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and elsewhere herein, as well as:
the number of new and used vehicles sold in the United States as compared to our expectations and the expectations of the market;
our ability to generate sufficient cash flows or to obtain additional financing to fund our EchoPark expansion, capital expenditures, our share repurchase program, dividends on our common stock, acquisitions and general operating activities;
our business and growth strategies, including, but not limited to, our EchoPark store operations;
the reputation and financial condition of vehicle manufacturers whose brands we represent, the financial incentives vehicle manufacturers offer and their ability to design, manufacture, deliver and market their vehicles successfully;
our relationships with manufacturers, which may affect our ability to obtain desirable new vehicle models in inventory or to complete additional acquisitions;
the adverse resolution of one or more significant legal proceedings against us or our franchised dealerships or EchoPark stores;
changes in laws and regulations governing the operation of automobile franchises, accounting standards, taxation requirements and environmental laws;
changes in vehicle and parts import quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions;
general economic conditions in the markets in which we operate, including fluctuations in interest rates, employment levels, the level of consumer spending and consumer credit availability;
high competition in the retail automotive industry, which not only creates pricing pressures on the products and services we offer, but also on businesses we may seek to acquire;
our ability to successfully integrate potential future acquisitions; and
the rate and timing of overall economic recovery or decline.
These forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K or when made, and we undertake no obligation to revise or update these statements to reflect subsequent events or circumstances, except as required under the federal securities laws and the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission.


SONIC AUTOMOTIVE, INC.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDED DECEMBER 31, 2018 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PAGE
Item 1.
Item 1A.
Item 1B.
Item 2.
Item 3.
Item 4.
Item 5.
Item 6.
Item 7.
Item 7A.
Item 8.
Item 9.
Item 9A.
Item 9B.
Item 10.
Item 11.
Item 12.
Item 13.
Item 14.
Item 15.
Item 16.



SONIC AUTOMOTIVE, INC.
PART I
Item 1.  Business.
Sonic Automotive, Inc. was incorporated in Delaware in 1997. We are one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States (as measured by total revenue). As a result of the way we manage our business, we had two operating segments as of December 31, 2018: (1) the Franchised Dealerships Segment and (2) the EchoPark Segment. For management and operational reporting purposes, we group certain businesses together that share management and inventory (principally used vehicles) into “stores.” As of December 31, 2018, we operated 96 stores in the Franchised Dealerships Segment and eight stores in the EchoPark Segment. The Franchised Dealerships Segment consists of 108 new vehicle franchises (representing 23 different brands of cars and light trucks) and 15 collision repair centers in 13 states. 
The Franchised Dealerships Segment provides comprehensive services, including (1) sales of both new and used cars and light trucks; (2) sales of replacement parts and performance of vehicle maintenance, manufacturer warranty repairs, and paint and collision repair services (collectively, “Fixed Operations”); and (3) arrangement of extended warranties, service contracts, financing, insurance and other aftermarket products (collectively, “finance and insurance” or “F&I”) for our customers. The EchoPark Segment sells used cars and light trucks and arranges F&I product sales for our customers in pre-owned vehicle specialty retail locations. Our EchoPark business operates independently from our franchised dealerships business. Sales operations in our first EchoPark market in Denver, Colorado began in the fourth quarter of 2014. As of December 31, 2018, we had three EchoPark stores in operation in Colorado, four in Texas and one in North Carolina. By the end of 2019, we expect to open one additional EchoPark store in Texas. We believe that the expansion of our EchoPark business will provide long-term benefits to the Company, our stockholders and our guests. However, in the short term, this strategic initiative may negatively impact our overall operating results as we allocate management and capital resources to this business.
References to “Sonic,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” and “our” used throughout this Annual Report on Form 10-K refer to Sonic Automotive, Inc. and its subsidiaries.
The following charts depict the multiple sources of continuing operations revenue and gross profit for the year ended December 31, 2018 (“2018”):

sah-20181231_g1.jpgsah-20181231_g2.jpg






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As of December 31, 2018, we operated in the following states:
MarketNumber of Franchised StoresNumber of EchoPark Stores 
Percent of
2018 Total
Revenue
California23 — 28.2 %
Texas20 26.8 %
Colorado7.8 %
Tennessee11 — 6.8 %
Florida— 5.6 %
Alabama10 — 5.2 %
North Carolina3.4 %
Ohio— 3.1 %
Maryland— 3.0 %
Georgia— 2.8 %
Virginia— 2.8 %
Nevada— 1.7 %
South Carolina— 1.5 %
Disposed stores and holding companies— — 1.3 %
Total96 100.0 %
In the future, we may acquire dealerships and open new stores that we believe will enrich our portfolio and divest dealerships or close stores that we believe will not yield acceptable returns over the long term. The automotive retailing industry remains highly fragmented, and we believe that further consolidation may occur. We believe that attractive acquisition opportunities continue to exist for dealership groups with the capital and experience to identify, acquire and professionally manage dealerships. Our ability to complete acquisitions and open new stores in the future will depend on many factors, including the availability of financing and the existence of any contractual provisions that may restrict our acquisition activity.
See “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources” for a discussion of our plans for the use of capital generated from operations.
Operating Segments
As of December 31, 2018, we had two operating segments: (1) the Franchised Dealerships Segment and (2) the EchoPark Segment. The Franchised Dealerships Segment is comprised of retail automotive franchises that sell new vehicles and buy and sell used vehicles, sell replacement parts, perform vehicle maintenance, warranty and repair services, and arrange finance and insurance products. The EchoPark Segment is comprised of pre-owned vehicle specialty retail locations that buy and sell used vehicles and arrange finance and insurance products.
For 2018, EchoPark Segment revenue represented approximately 7.0% of total revenue. See Note 14, “Segment Information,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for additional financial information regarding our two operating segments.
Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion of our business is presented on a consolidated basis.
Business Strategy
Execute our EchoPark Store Initiative. We have augmented our manufacturer-franchised dealership operations with our EchoPark pre-owned vehicle specialty retail locations. Our EchoPark business operates independently from our franchised dealerships business. Sales operations for EchoPark began in Denver, Colorado in the fourth quarter of 2014. As of December 31, 2018, we had three EchoPark stores in operation in Colorado, four in Texas and one in North Carolina. We expect to open one additional EchoPark store in Texas during 2019.
Achieve High Levels of Customer Satisfaction. We focus on maintaining high levels of customer satisfaction. Our personalized sales process is designed to satisfy customers by providing high-quality vehicles and service in a positive, “consumer friendly” buying environment. Several manufacturers offer specific financial incentives on a per vehicle basis if certain Customer Satisfaction Index (“CSI”) levels (which vary by manufacturer) are achieved by a dealership. In addition, all
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manufacturers consider CSI scores in approving acquisitions or awarding new dealership open points. To keep dealership and executive management focused on customer satisfaction, we include CSI results as a component of our incentive-based compensation programs for certain groups of associates and executive management.
Invest in Dealership Properties. Historically, we have operated our dealerships primarily on property financed through long-term operating leases. As these leases mature, or as we have an opportunity to purchase the underlying real estate prior to renewal, we take actions to own more of our dealership properties when the effect is financially or operationally favorable to us. We remain opportunistic in purchasing existing properties or relocating dealership operations to owned real estate where the returns are favorable. We believe owning our properties where feasible and financially and strategically advantageous will, over the long term, strengthen our balance sheet and reduce our overall cost of operating and financing our facilities.
Improve Capital Structure. As we generate cash through operations, we may opportunistically repurchase our Class A Common Stock or our outstanding subordinated notes in open-market or structured transactions and may sell our Class A Common Stock to reduce debt.
Maximize Asset Returns Through Process Execution. We have developed standardized operating processes that are documented in operating playbooks for our stores. Through the continued implementation of our operating playbooks, we believe organic growth opportunities exist by offering a more favorable buying experience to our customers and creating efficiencies in our business processes. We believe the development, refinement and implementation of these operating processes will enhance the customer experience, make us more competitive in the markets we serve and drive profit growth across each of our revenue streams.
Maintain Diverse Revenue Streams. We have multiple revenue streams. In addition to new vehicle sales, our revenue sources include used vehicle sales, which we believe are less sensitive to economic cycles and seasonal influences that exist with new vehicle sales. Our Fixed Operations sales carry a higher gross margin than new and used vehicle sales and, in the past, have not been as economically sensitive as new vehicle sales. We also offer customers assistance in obtaining financing and a range of automobile-related warranty, aftermarket and insurance products.
Manage Portfolio. Our long-term growth and acquisition strategy is focused on large metropolitan markets, predominantly in the Southeast, Texas and California. We seek to add like-branded dealerships to our portfolio that exist in regions in which we already operate; however, we may look outside of our existing geographic footprint when considering the location of new EchoPark stores. A majority of our franchised dealerships are either luxury or mid-line import brands. For 2018, approximately 89.4% of our total new vehicle revenue was generated by luxury and mid-line import dealerships, which usually have higher operating margins, more stable Fixed Operations departments, lower associate turnover and lower inventory levels.
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The following table depicts the breakdown of our new vehicle revenues from continuing operations by brand:
Percentage of New Vehicle Revenues
Year Ended December 31,
Brand201820172016
Luxury:
BMW19.8 %19.6 %20.2 %
Mercedes10.7 %10.7 %10.6 %
Audi6.5 %6.0 %5.3 %
Lexus6.1 %5.8 %5.9 %
Land Rover4.4 %3.2 %3.3 %
Porsche2.7 %2.4 %2.3 %
Cadillac2.3 %2.7 %3.3 %
MINI1.3 %1.3 %1.6 %
Other luxury (1)2.8 %2.9 %3.0 %
Total Luxury56.6 %54.6 %55.5 %
Mid-line Import:
Honda17.2 %17.3 %16.8 %
Toyota10.2 %11.9 %11.4 %
Volkswagen2.0 %1.8 %1.5 %
Hyundai1.6 %1.5 %1.2 %
Other imports (2)1.8 %1.7 %1.7 %
Total Mid-line Import32.8 %34.2 %32.6 %
Domestic:
Ford5.7 %6.8 %6.8 %
General Motors (3)4.9 %4.4 %5.1 %
Total Domestic10.6 %11.2 %11.9 %
Total100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
(1)   Includes Acura, Infiniti, Jaguar, Smart and Volvo.
(2)  Includes Kia, Nissan, Scion and Subaru.
(3) Includes Buick, Chevrolet and GMC.
Expand our eCommerce Capabilities. Automotive customers have become increasingly more comfortable using technology to research their vehicle buying alternatives and communicate with store personnel. The internet presents a marketing, advertising and automotive sales channel that we will continue to utilize to drive value for our stores and enhance the customer experience. Our technology platforms give us the ability to leverage technology to efficiently integrate systems, customize our dealership websites and use our data to improve the effectiveness of our advertising and interaction with our customers. These platforms also allow us to market all of our products and services to a national audience and, at the same time, support the local market penetration of our individual stores.
Train, Develop and Retain Associates. We believe our associates are the cornerstone of our business and crucial to our financial success. Our goal is to develop our associates and foster an environment where our associates can contribute and grow with the Company. Associate satisfaction is very important to us, and we believe a high level of associate satisfaction reduces associate turnover and enhances our customers’ experience at our stores by pairing our customers with well-trained associates. We believe that our comprehensive training of all employees provides us with a competitive advantage over other dealership groups.
Increase Sales of Higher-Margin Products and Services. We continue to pursue opportunities to increase our sales of higher-margin products and services by expanding the following:
Finance, Insurance and Other Aftermarket Products. Each sale of a new or used vehicle gives us an opportunity to provide our customers with financing and insurance options and earn financing fees and insurance and other aftermarket product commissions. We also offer our customers the opportunity to purchase extended warranties, service contracts and other aftermarket products from third-party providers whereby we earn a commission for arranging the contract sale. We currently offer a wide range of non-recourse financing, leasing, other aftermarket products, extended warranties, service contracts and
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insurance products to our customers. We emphasize menu-selling techniques and other best practices to increase our sales of F&I products at our franchised dealerships and EchoPark stores.
Parts, Service and Collision Repair. Each of our franchised dealerships offers a fully integrated service and parts department. Manufacturers permit warranty work to be performed only at franchised dealerships such as ours. As a result, our franchised dealerships are uniquely qualified and positioned to perform work covered by manufacturer warranties on increasingly complex vehicles. We believe we can continue to grow our profitable parts and service business over the long term by increasing service capacity, investing in sophisticated equipment and well-trained technicians, using variable rate pricing structures, focusing on customer service and efficiently managing our parts inventory. In addition, we believe our emphasis on selling extended service contracts and maintenance associated with new and used vehicle retail sales will drive further service and parts business in our franchised dealerships as we increase the potential to retain current customers beyond the term of the standard manufacturer warranty period.
Certified Pre-Owned Vehicles. Various manufacturers provide franchised dealers the opportunity to sell certified pre-owned (“CPO”) vehicles. This certification process extends the standard manufacturer warranty on the CPO vehicle, which we believe increases our potential to retain the pre-owned purchaser as a future parts and service customer. As CPO vehicles can only be sold by franchised dealerships and CPO warranty work can only be performed at franchised dealerships, we believe CPO vehicles add additional sales volume and will increase our Fixed Operations business.
Relationships with Manufacturers
Each of our dealerships operates under a separate franchise or dealer agreement that governs the relationship between the dealership and the manufacturer. Each franchise or dealer agreement specifies the location of the dealership for the sale of vehicles and for the performance of certain approved services in a specified market area. The designation of such areas generally does not guarantee exclusivity within a specified territory. In addition, most manufacturers allocate vehicles on a “turn and earn” basis that rewards high unit sales volume. A franchise or dealer agreement incentivizes the dealer to meet specified standards regarding showrooms, facilities and equipment for servicing vehicles, inventories, minimum net working capital, personnel training and other aspects of the business. Each franchise or dealer agreement also gives the related manufacturer the right to approve the dealer operator and any material change in management or ownership of the dealership. Each manufacturer may terminate a franchise or dealer agreement under certain circumstances, such as a change in control of the dealership without manufacturer approval, the impairment of the reputation or financial condition of the dealership, the death, removal or withdrawal of the dealer operator, the conviction of the dealership or the dealership’s owner or dealer operator of certain crimes, the failure to adequately operate the dealership or maintain new vehicle financing arrangements, insolvency or bankruptcy of the dealership or a material breach of other provisions of the applicable franchise or dealer agreement.
Many automobile manufacturers have developed and implemented policies regarding public ownership of dealerships, which include the ability to force the sale of their respective franchises:
upon a change in control of the Company or a material change in the composition of our Board of Directors;
if an automobile manufacturer or distributor acquires more than 5% of the voting power of our securities; or
if an individual or entity (other than an automobile manufacturer or distributor) acquires more than 20% of the voting power of our securities, and the manufacturer disapproves of such individual’s or entity’s ownership interest.
To the extent that new or amended manufacturer policies restrict the number of dealerships that may be owned by a dealership group or the transferability of our common stock, such policies could have a material adverse effect on us. We believe that we will be able to renew at expiration all of our existing franchise and dealer agreements.
Many states have placed limitations upon manufacturers’ and distributors’ ability to sell new motor vehicles directly to customers in their respective states in an effort to protect dealers from practices they believe constitute unfair competition. In general, these statutes make it unlawful for a manufacturer or distributor to compete with a new motor vehicle dealer in the same brand operating under an agreement or franchise from the manufacturer or distributor in the relevant market area. Certain states, including Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina and Virginia, limit the amount of time that a manufacturer or distributor may temporarily operate a dealership. These statutes have been increasingly challenged by new entrants into the automotive industry and, to the extent that these statutes are repealed or weakened, such changes could have a material adverse effect on our business.
In addition, all of the states in which our dealerships currently do business require manufacturers or distributors to show “good cause” for terminating or failing to renew a dealer’s franchise or dealer agreement. Further, each of these states provides
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some method for dealers to challenge manufacturer attempts to establish dealerships of the same brand in their relevant market area.
Competition
The retail automotive industry is highly competitive. Depending on the geographic market, we compete both with dealers offering the same brands and product lines as ours and dealers offering other manufacturers’ vehicles. We also compete for vehicle sales with auto brokers, leasing companies and services offered on the internet that provide customer referrals to other dealerships or who broker vehicle sales between customers and other dealerships. We compete with small, local dealerships and with large multi-franchise and pre-owned automotive dealership groups.
We believe that the principal competitive factors in vehicle sales are the customer experience provided, the location of dealerships, the marketing campaigns conducted by manufacturers, the ability of dealerships to offer an attractive selection of the most popular vehicles, the quality of services and pricing (including manufacturer rebates and other special offers). In particular, pricing has become more important as a result of well-informed customers using sources available on the internet to determine current market retail prices. Other competitive factors include customer preference for makes of automobiles and coverage under manufacturer warranties.
In addition to competition for vehicle sales, we also compete with other auto dealers, service stores, auto parts retailers and independent mechanics in providing parts and service. We believe that the principal competitive factors in parts and service sales are price, the use of factory-approved replacement parts, factory-trained technicians, the familiarity with a manufacturer’s makes and models and the quality of customer service. A number of regional and national chains offer selected parts and services at prices that may be lower than our prices.
In arranging or providing financing for our customers’ vehicle purchases, we compete with a broad range of financial institutions. In addition, financial institutions are now offering F&I products through the internet. We believe the principal competitive factors in providing financing are convenience, interest rates and contract terms.
Our success depends, in part, on national and regional automobile-buying trends, local and regional economic factors and other regional competitive pressures. Conditions and competitive pressures affecting the markets in which we operate, such as price-cutting by dealers in these areas, or in any new markets we enter, could adversely affect us, even though the retail automobile industry as a whole might not be affected.
Governmental Regulations and Environmental Matters
Numerous federal and state regulations govern our business of marketing, selling, financing and servicing automobiles. We are also subject to laws and regulations relating to business corporations.
Under the laws of the states in which we currently operate, as well as the laws of other states into which we may expand, we must obtain a license in order to establish, operate or relocate a franchised dealership or EchoPark store or operate an automotive repair service. These laws also regulate our conduct of business, including our sales, operating, advertising, financing and employment practices, including federal and state wage-hour, anti-discrimination and other employment practices laws.
Our financing activities with customers are subject to federal truth-in-lending, consumer privacy, consumer leasing and equal credit opportunity regulations as well as state and local motor vehicle finance laws, installment finance laws, usury laws and other installment sales laws. Some states regulate finance fees that may be paid as a result of vehicle sales.
Federal, state and local environmental regulations, including regulations governing air and water quality, the clean-up of contaminated property and the use, storage, handling, recycling and disposal of gasoline, oil and other materials, also apply to us and our franchised dealership and EchoPark properties.
As with automobile dealerships generally, and service, parts and body shop operations in particular, our business involves the use, storage, handling and contracting for recycling or disposal of hazardous or toxic substances or wastes and other environmentally sensitive materials. Our business also involves the past and current operation and/or removal of above ground and underground storage tanks containing such substances, wastes or materials. Accordingly, we are subject to regulation by federal, state and local authorities that establish health and environmental quality standards, provide for liability related to those standards and provide penalties for violations of those standards. We are also subject to laws, ordinances and regulations governing remediation of contamination at facilities we own or operate or to which we send hazardous or toxic substances or wastes and other environmentally sensitive materials for treatment, recycling or disposal.
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We do not have any known material environmental liabilities, and we believe that compliance with environmental laws and regulations will not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. However, soil and groundwater contamination is known to exist at certain properties owned and used by us. Further, environmental laws and regulations are complex and subject to frequent change. In addition, in connection with our past or future acquisitions, it is possible that we will assume or become subject to new or unforeseen environmental costs or liabilities, some of which may be material.
Executive Officers of the Registrant
Our executive officers as of the date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K are as follows:
NameAgePosition(s) with Sonic
O. Bruton Smith91 Executive Chairman and Director
David Bruton Smith44 Chief Executive Officer and Director
Jeff Dyke51 President
Heath R. Byrd52 Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer
O. Bruton Smith is the Founder of Sonic and has served as its Executive Chairman since July 2015. Prior to his election as Executive Chairman, Mr. Smith had served as Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of the Company since its organization in January 1997. Mr. Smith has also served as a director of Sonic since its organization in January 1997. Mr. Smith is also a director of many of Sonic’s subsidiaries. Mr. Smith has worked in the retail automobile industry since 1966. Mr. Smith is also the Executive Chairman and a director of Speedway Motorsports, Inc. (“SMI”), which is controlled by Mr. Smith and his family. SMI is a public company whose shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange (the “NYSE”). Among other things, SMI owns and operates the following speedways: Atlanta Motor Speedway, Bristol Motor Speedway, Charlotte Motor Speedway, Kentucky Speedway, Las Vegas Motor Speedway, New Hampshire Motor Speedway, Sonoma Raceway and Texas Motor Speedway. He is also a director of most of SMI’s operating subsidiaries. He is the father of Mr. David Bruton Smith.
David Bruton Smith was elected as Chief Executive Officer of Sonic in September 2018. Prior to his election as Chief Executive Officer, Mr. Smith served as Sonic’s Executive Vice Chairman and Chief Strategic Officer from March 2018 to September 2018, Sonic’s Vice Chairman from March 2013 to March 2018 and as an Executive Vice President of Sonic from October 2008 to March 2013. He has served as a director of Sonic since October 2008 and has served in Sonic’s organization since 1998. Prior to being named an Executive Vice President and a director in October 2008, Mr. Smith had served as Sonic’s Senior Vice President of Corporate Development since March 2007. Mr. Smith served as Sonic’s Vice President of Corporate Strategy from October 2005 to March 2007, and also served prior to that time as Dealer Operator and General Manager of several Sonic dealerships. He is the son of Mr. O. Bruton Smith.
Jeff Dyke was elected as President of Sonic in September 2018 and is responsible for direct oversight for all of Sonic’s retail automotive operations. Prior to his election as President, Mr. Dyke served as Sonic’s Executive Vice President of Operations from October 2008 to September 2018. From March 2007 to October 2008, Mr. Dyke served as our Division Chief Operating Officer – Southeast Division, where he oversaw retail automotive operations for the states of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee and Texas. Mr. Dyke first joined Sonic in October 2005 as our Vice President of Retail Strategy, a position that he held until April 2006, when he was promoted to Division Vice President – Eastern Division, a position he held from April 2006 to March 2007. Prior to joining Sonic, Mr. Dyke worked in the automotive retail industry at AutoNation, Inc., an American automotive retailer, which provides new and pre-owned vehicles and associated services in the United States, from 1996 to 2005, where he held several positions in divisional, regional and dealership management with that company.
Heath R. Byrd has served as Sonic’s Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer since April 2013. Mr. Byrd was previously a Vice President and Sonic’s Chief Information Officer from December 2007 to March 2013, and has served our organization since 2007. Prior to joining Sonic, Mr. Byrd served in a variety of management positions at HR America, Inc., a workforce management firm that provided customized human resource and workforce development through co-sourcing arrangements, including as a director, as President and Chief Operating Officer and as Chief Financial Officer and Chief Information Officer. Prior to HR America, Mr. Byrd served as a Manager in the Management Consulting Division of Ernst & Young LLP.
Employees
As of December 31, 2018, we employed approximately 9,700 associates. We believe that our relationships with our associates are good. Approximately 260 of our associates, primarily service technicians in northern California, are represented
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by a labor union. Although only a small percentage of our associates is represented by a labor union, we may be affected by labor strikes, work slowdowns and walkouts at automobile manufacturers’ manufacturing facilities.
Company Information
Our website can be accessed at www.sonicautomotive.com. Our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), as well as proxy statements and other information we file with, or furnish to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”) are available free of charge on our website. We make these documents available as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically transmit them to the SEC. Except as otherwise stated in these documents, the information contained on our website or available by hyperlink from our website is not incorporated into this Annual Report on Form 10-K or other documents we transmit to the SEC.

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RISK FACTORS

 
Item 1A.  Risk Factors.
Our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows and prospects and the prevailing market price and performance of our Class A Common Stock may be adversely affected by a number of factors, including the material risks noted below. Our stockholders and prospective investors should consider these risks, uncertainties and other factors prior to making an investment decision.
Risks Related to Our Sources of Financing and Liquidity
Our significant indebtedness could materially adversely affect our financial health, limit our ability to finance future acquisitions, expansion plans and capital expenditures and prevent us from fulfilling our financial obligations.
As of December 31, 2018, our total outstanding indebtedness was approximately $2.5 billion, which includes floor plan notes payable, long-term debt and short-term debt.
We have up to $250.0 million of maximum borrowing availability under a syndicated revolving credit facility (the “2016 Revolving Credit Facility”) and up to $1.0 billion of maximum borrowing availability for combined syndicated new and used vehicle inventory floor plan financing (the “2016 Floor Plan Facilities”). We refer to the 2016 Revolving Credit Facility and the 2016 Floor Plan Facilities collectively as the “2016 Credit Facilities.” As of December 31, 2018, we had approximately $223.9 million available for additional borrowings under the 2016 Revolving Credit Facility based on the borrowing base calculation, which is affected by numerous factors, including eligible asset balances. We are able to borrow under the 2016 Revolving Credit Facility only if, at the time of the borrowing, we have met all representations and warranties and are in compliance with all financial and other covenants contained therein. We also have capacity to finance new and used vehicle inventory purchases under floor plan agreements with various manufacturer-affiliated finance companies and other lending institutions (the “Silo Floor Plan Facilities”) as well as the 2016 Floor Plan Facilities. In addition, the indentures relating to our 5.0% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2023 (the “5.0% Notes”) and our 6.125% Senior Subordinated Notes due 2027 (the “6.125% Notes”) and our other debt instruments allow us to incur additional indebtedness, including secured indebtedness, as long as we comply with the terms thereunder.
In addition, the majority of our dealership properties are subject to long-term operating lease arrangements that commonly have initial terms of 15 to 20 years with renewal options generally ranging from five to 10 years. These operating leases require compliance with financial and operating covenants similar to those under the 2016 Credit Facilities, and monthly payments of rent that may fluctuate based on interest rates and local consumer price indices. The total future minimum lease payments related to these operating leases and certain equipment leases are significant and are disclosed in Note 12, “Commitments and Contingencies,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements.
Our failure to comply with certain covenants in these agreements or indentures could materially adversely affect our ability to access our borrowing capacity, subject us to acceleration of our outstanding debt, result in a cross default on other indebtedness and could have a material adverse effect on our ability to continue our business.
An acceleration of our obligation to repay all or a substantial portion of our outstanding indebtedness or lease obligations would have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
The 2016 Credit Facilities, the indentures governing the 5.0% Notes and the 6.125% Notes and many of our operating leases contain numerous financial and operating covenants. A breach of any of these covenants could result in a default under the applicable agreement or indenture. In addition, a default under one agreement or indenture could result in a cross default and acceleration of our repayment obligations under the other agreements or indentures, including the indentures governing the 5.0% Notes and the 6.125% Notes. If a default or cross default were to occur, we may not be able to pay our debts or borrow sufficient funds to refinance them. Even if new financing were available, it may not be on terms acceptable to us. If a default were to occur, we may be unable to adequately finance our operations and the value of our common stock would be materially adversely affected because of acceleration and cross-default provisions. As a result of this risk, we could be forced to take actions that we otherwise would not take, or not take actions that we otherwise might take, in order to comply with the covenants in these agreements and indentures.
Our ability to make interest and principal payments when due to holders of our debt securities depends upon our future performance and our receipt of sufficient funds from our subsidiaries.
Our ability to meet our debt obligations and other expenses will depend on our future performance, which will be affected by financial, business, domestic and foreign economic conditions, the regulatory environment and other factors, many of which we are unable to control. Substantially all of our consolidated assets are held by our subsidiaries and substantially all
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of our consolidated cash flow and net income are generated by our subsidiaries. Accordingly, our cash flow and ability to service debt depend to a substantial degree on the results of operations of our subsidiaries and upon the ability of our subsidiaries to provide us with cash. We may receive cash from our subsidiaries in the form of dividends, loans or distributions. We may use this cash to service our debt obligations or for working capital. Our subsidiaries are separate and distinct legal entities and have no obligation, contingent or otherwise, to distribute cash to us or to make funds available to service debt.
If our cash flow is not sufficient to service our debt as it becomes due, we may be required to refinance the debt, sell assets or sell shares of our common stock on terms that we do not find attractive. Further, our failure to comply with the financial and other restrictive covenants relating to the 2016 Credit Facilities and the indentures pertaining to our outstanding notes could result in a default under these agreements and indentures that would prevent us from borrowing under the 2016 Credit Facilities, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations. If a default and acceleration of repayment were to occur, we may be unable to adequately finance our operations and the value of our Class A Common Stock could be materially adversely affected.
We have financed the purchase and improvement of certain dealership properties with mortgage notes that require balloon payments at the end of the notes’ terms.
Many of our mortgage notes’ principal and interest payments are based on an amortization period longer than the actual terms (maturity dates) of the notes. We will be required to repay or refinance the remaining principal balances for certain of our mortgages with balloon payments at the notes’ maturity dates, which range from 2019 to 2033. The amounts to be repaid or refinanced at the maturity dates could be significant. We may not have sufficient liquidity to make such payments at the notes’ maturity dates. In the event we do not have sufficient liquidity to completely repay the remaining principal balances at maturity, we may not be able to refinance the notes at interest rates that are acceptable to us or, depending on market conditions, refinance the notes at all. Our inability to repay or refinance these notes could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.
We depend on the performance of subleases to offset costs related to certain of our lease agreements.
In many cases, when we sell a dealership, the buyer of the dealership will sublease the dealership property from us, but we are not released from the underlying lease obligation to the primary landlord. We rely on the sublease income from the buyer to offset the expense incurred related to our obligation to pay the primary landlord. We also rely on the buyer to maintain the property in accordance with the terms of the sublease (which in most cases mirror the terms of the lease we have with the primary landlord). Although we assess the financial condition of a buyer at the time we sell the dealership, and seek to obtain guarantees of the buyer’s sublease obligation from the stockholders or affiliates of the buyer, the financial condition of the buyer and/or the sublease guarantors may deteriorate over time. In the event the buyer does not perform under the terms of the sublease agreement (due to the buyer’s financial condition or other factors), we may not be able to recover amounts owed to us under the terms of the sublease agreement or the related guarantees. Our operating results, financial condition and cash flows may be materially adversely affected if sublessees do not perform their obligations under the terms of the sublease agreements.
Our use of hedging transactions could limit our financial gains or result in financial losses.
To reduce our exposure to fluctuations in cash flow due to interest rate fluctuations, we have entered into, and in the future expect to enter into, certain derivative instruments (or hedging agreements). No hedging activity can completely insulate us from the risks associated with changes in interest rates. As of December 31, 2018, we had interest rate cap agreements related to a portion of our LIBOR-based variable rate debt to limit our exposure to rising interest rates. See the heading “Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities” under Note 6, “Long-Term Debt,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements. We intend to hedge as much of our interest rate risk as management determines is in our best interests given the cost of such hedging transactions.
Our hedging transactions expose us to certain risks and financial losses, including, among other things:
counterparty credit risk;
available interest rate hedging may not correspond directly with the interest rate risk for which we seek protection;
the duration or the amount of the hedge may not match the duration or the amount of the related liability;
the value of derivatives used for hedging may be adjusted from time to time in accordance with accounting rules to reflect changes in fair value, downward adjustments or “mark-to-market losses,” which would affect our recorded stockholders’ equity amounts; and
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all of our hedging instruments contain terms and conditions with which we are required to meet. In the event those terms and conditions are not met, we may be required to settle the instruments prior to the instruments’ maturity with cash payments, which could significantly affect our liquidity.
A failure on our part to effectively hedge against interest rate changes may adversely affect our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not be able to satisfy our debt obligations upon the occurrence of a change of control.
Upon the occurrence of a change of control, as defined in the 5.0% Notes and the 6.125% Notes, holders of these instruments will have the right to require us to purchase all or any part of such holders’ notes at a price equal to 101% of the principal amount thereof, plus accrued and unpaid interest, if any. The events that constitute a change of control under these indentures may also constitute a default under the 2016 Credit Facilities. The agreements or instruments governing any future debt that we may incur may contain similar provisions regarding repurchases in the event of a change of control triggering event. There can be no assurance that we would have sufficient resources available to satisfy all of our obligations under these debt instruments in the event of a change of control. In the event we were unable to satisfy these obligations, it could have a material adverse impact on our business and our stockholders.
Risks Related to Our Relationships with Vehicle Manufacturers
Our operations may be adversely affected if one or more of our manufacturer franchise or dealer agreements is terminated or not renewed.
Each of our dealerships operates under a separate franchise or dealer agreement with the applicable automobile manufacturer. Without a franchise or dealer agreement, we cannot obtain new vehicles from a manufacturer or advertise as an authorized factory service center. As a result, we are significantly dependent on our relationships with the manufacturers.
Moreover, manufacturers exercise a great degree of control over the operations of our dealerships through the franchise and dealer agreements. The franchise and dealer agreements govern, among other things, our ability to purchase vehicles from the manufacturer and to sell vehicles to customers. Each of our franchise or dealer agreements provides for termination or non-renewal for a variety of causes, including certain changes in the financial condition of the dealerships and any unapproved change of ownership or management. Manufacturers may also have a right of first refusal if we seek to sell dealerships.
We cannot guarantee that any of our existing franchise and dealer agreements will be renewed or that the terms and conditions of such renewals will be favorable to us. Actions taken by manufacturers to exploit their superior bargaining position in negotiating the terms of franchise and dealer agreements or renewals of these agreements or otherwise could also have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Our failure to meet a manufacturer’s customer satisfaction, financial and sales performance, and facility requirements may adversely affect our profitability and our ability to acquire new dealerships.
A manufacturer may condition its allotment of vehicles, participation in bonus programs or acquisition of additional franchises upon our compliance with its brand and facility standards. These standards may require investments in technology and facilities that we otherwise would not make. This may put us in a competitive disadvantage with other competing dealerships and may ultimately result in our decision to sell a franchise when we believe it may be difficult to recover the cost of the required investment to reach the manufacturer’s brand and facility standards.
In addition, many manufacturers attempt to measure customers’ satisfaction with their sales and warranty service experiences through manufacturer-determined CSI scores. The components of CSI vary by manufacturer and are modified periodically. Franchise and dealer agreements may also impose financial and sales performance standards. Under our agreements with certain manufacturers, a dealership’s CSI scores and financial and sales performance standards may be considered as factors in evaluating applications for additional dealership acquisitions. From time to time, some of our dealerships have had difficulty meeting various manufacturers’ CSI requirements or performance standards. We cannot assure you that our dealerships will be able to comply with these requirements or performance standards in the future. A manufacturer may refuse to consent to an acquisition of one of its franchises if it determines our dealerships do not comply with its CSI requirements or performance standards, which could impair the execution of our acquisition strategy. In addition, we receive incentive payments from the manufacturers based, in part, on CSI scores, which could be materially adversely affected if our CSI scores decline.
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RISK FACTORS

 
If state dealer laws are repealed or weakened, our dealerships will be more susceptible to termination, non-renewal or renegotiation of their franchise and dealer agreements.
State dealer laws generally provide that a manufacturer may not terminate or refuse to renew a franchise or dealer agreement unless it has first provided the dealer with written notice setting forth good cause and stating the grounds for termination or non-renewal. Some state dealer laws allow dealers to file protests or petitions or to attempt to comply with the manufacturer’s criteria within the notice period to avoid the termination or non-renewal. Manufacturers’ lobbying efforts may lead to the repeal or revision of state dealer laws. If dealer laws are repealed or weakened in the states in which we operate, manufacturers may be able to terminate our franchises without providing advance notice, an opportunity to cure or a showing of good cause. Without the protection of state dealer laws, it may also be more difficult for our dealerships to renew their franchise or dealer agreements upon expiration.
The ability of a manufacturer to grant additional franchises is based on several factors which are not within our control. If manufacturers grant new franchises in areas near or within our existing markets, this could significantly impact our revenues and/or profitability. In addition, current state dealer laws generally restrict the ability of automobile manufacturers to enter the retail market and sell directly to consumers. However, if manufacturers obtain the ability to directly retail vehicles and do so in our markets, such competition could have a material adverse effect on us.
Our sales volume and profit margin on each sale may be materially adversely affected if manufacturers discontinue or change their incentive programs.
Our dealerships depend on the manufacturers for certain sales incentives, warranties and other programs that are intended to promote and support dealership new vehicle sales. Manufacturers routinely modify their incentive programs in response to changing market conditions. Some of the key incentive programs include:
customer rebates or below market financing on new and used vehicles;
employee pricing;
dealer incentives on new vehicles;
manufacturer floor plan interest and advertising assistance;
warranties on new and used vehicles; and
sponsorship of CPO vehicle sales by authorized new vehicle dealers.
Manufacturers frequently offer incentives to potential customers. A reduction or discontinuation of a manufacturer’s incentive programs may materially adversely impact vehicle demand and affect our results of operations.
Our sales volume may be materially adversely affected if manufacturer captives change their customer financing programs or are unable to provide floor plan financing.
One of the primary finance sources used by consumers in connection with the purchase of a new or used vehicle is the manufacturer captive finance companies. These captive finance companies rely, to a certain extent, on the public debt markets to provide the capital necessary to support their financing programs. In addition, the captive finance companies will occasionally change their loan underwriting criteria to alter the risk profile of their loan portfolio. A limitation or reduction of available consumer financing for these or other reasons could affect consumers’ ability to purchase a vehicle and, thus, could have a material adverse effect on our sales volume.
Our parts and service sales volume and margins are dependent on manufacturer warranty programs.
Franchised automotive retailers perform factory authorized service work and sell original replacement parts on vehicles covered by warranties issued by the automotive manufacturer. Dealerships which perform work covered by a manufacturer warranty are reimbursed at rates established by the manufacturer. For 2018, approximately 19.5% of our parts, service and collision repair revenues was for work covered by manufacturer warranties. To the extent a manufacturer reduces the labor rates or markup of replacement parts for such warranty work, our parts and service sales volume and margins could be adversely affected.
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RISK FACTORS

 
Adverse conditions affecting one or more key manufacturers or lenders may negatively impact our results of operations.
Our results of operations depend on the products, services, and financing and incentive programs offered by major automobile manufacturers, and could be negatively impacted by any significant changes to these manufacturers’ financial condition, marketing strategy, vehicle design, publicity concerning a particular manufacturer or vehicle model, production capabilities, management, reputation and labor relations.
Events such as labor strikes or other disruptions in production, including those caused by natural disasters, that may adversely affect a manufacturer may also adversely affect us. In particular, labor strikes at a manufacturer that continue for a substantial period of time could have a material adverse effect on our business. Similarly, the delivery of vehicles from manufacturers at a time later than scheduled, which may occur during critical periods of new product introductions, could limit sales of those vehicles during those periods. This has been experienced at some of our dealerships from time to time. Adverse conditions affecting these and other important aspects of manufacturers’ operations and public relations may adversely affect our ability to sell their automobiles and, as a result, significantly and detrimentally affect our business and results of operations.
Moreover, our business could be materially adversely impacted by the bankruptcy of a major vehicle manufacturer or related lender. For example:
a manufacturer in bankruptcy could attempt to terminate all or certain of our franchises, in which case we may not receive adequate compensation for our franchises;
consumer demand for such manufacturer’s products could be substantially reduced;
a lender in bankruptcy could attempt to terminate our floor plan financing and demand repayment of any amounts outstanding;
we may be unable to arrange financing for our customers for their vehicle purchases and leases through such lender, in which case we would be required to seek financing with alternate financing sources, which may be difficult to obtain on similar terms, if at all;
we may be unable to collect some or all of our significant receivables that are due from such manufacturer or lender, and we may be subject to preference claims relating to payments made by such manufacturer or lender prior to bankruptcy; and
such manufacturer may be relieved of its indemnification obligations with respect to product liability claims.
Additionally, any such bankruptcy may result in us being required to incur impairment charges with respect to the inventory, fixed assets and intangible assets related to certain dealerships, which could adversely impact our results of operations and financial condition and our ability to remain in compliance with the financial ratios contained in our debt agreements.
Manufacturer stock ownership restrictions may impair our ability to maintain or renew franchise or dealer agreements or issue additional equity.
Some of our franchise and dealer agreements prohibit transfers of any ownership interests of a dealership and, in some cases, its parent, without prior approval of the applicable manufacturer. Our existing franchise and dealer agreements could be terminated if a person or entity acquires a substantial ownership interest in us or acquires voting power above certain levels without the applicable manufacturer’s approval. While the holders of our Class B Common Stock currently maintain voting control of Sonic, their future investment decisions as well as those of holders of our Class A Common Stock are generally outside of our control and could result in the termination or non-renewal of existing franchise or dealer agreements or impair our ability to negotiate new franchise or dealer agreements for dealerships we acquire in the future. In addition, if we cannot obtain any requisite approvals on a timely basis, we may not be able to issue additional equity or otherwise raise capital on terms acceptable to us. These restrictions may also prevent or deter a prospective acquirer from acquiring control of us.
We depend on manufacturers to supply us with sufficient numbers of popular new models.
Manufacturers typically allocate their vehicles among dealerships based on the sales history of each dealership. Supplies of popular new vehicles may be limited by the applicable manufacturer’s production capabilities. Popular new vehicles that are in limited supply typically produce the highest profit margins. We depend on manufacturers to provide us with a desirable mix of popular new vehicles. Our operating results may be materially adversely affected if we do not obtain a sufficient supply of these vehicles on a timely basis.
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RISK FACTORS

 
A decline in the quality of vehicles we sell, or consumers’ perception of the quality of those vehicles, may adversely affect our business.
Our business is highly dependent on consumer demand and preferences. Events such as manufacturer recalls and negative publicity or legal proceedings related to these events may have a negative impact on the products we sell. If such events are significant, the profitability of our dealerships related to those manufacturers could be adversely affected and we could experience a material adverse effect on our overall results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Risks Related to Our Growth Strategy
Our investment in new business strategies, services and technologies is inherently risky, and could disrupt our ongoing business or have a material adverse effect on our overall business and results of operations.
We have invested and expect to continue to invest in new business strategies, services and technologies, including our EchoPark stores. Such endeavors may involve significant risks and uncertainties, including allocating management resources away from current operations, insufficient revenues to offset expenses associated with these new investments, inadequate return of capital on our investments and unidentified issues not discovered in our due diligence of such strategies and offerings. Because these ventures are inherently risky, no assurance can be given that such strategies and offerings will be successful and will not have a material adverse effect on our reputation, financial condition and operating results.
Our ability to make acquisitions, execute our growth strategy for our EchoPark business and grow organically may be restricted by the terms and limits of the 2016 Credit Facilities and the indentures which govern our outstanding notes.
The amount of capital available to us is limited to the liquidity available under the 2016 Credit Facilities and capital generated through operating activities. Pursuant to the 2016 Credit Facilities, we are restricted from making dealership acquisitions in any fiscal year if the aggregate cost of all such acquisitions is in excess of certain amounts, without the written consent of the Required Lenders (as that term is defined in the 2016 Credit Facilities). Our pace and scale of growing our EchoPark business may be limited in the event other sources of capital are unavailable. These restrictions may limit our growth strategy.
We may not be able to capitalize on future real estate and dealership acquisition opportunities because our ability to obtain capital to fund these acquisitions is limited.
We intend to finance future real estate and dealership acquisitions with cash generated from operations, through issuances of our stock or debt securities and through borrowings under credit arrangements. We may not be able to obtain additional financing by issuing stock or debt securities due to the market price of our Class A Common Stock, overall market conditions or covenants under the 2016 Credit Facilities that restrict our ability to issue additional indebtedness, or the need for manufacturer consent to the issuance of equity securities. Using cash to complete acquisitions could substantially limit our operating or financial flexibility.
In addition, we are dependent to a significant extent on our ability to finance our new and certain of our used vehicle inventory under the 2016 Floor Plan Facilities or the Silo Floor Plan Facilities (collectively, “Floor Plan Financing”). Floor Plan Financing arrangements allow us to borrow money to buy a particular new vehicle from the manufacturer or a used vehicle on trade-in or at auction and pay off the loan when we sell that particular vehicle. We must obtain Floor Plan Financing or obtain consents to assume existing floor plan notes payable in connection with our acquisition of dealerships. In the event that we are unable to obtain such financing, our ability to complete dealership acquisitions could be limited.
Substantially all of the assets of our dealerships are pledged to secure the indebtedness under the 2016 Credit Facilities and the Silo Floor Plan Facilities. These pledges may impede our ability to borrow from other sources. Moreover, because certain lending institutions are either owned by or affiliated with an automobile manufacturer, any deterioration of our relationship with the particular manufacturer-affiliated finance subsidiary could adversely affect our relationship with the affiliated manufacturer, and vice versa.
Manufacturers’ restrictions on acquisitions could limit our future growth.
We are required to obtain the approval of the applicable manufacturer before we can acquire an additional franchise of that manufacturer. In determining whether to approve an acquisition, manufacturers may consider many factors, such as our financial condition and CSI scores.
Certain manufacturers also limit the number of its dealerships that we may own in total, the number of dealerships we may own in a particular geographic area, or our national market share of that manufacturer’s sales of new vehicles. In addition,
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under an applicable franchise or dealer agreement or under state law, a manufacturer may have a right of first refusal to acquire a dealership that we seek to acquire.
A manufacturer may condition approval of an acquisition on the implementation of material changes in our operations or extraordinary corporate transactions, facilities improvements or other capital expenditures. If we are unable or unwilling to comply with these conditions, we may be required to sell the assets of that manufacturer’s dealerships or terminate our franchise or dealer agreement. We cannot assure you that manufacturers will approve future acquisitions or do so on a timely basis, which could impair the execution of our acquisition strategy.
Failure to effectively integrate acquired dealerships with our existing operations could adversely affect our future operating results.
Our future operating results depend on our ability to integrate the operations of acquired dealerships with our existing operations. In particular, we need to integrate our management information systems, procedures and organizational structures, which can be difficult. Our growth strategy has focused on the pursuit of strategic acquisitions or brand development that either expand or complement our business.
We cannot assure you that we will effectively and profitably integrate the operations of these dealerships without substantial costs, delays or operational or financial problems, due to:
the difficulties of managing operations located in geographic areas where we have not previously operated;
the management time and attention required to integrate and manage newly acquired dealerships;
the difficulties of assimilating and retaining employees;
the challenges of keeping customers; and
the challenge of retaining or attracting appropriate dealership management personnel.
These factors could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
We may not adequately anticipate all of the demands that growth through acquisitions or brand development will impose.
We face risks growing through acquisitions or expansion. These risks include, but are not limited to:
incurring significantly higher capital expenditures and operating expenses;
failing to assimilate the operations and personnel of acquired dealerships;
entering new markets with which we are unfamiliar;
incurring potential undiscovered liabilities and operational difficulties at acquired dealerships;
disrupting our ongoing business;
diverting our management resources;
failing to maintain uniform standards, controls and policies;
impairing relationships with employees, manufacturers and customers as a result of changes in management;
incurring increased expenses for accounting and computer systems, as well as integration difficulties;
failing to obtain a manufacturer’s consent to the acquisition of one or more of its franchises or to renew the franchise or dealer agreement on terms acceptable to us; and
incorrectly valuing entities to be acquired or assessing markets entered.
We may not adequately anticipate all of the demands that growth will impose on our business.
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We may not be able to execute our growth strategy without the costs escalating.
We have grown our business primarily through acquisitions in the past. We may not be able to consummate any future acquisitions at acceptable prices and terms or identify suitable candidates. In addition, increased competition for acquisition candidates could result in fewer acquisition opportunities for us and higher acquisition prices. The magnitude, timing, pricing and nature of future acquisitions or growth opportunities will depend upon various factors, including:
the availability of suitable acquisition candidates;
competition with other dealer groups or institutional investors for suitable acquisitions;
the negotiation of acceptable terms with the seller and with the manufacturer;
our financial capabilities and ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms;
our stock price; and
the availability of skilled employees to manage the acquired companies.
We may not be able to determine the actual financial condition of dealerships we acquire until after we complete the acquisition and take control of the dealerships.
The operating and financial condition of acquired businesses cannot be determined accurately until we assume control. Although we conduct what we believe to be a prudent level of due diligence regarding the operating and financial condition of the businesses we purchase, in light of the circumstances of each transaction, an unavoidable level of risk remains regarding the actual operating condition of these businesses. Similarly, many of the dealerships we acquire, including some of our largest acquisitions, do not have financial statements audited or prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles ("U.S. GAAP"). We may not have an accurate understanding of the historical financial condition and performance of our acquired entities. Until we actually assume control of business assets and their operations, we may not be able to ascertain the actual value or understand the potential liabilities of the acquired entities and their operations.
Risks Related to the Automotive Retail Industry
Our facilities and operations are subject to extensive governmental laws and regulations. If we are found to be in violation of, or subject to liabilities under, any of these laws or regulations or if new laws or regulations are enacted that adversely affect our operations, then our business, operating results, financial condition, cash flows and prospects could suffer.
The automotive retail industry, including our facilities and operations, is subject to a wide range of federal, state, and local laws and regulations, such as those relating to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales, leasing, sales of finance, insurance and vehicle protection products, licensing, consumer protection, consumer privacy, employment practices, escheatment, anti-money laundering, environmental, vehicle emissions and fuel economy, and health and safety. With respect to motor vehicle sales, retail installment sales, leasing, and sales of finance, insurance and vehicle protection products at our dealerships and stores, we are subject to various laws and regulations, the violation of which could subject us to consumer class action or other lawsuits or governmental investigations and adverse publicity, in addition to administrative, civil or criminal sanctions. With respect to employment practices, we are subject to various laws and regulations, including complex federal, state, and local wage and hour and anti-discrimination laws. We are also subject to lawsuits and governmental investigations alleging violations of these laws and regulations, including purported class action lawsuits, which could result in significant liability, fines and penalties. The violation of other laws and regulations to which we are subject also can result in administrative, civil or criminal sanctions against us, which may include a cease and desist order against the subject operations or even revocation or suspension of our license to operate the subject business, as well as significant liability, fines and penalties. We currently devote significant resources to comply with applicable federal, state and local regulation of health, safety, environmental, zoning and land use regulations, and we may need to spend additional time, effort and money to keep our operations and existing or acquired facilities in compliance. In addition, we may be subject to broad liabilities arising out of contamination at our currently and formerly owned or operated facilities, at locations to which hazardous substances were transported from such facilities, and at such locations related to entities formerly affiliated with us. Although for some such liabilities we believe we are entitled to indemnification from other entities, we cannot assure you that such entities will view their obligations as we do or will be able to satisfy them. Failure to comply with applicable laws and regulations may have an adverse effect on our business, operating results, financial condition, cash flows and prospects.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (the “Dodd-Frank Act”), which was signed into law on July 21, 2010, established the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau (the “CFPB”), a new independent federal agency
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funded by the U.S. Federal Reserve with broad regulatory powers and limited oversight from the U.S. Congress. Although automotive dealers are generally excluded, the Dodd-Frank Act has led to additional, indirect regulation of automotive dealers, in particular, their sale and marketing of finance and insurance products, through its regulation of automotive finance companies and other financial institutions. In March 2013, the CFPB issued supervisory guidance highlighting its concern that the practice of automotive dealers being compensated for arranging customer financing through discretionary markup of wholesale rates offered by financial institutions (“dealer markup”) results in a significant risk of pricing disparity in violation of the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (the “ECOA”). The CFPB recommended that financial institutions under its jurisdiction take steps to ensure compliance with the ECOA, which may include imposing controls on dealer markup, monitoring and addressing the effects of dealer markup policies and eliminating dealer discretion to markup buy rates and fairly compensating dealers using a different mechanism that does not result in disparate impact to certain groups of consumers.
Furthermore, we expect that new laws and regulations, particularly at the federal level, may be enacted, which could also materially adversely impact our business. For example, the labor policy of the prior administration led to increased unionization efforts for U.S. companies, which could lead to higher labor costs for the Company, disrupt our store operations and adversely affect our results of operations.
Climate change legislation or regulations restricting emission of greenhouse gases could result in increased operating costs and reduced demand for the vehicles we sell.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has adopted rules under existing provisions of the federal Clean Air Act that require (1) a reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases from motor vehicles, (2) certain construction and operating permit reviews for greenhouse gas emissions from certain large stationary sources and (3) monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from specified sources on an annual basis. The adoption of any laws or regulations requiring significant increases in fuel economy requirements or new federal or state restrictions on emissions of greenhouse gases from our operations or on vehicles and automotive fuels in the United States could adversely affect demand for those vehicles and require us to incur costs to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases associated with our operations.
Increasing competition among automotive retailers and the use of the internet reduces our profit margins on vehicle sales and related businesses.
Automobile retailing is a highly competitive business. Our competitors include publicly and privately owned dealerships, some of which are larger and have greater financial and marketing resources than we do. Many of our competitors sell the same or similar makes of new and used vehicles that we offer in our markets at competitive prices. We do not have any cost advantage in purchasing new vehicles from manufacturers due to economies of scale or otherwise. We typically rely on advertising, merchandising, sales expertise, customer service reputation and dealership location to sell new vehicles. Our revenues and profitability could be materially adversely affected if certain state dealer franchise laws are relaxed to permit manufacturers to enter the retail market directly.
Our F&I business and other related businesses, which have higher margins than sales of new and used vehicles, are subject to strong competition from various financial institutions and other third parties.
Moreover, customers are using the internet to compare pricing for vehicles and related F&I services, which may further reduce margins for new and used vehicles and profits for related F&I services. If internet new vehicle sales are allowed to be conducted without the involvement of franchised dealers, our business could be materially adversely affected. In addition, other dealership groups have aligned themselves with services offered on the internet or are investing heavily in the development of their own internet sales capabilities, which could materially adversely affect our business.
Our franchise and dealer agreements do not grant us the exclusive right to sell a manufacturer’s product within a given geographic area. Our revenues or profitability could be materially adversely affected if any of our manufacturers award franchises to others in the same markets where we operate or if existing franchised dealers increase their market share in our markets.
We may face increasingly significant competition as we strive to gain market share through acquisitions or otherwise. Our operating margins may decline over time as we expand into markets where we do not have a leading position.
The effect of companies entering into the automotive space may affect our ability to grow or maintain the business over the long-term.
Large and well-capitalized technology-focused companies have continued to enter into the automotive space in recent years. Companies including, but not limited to, Amazon, Apple, Google, Lyft, Tesla and Uber may challenge the existing
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automotive manufacturing, retail sales, maintenance and repair, and transportation models. For example, Tesla has been challenging state dealer franchise laws in many states with mixed results, but its business model has been accepted by many consumers. Although Tesla’s participation in the competitive landscape has had minimal impact on the overall retail automotive space thus far, these other large technology-based companies may continue to change consumers’ view on how automobiles should be manufactured, equipped, retailed, maintained and utilized in the future. Because these companies have the ability to connect with each individual consumer easily through their existing or future technology platforms, we may ultimately be at a competitive disadvantage in marketing, selling, financing and servicing vehicles. In addition, certain manufacturers have expressed interest in selling directly to customers. The franchised dealer’s participation in that potential future transaction type is unclear and may negatively impact our operations and financial results.
Our dealers depend upon new vehicle sales and, therefore, their success depends in large part upon customer demand for the particular vehicles they carry.
The success of our dealerships depends in large part on the overall success of the vehicle lines they carry. New vehicle sales generate the majority of our total revenue and lead to sales of higher-margin products and services such as finance, insurance, vehicle protection products and other aftermarket products, and parts and service operations. Our new vehicle sales operations are comprised primarily of luxury and mid-line import brands, which exposes us to manufacturer concentration risks. Although our parts and service operations and used vehicle business may serve to offset some of this risk, changes in automobile manufacturers’ vehicle models and customer demand for particular vehicles may have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our business will be harmed if overall consumer demand suffers from a severe or sustained downturn.
Our business is heavily dependent on consumer demand and preferences. Retail vehicle sales are cyclical and historically have experienced periodic downturns characterized by oversupply and weak demand. These cycles are often dependent on economic conditions, consumer confidence, the level of discretionary personal income and credit availability. Deterioration in any of these conditions may have a material adverse effect on our retail business, particularly sales of new and used automobiles.
In addition, severe or sustained changes in gasoline prices may lead to a shift in consumer buying patterns. Availability of preferred models may not exist in sufficient quantities to satisfy consumer demand and allow our stores to meet sales expectations.
A decline of available financing in the lending market may adversely affect our vehicle sales volume.
A significant portion of vehicle buyers finance their purchases of automobiles. Sub-prime lenders have historically provided financing for consumers who, for a variety of reasons including poor credit histories and lack of down payment, do not have access to more traditional finance sources. In the event lenders tighten their credit standards or there is a decline in the availability of credit in the lending market, the ability of these consumers to purchase vehicles could be limited, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, revenues and profitability.
Our business may be adversely affected by import product restrictions and foreign trade risks that may impair our ability to sell foreign-sourced or produced vehicles profitably.
A significant portion of our new vehicle business involves the sale of vehicles, parts or vehicles composed of parts that are manufactured outside the United States. As a result, our operations are subject to risks of importing merchandise, including fluctuations in the relative values of currencies, import duties or tariffs, exchange controls, trade restrictions, work stoppages, and general political and socioeconomic conditions in other countries. The United States or the countries from which our products are imported may, from time to time, impose new quotas, duties, tariffs or other restrictions, or adjust presently prevailing quotas, duties or tariffs, which may affect our operations and our ability to purchase imported vehicles and/or parts at reasonable prices.
Natural disasters and adverse weather events can disrupt our business.
Our dealerships are concentrated in states and regions in the United States, including California, Colorado, Florida and Texas, in which actual or threatened natural disasters and severe weather events (such as hail storms, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires and landslides) may disrupt our store operations, which may adversely impact our business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. In addition to business interruption, the automotive retailing business is subject to substantial risk of property loss due to the significant concentration of property values at store locations. Although we have
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substantial insurance, subject to certain deductibles, limitations and exclusions, we may be exposed to uninsured or under insured losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, the automotive manufacturing supply chain spans the globe. As such, supply chain disruptions resulting from natural disasters and adverse weather events may affect the flow of inventory or parts to us or our manufacturing partners. Such disruptions could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Security breaches and other disruptions could compromise our information and expose us to liability, which would cause our business and reputation to suffer.
We have invested in internal and external business applications to execute our strategy of employing technology to benefit our business. In the ordinary course of business, we collect and store sensitive data, including intellectual property, our proprietary business information and that of our customers, suppliers and business partners, and personally identifiable information of our customers and employees. Although we have attempted to mitigate the cyber-security risk of both our internal and outsourced functions by implementing various cyber-security controls, we remain subject to cyber-security risks.
These cyber-security risks include:
vulnerability to cyber-attack of our internal or externally hosted business applications;
interruption of service or access to systems may affect our ability to deliver vehicles or complete transactions with customers;
unauthorized access or theft of customer or employee personal confidential information, including financial information, or strategically sensitive data;
disruption of communications (both internally and externally) that may affect the quality of information used to make informed business decisions; and
damage to our reputation as a result of a breach in security that could affect the financial security of our customers.
Moreover, significant technology-related business functions of ours are outsourced, including:
payroll and human resources management systems, including expense reimbursement management;
customer relationship management, e-commerce hosting and marketing campaign management;
dealer management, inventory management and financial reporting systems;
consumer credit application management, fund transfers/ACH/online banking; and
IP telephony and WAN/LAN administration (switch & router configuration).
Despite our security measures, our information technology and infrastructure may be vulnerable to attacks by hackers or breaches due to employee error, malfeasance or other disruptions. Any such breach could compromise our networks and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or other loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, liability under laws that protect the privacy of personal information, regulatory penalties or damage to our reputation, and cause a loss of confidence in our services, which could materially adversely affect our competitive position, results of operations and financial condition.
General Risks Related to Investing in Our Securities
Concentration of voting power and anti-takeover provisions of our charter, our bylaws, Delaware law and our franchise and dealer agreements may reduce the likelihood of a potential change of control from a third party. At the same time, such voting power concentration also could increase the likelihood of a change of control notwithstanding other factors.
Our common stock is divided into two classes with different voting rights. This dual class stock ownership allows the present holders of the Class B Common Stock to control us. Holders of Class A Common Stock have one vote per share on all matters. Holders of Class B Common Stock have 10 votes per share on all matters, except that they have only one vote per share on any transaction proposed or approved by our Board of Directors or a Class B common stockholder or otherwise benefiting the Class B common stockholders constituting a:
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“going private” transaction;
disposition of substantially all of our assets;
transfer resulting in a change in the nature of our business; or
merger or consolidation in which current holders of common stock would own less than 50% of the common stock following such transaction.
The holders of Class B Common Stock (which include Mr. O. Bruton Smith, Sonic’s Executive Chairman and a director, and an entity Mr. Smith and his family members control) currently hold less than a majority of our outstanding common stock, but a majority of our voting power. As a result, the holders of Class B Common Stock may be able to control fundamental corporate matters and transactions, subject to the above limitations. The concentration of voting power may also discourage, delay or prevent a change of control of us from a third party even if the action was favored by holders of Class A Common Stock. In addition, a sale or transfer of shares by one or more of the holders of Class B Common Stock could result in a change of control or put downward pressure on the market price of our Class A Common Stock. The perception among the public that these sales or transfers will occur could also contribute to a decline in the market price of our Class A Common Stock.
Our charter and bylaws make it more difficult for our stockholders to take corporate actions at stockholders’ meetings. In addition, stock options, restricted stock and restricted stock units granted under the Sonic Automotive, Inc. 2012 Stock Incentive Plan or the Sonic Automotive, Inc. 2012 Formula Restricted Stock and Deferral Plan for Non-Employee Directors and other obligations become immediately exercisable or automatically vest upon a change in control. Delaware law also makes it difficult for stockholders who have recently acquired a large interest in a company to consummate a business combination transaction with the company against its directors’ wishes. Finally, restrictions imposed by our franchise and dealer agreements may impede or prevent any potential takeover bid. Our franchise and dealer agreements allow the manufacturers the right to terminate the agreements upon a change of control of the Company and impose restrictions upon the transferability of any significant percentage of our stock to any one person or entity that may be unqualified, as defined by the manufacturer, to own one of its dealerships. The inability of a person or entity to qualify with one or more of our manufacturers may prevent or seriously impede a potential takeover bid. In addition, there may be provisions of our lending arrangements that create an event of default upon a change in control. These agreements, corporate governance documents and laws may have the effect of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change in control or preventing stockholders from realizing a premium on the sale of their shares if we were acquired.
The outcome of legal and administrative proceedings we are or may become involved in could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects.
We are involved, and expect to continue to be involved, in various legal and administrative proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including regulatory investigations and private civil actions brought by plaintiffs purporting to represent a potential class or for which a class has been certified.
Although we vigorously defend ourselves in all legal and administrative proceedings, the outcomes of pending and future proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including litigation with customers, employment-related lawsuits, contractual disputes, class actions, purported class actions and actions brought by governmental authorities, cannot be predicted with certainty. An unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects.
Our business may be adversely affected by claims alleging violations of laws and regulations in our advertising, sales and finance and insurance activities.
Our business is highly regulated. In the past several years, private plaintiffs and state attorneys general have increased their scrutiny of advertising, sales and finance and insurance activities in the sale and leasing of motor vehicles. The conduct of our business is subject to numerous federal, state and local laws and regulations regarding unfair, deceptive and/or fraudulent trade practices (including advertising, marketing, sales, insurance, repair and promotion practices), truth-in-lending, consumer leasing, fair credit practices, equal credit opportunity, privacy, insurance, motor vehicle finance, installment finance, closed-end credit, usury and other installment sales. Claims arising out of actual or alleged violations of law may be asserted against us or any of our dealers by individuals, either individually or through class actions, or by governmental entities in civil or criminal investigations and proceedings. Such actions may expose us to substantial monetary damages and legal defense costs, injunctive relief and criminal and civil fines and penalties, including suspension or revocation of our licenses and franchise or dealer agreements to conduct dealership operations.
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Our business may be adversely affected by unfavorable conditions in our local markets, even if those conditions are not prominent nationally.
Our performance is subject to local economic, competitive, weather and other conditions prevailing in geographic areas where we operate. We may not be able to expand geographically and any geographic expansion may not adequately insulate us from the adverse effects of local or regional economic conditions. In addition, due to the provisions and terms contained in our franchise or dealer agreements or operating lease agreements, we may not be able to relocate a dealership operation to a more favorable location without incurring significant costs or penalties, if permitted at all.
The loss of key personnel and limited management and personnel resources could adversely affect our operations and growth.
Our success depends to a significant degree upon the continued contributions of our management team, particularly our senior management, and service and sales personnel. Additionally, franchise or dealer agreements may require the prior approval of the applicable manufacturer before any change is made in dealership general managers. We do not have employment agreements with most members of our senior management team, our dealership general managers and other key dealership personnel. Consequently, the loss of the services of one or more of these key employees could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.
In addition, as we expand, we may need to hire additional managers. The market for qualified employees in the industry and in the regions in which we operate, particularly for general managers and sales and service personnel, is highly competitive and may subject us to increased labor costs during periods of low unemployment. The loss of the services of key employees or the inability to attract additional qualified managers could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. In addition, the lack of qualified management or employees employed by potential acquisition candidates may limit our ability to consummate future acquisitions.
Potential conflicts of interest between us and our officers or directors could adversely affect our future performance.
Mr. O. Bruton Smith serves as the Executive Chairman of SMI. Accordingly, we compete with SMI for the management time of Mr. Smith.
We have in the past and will likely in the future enter into transactions with Mr. Smith, entities controlled by Mr. Smith and his family or our other affiliates. We believe that all of our existing arrangements with affiliates are as favorable to us as if the arrangements were negotiated between unaffiliated parties, although the majority of these transactions have neither been verified by third parties in that regard nor are likely to be so verified in the future. Potential conflicts of interest could arise in the future between us and our officers or directors in the enforcement, amendment or termination of arrangements existing between them.
We may be subject to substantial withdrawal liability assessments in the future related to a multiemployer pension plan to which certain of our dealerships make contributions pursuant to collective bargaining agreements.
Five of our dealership subsidiaries in northern California currently make fixed-dollar contributions to the Automotive Industries Pension Plan (the “AI Pension Plan”) pursuant to collective bargaining agreements between our subsidiaries and the International Association of Machinists (the “IAM”) and the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (the “IBT”). The AI Pension Plan is a “multiemployer plan” as defined under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, as amended, and our five dealership subsidiaries are among approximately 199 employers that are obligated to make contributions to the AI Pension Plan pursuant to collective bargaining agreements with the IAM, the IBT and other unions. In March 2008, the AI Pension Plan’s actuary, in accordance with the requirements of the federal Pension Protection Act of 2006, issued a certification that the AI Pension Plan was in critical status effective with the plan year commencing January 1, 2008. In conjunction with the AI Pension Plan’s critical status, the Board of Trustees of the AI Pension Plan implemented a requirement on all participating employers to increase employer contributions to the AI Pension Plan for a seven-year period commencing in 2013. As of April 2015, the AI Pension Plan’s actuary certified that the AI Pension Plan remained in critical status for the plan year commencing January 1, 2015. According to publicly available information, in September 2016, the AI Pension Plan made a formal application for approval of suspension of benefits with the U.S. Treasury Department, which, if approved by the U.S. Treasury Department, would have implemented a benefit reduction effective July 1, 2017 for participants in the AI Pension Plan. The filing included an Actuarial Certification of Plan Status as of January 1, 2016 that the AI Pension Plan previously filed with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service on March 30, 2016, which reported that the AI Pension Plan was in critical and declining status as of January 1, 2016 and further notified that the AI Pension Plan is making the scheduled progress in meeting the requirements of the plan’s previously adopted rehabilitation plan. The September 2016 filing with the U.S. Treasury Department also included an Actuarial Certification of Plan Solvency as of July 1, 2016 with the actuarial firm’s projection that the
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proposed suspensions of benefits are reasonably estimated to enable the AI Pension Plan to avoid insolvency assuming the proposed suspensions of benefits continue indefinitely. In May 2017, the U.S. Treasury Department denied the application to suspend benefits but noted that it remains willing to discuss the issues presented in the September 2016 formal application for suspension of benefits. Under applicable federal law, any employer contributing to a multiemployer pension plan that completely ceases participating in the plan while the plan is underfunded is subject to payment of such employer’s assessed share of the aggregate unfunded vested benefits of the plan. In certain circumstances, an employer can be assessed withdrawal liability for a partial withdrawal from a multiemployer pension plan. If any of these adverse events were to occur in the future, it could result in a substantial withdrawal liability assessment that could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Tax positions may exist related to our tax filings that could be challenged by governmental agencies and result in higher income tax expenses and affect our overall liquidity if we are unable to successfully defend these tax positions.
We are subject to audits by federal and state governmental income tax agencies on a continual basis. During the course of those audits, the agencies may disagree with or challenge tax positions taken on tax returns filed for Sonic and its subsidiaries. As a result of these audits, the agencies may issue assessments and penalties based on their understanding of the underlying facts and circumstances. In the event we are not able to arrive at an agreeable resolution, we may be forced to litigate these matters. If we are unsuccessful in litigation, our results of operations and financial position may be negatively impacted.
A change in historical experiences and/or assumptions used to estimate reserves could have a material impact on our earnings.
As described in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Use of Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies,” management relies on estimates in various areas of accounting and financial reporting. For example, our estimates for finance, insurance and service contracts and insurance reserves are based on historical experience and assumptions. Differences between actual results and our historical experiences and/or our assumptions could have a material impact on our earnings in the period of the change and in periods subsequent to the change.
Our internal control over financial reporting may not be effective.
If we fail to maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, including any failure to implement or difficulty in implementing required new or improved controls, our business and results of operations could be harmed, the results of operations we report could be subject to adjustments, we could incur remediation costs, we could fail to be able to provide reasonable assurance as to our financial results or the effectiveness of our internal controls, or we could fail to meet our reporting obligations under SEC regulations and the terms of our debt agreements on a timely basis and there could be a material adverse effect on the price of our Class A Common Stock.
Impairment of our goodwill could have a material adverse impact on our earnings.
Pursuant to applicable accounting pronouncements, we evaluate goodwill for impairment annually or more frequently if an event occurs or circumstances change that would more likely than not reduce the fair value of a reporting unit below its carrying amount. We describe the process for testing goodwill more thoroughly in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Use of Estimates and Critical Accounting Policies.” If we determine that the amount of our goodwill is impaired at any point in time, we are required to reduce goodwill on our balance sheet. If goodwill is impaired based on a future impairment test, we will be required to record a significant non-cash impairment charge that may also have a material adverse effect on our results of operations for the period in which the impairment of goodwill occurs. As of December 31, 2018, our balance sheet reflected a carrying amount of approximately $509.6 million in goodwill.

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Item 1B.  Unresolved Staff Comments.
None.
Item 2.  Properties.
Our principal executive offices are located at a property owned by us at 4401 Colwick Road, Charlotte, North Carolina 28211, and our telephone number at that location is (704) 566-2400.
Our dealerships are generally located along major U.S. or interstate highways. One of the principal factors we consider in evaluating a potential acquisition is its location. We prefer to acquire dealerships or build dealership facilities located along major thoroughfares, which can be easily visited by prospective customers.
We lease a significant number of the properties utilized by our dealership operations from affiliates of Capital Automotive Real Estate Services, Inc. and other individuals and entities. Under the terms of our franchise and dealer agreements, each of our dealerships must maintain an appropriate appearance and design of its dealership facility and is restricted in its ability to relocate. The properties utilized by our dealership operations that are owned by us or one of our subsidiaries are pledged as security for the 2016 Credit Facilities or mortgage financing arrangements. We believe that our facilities are adequate for our current needs.
Item 3.  Legal Proceedings.
We are involved, and expect to continue to be involved, in various legal and administrative proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including regulatory investigations and private civil actions brought by plaintiffs purporting to represent a potential class or for which a class has been certified. Although we vigorously defend ourselves in all legal and administrative proceedings, the outcomes of pending and future proceedings arising out of the conduct of our business, including litigation with customers, employment-related lawsuits, contractual disputes, class actions, purported class actions and actions brought by governmental authorities, cannot be predicted with certainty. An unfavorable resolution of one or more of these matters could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations, cash flows or prospects.
Included in other accrued liabilities and other long-term liabilities in the accompanying consolidated balance sheet at December 31, 2018 were approximately $2.4 million in reserves that we were holding for pending proceedings. Except as reflected in such reserves, we are currently unable to estimate a range of reasonably possible loss, or a range of reasonably possible loss in excess of the amount accrued, for pending proceedings.
Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures.
Not applicable.

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PART II
Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities.
Our Class A Common Stock is currently traded on the NYSE under the symbol “SAH.” Our Class B Common Stock is not traded on a public market.
As of February 20, 2019, there were 30,916,226 shares of our Class A Common Stock and 12,029,375 shares of our Class B Common Stock outstanding. As of February 20, 2019, there were 1,126 record holders of the Class A Common Stock and four record holders of the Class B Common Stock. The closing stock price for the Class A Common Stock on February 20, 2019 was $15.94.
Our Board of Directors approved four quarterly cash dividends on all outstanding shares of common stock totaling $0.24 per share, $0.20 per share and $0.20 per share during 2018, 2017 and 2016, respectively. Subsequent to December 31, 2018, our Board of Directors approved a cash dividend on all outstanding shares of common stock of $0.10 per share for stockholders of record on March 15, 2019 to be paid on April 15, 2019. The declaration and payment of any future dividend is subject to the business judgment of our Board of Directors, taking into consideration our historic and projected results of operations, financial condition, cash flows, capital requirements, covenant compliance, share repurchases, current economic environment and other factors considered by our Board of Directors to be relevant. These factors are considered each quarter and will be scrutinized as our Board of Directors determines our future dividend policy. There is no guarantee that additional dividends will be declared and paid at any time in the future. See Note 6, “Long-Term Debt,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements and “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Liquidity and Capital Resources” for additional discussion of dividends and for a description of restrictions on the payment of dividends.

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Item 6. Selected Financial Data.
This selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the related notes thereto included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
We have accounted for all of our dealership acquisitions using the purchase method of accounting and, as a result, we do not include in our consolidated financial statements the results of operations of these dealerships prior to the date we acquired them. Our selected consolidated financial data reflects the results of operations and financial positions of each of our dealerships acquired prior to December 31, 2018. As a result of the effects of any acquisitions and other potential factors in the future, the historical consolidated financial information described in the selected consolidated financial data is not necessarily indicative of the results of our operations and financial position in the future or the results of our operations and financial position that would have resulted had such acquisitions occurred at the beginning of the periods presented in the selected consolidated financial data.
Year Ended December 31,
20182017201620152014
(In millions, except per share data)
Income Statement Data (1):
Total revenues$9,951.6 $9,867.2 $9,731.8 $9,624.3 $9,197.1 
Impairment charges$29.5 $9.4 $8.1 $18.0 $6.6 
Income (loss) from continuing operations before taxes$75.3 $108.1 $155.2 $145.2 $161.7 
Income (loss) from continuing operations$52.4 $94.2 $94.5 $88.1 $98.6 
Basic earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations$1.23 $2.14 $2.07 $1.74 $1.89 
Diluted earnings (loss) per share from continuing operations$1.22 $2.12 $2.06 $1.73 $1.87 
Balance Sheet Data (1):
Total assets$3,796.8 $3,818.5 $3,639.3 $3,562.4 $3,168.3 
Current maturities of long-term debt$26.3 $61.3 $43.0 $33.4 $30.8 
Total long-term debt (including current maturities of long-term debt)$945.1 $1,024.7 $882.7 $814.6 $758.5 
Total long-term liabilities (including current maturities of long-term debt)$1,054.1 $1,138.2 $1,020.3 $952.1 $885.3 
Cash dividends declared per common share$0.24 $0.20 $0.20 $0.11 $0.10 
(1) As discussed in “Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Liquidity and Capital Resources” and Note 2, “Business Acquisitions and Dispositions,” Note 5, “Intangible Assets and Goodwill,” and Note 6, “Long-Term Debt,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements, impairment charges, business combinations and dispositions, and debt refinancing have had a material impact on our reported historical consolidated financial information.

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MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.
The following discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with the accompanying consolidated financial statements and related notes thereto and “Item 1A. Risk Factors” included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The financial and statistical data contained in the following discussion for all periods presented reflects our December 31, 2018 classification of dealerships between continuing and discontinued operations in accordance with “Presentation of Financial Statements” in the Accounting Standards Codification (the “ASC”).
Unless otherwise noted, we present the discussion in this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations on a consolidated basis. To the extent that differences among operating segments are material to an understanding of our business taken as a whole, they are discussed separately.
All discussion of increases or decreases are compared to the prior year period ended December 31, as applicable. The following discussion of new vehicles, used vehicles, wholesale vehicles, parts, service and collision repair and finance, insurance and other are on a same store basis, except where otherwise noted. All currently operating stores are included within the same store group as of the first full month following the first anniversary of the store’s opening or acquisition. During the year ended December 31, 2018 (“2018”), we opened one new manufacturer-awarded open point franchised dealership and three new EchoPark stores, which are included in reported amounts for 2018, but are excluded from same store reporting for all periods. During the year ended December 31, 2017 (“2017”), we opened one new manufacturer-awarded open point franchised dealership, acquired one pre-owned vehicle store and opened two new EchoPark stores, which are included in reported amounts for all periods and same store reporting for 2018 compared to 2017, but are excluded from same store reporting for 2017 compared to 2016. During the year ended December 31, 2016 (“2016”), we opened one new manufacturer-awarded open point franchised dealership, which is included in reported and same store amounts for all periods.
We disposed of seven franchised dealerships, terminated one luxury franchised dealership and closed three EchoPark stores and one previously acquired pre-owned vehicle store during 2018, and had no franchises held for sale as of December 31, 2018. We disposed of three franchised dealerships and closed two previously acquired pre-owned vehicle stores during 2017. We did not dispose of any dealership franchises during 2016. The results of operations of these disposed dealership franchises and closed stores are included in reported amounts below and in continuing operations on the accompanying consolidated statements of income for all periods presented. Dispositions that occurred subsequent to March 31, 2014 have not been reclassified to discontinued operations since they did not meet the criteria for reclassification under U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“U.S. GAAP”). See Note 2, “Business Acquisitions and Dispositions,” to the accompanying consolidated financial statements for tabular disclosure of the effects of disposed dealership franchises that remain in continuing operations.
Overview
We are one of the largest automotive retailers in the United States (as measured by total revenue). As a result of the way we manage our business, we had two operating segments as of December 31, 2018: (1) the Franchised Dealerships Segment and (2) the EchoPark Segment. For management and operational reporting purposes, we group certain businesses together that share management and inventory (principally used vehicles) into “stores.” As of December 31, 2018, we operated 96 stores in the Franchised Dealerships Segment and eight stores in the EchoPark Segment. The Franchised Dealerships Segment consists of 108 new vehicle franchises (representing 23 different brands of cars and light trucks) and 15 collision repair centers in 13 states.
The Franchised Dealerships Segment provides comprehensive services, including (1) sales of both new and used cars and light trucks; (2) sales of replacement parts and performance of vehicle maintenance, manufacturer warranty repairs, and paint and collision repair services (collectively, “Fixed Operations”); and (3) arrangement of extended warranties, service contracts, financing, insurance and other aftermarket products (collectively, “finance and insurance” or “F&I”) for our customers. The EchoPark Segment sells used cars and light trucks and arranges F&I product sales for our customers in pre-owned vehicle specialty retail locations. Our EchoPark business operates independently from our franchised dealerships business. Sales operations in our first EchoPark market in Denver, Colorado began in the fourth quarter of 2014. As of December 31, 2018, we had three EchoPark stores in operation in Colorado, four in Texas and one in North Carolina. By the end of 2019, we expect to open one additional EchoPark store in Texas. We believe that the expansion of our EchoPark business will provide long-term benefits to the Company, our stockholders and our guests. However, in the short term, this strategic initiative may negatively impact our overall operating results as we allocate management and capital resources to this business.
We are continually evaluating the landscape of human mobility and the risks and opportunities that are on the horizon that may reshape our business. We believe the dealership model will continue to serve as the primary resource for consumers for quite some time, but as consumers gravitate toward and accept other sources of mobility, we want to position Sonic to
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participate in those offerings. This may include partnerships or relationships with ride hailing, fractional ownership, subscription service or manufacturer-promoted programs that satisfy a customer demand or need.
Executive Summary
The U.S. retail automotive industry’s total new vehicle unit sales volume was 17.2 million vehicles, in 2018 and 2017, according to data from Bloomberg Financial Markets, provided by Stephens Inc. For 2019, analysts’ average industry expectation for the new vehicle seasonally adjusted annual rate of sales (“SAAR”) range from 16.8 million to 17.0 million vehicles, a decrease of 1.2% to 2.3% compared to the industry volume level in 2018. We estimate the 2019 new vehicle SAAR will be between 16.5 million and 17.0 million vehicles. Changes in consumer confidence, availability of consumer financing or changes in the financial stability of automotive manufacturers could cause actual 2019 new vehicle SAAR to vary from expectations. Many factors such as brand and geographic concentrations have caused our past results to differ from the industry’s overall trend, as well as the industry sales mix between retail and fleet new vehicle sales volume. Our current operational goal focuses on growing our retail new vehicle sales, as opposed to fleet new vehicle sales, and, as a result, we believe it is appropriate to compare our retail new vehicle unit sales volume to the retail new vehicle SAAR (which excludes fleet new vehicle sales). According to the Power Information Network (“PIN”) from J.D. Power, industry retail new vehicle unit sales volume decreased 2.2%, to 13.6 million vehicles, in 2018, from 13.9 million vehicles in 2017.
As a result of the disposition, termination or closure of several franchised dealership stores since December 31, 2017, the change in consolidated reported amounts from period to period may not be indicative of the future operational or financial performance of our current group of operating stores. Unless otherwise noted, all discussion of increases or decreases are for the year ended December 31, 2018 and are compared to the prior year period, as applicable. The following discussion of new vehicles, used vehicles, wholesale vehicles, parts, service and collision repair, and finance, insurance and other, net are on a same store basis, except where otherwise noted. All currently operating stores (both our franchised dealerships and EchoPark stores) are included within the same store group in the first full month following the first anniversary of the store’s opening or acquisition.
New vehicle revenue decreased 1.9% in 2018, driven by a 4.5% decrease in new vehicle unit sales volume. New vehicle gross profit decreased 6.7% in 2018 due to lower new vehicle unit sales volume and lower new vehicle gross profit per unit, which decreased $46 per unit, or 2.3%, to $1,982 per unit. While the availability of vehicle pricing information to consumers, increased competition for sales between similar branded dealerships and higher overall inventory levels have resulted in downward pressure on new vehicle pricing, we believe that new vehicle gross profit per unit has stabilized and do not anticipate significant declines in future periods.
Retail used vehicle revenue increased 6.9% in 2018, driven by a 6.9% increase in retail used vehicle unit sales volume. Retail used vehicle gross profit decreased 1.8% in 2018, driven by a decrease in retail used vehicle gross profit per unit of $100 per unit, or 8.1%, to $1,132 per unit. Our retail used vehicle gross profit per unit decreased due to a shift in inventory and pricing strategy at our EchoPark stores in 2018, where we price our inventory at a lower level (resulting in lower retail used vehicle gross profit per unit) in order to driver higher levels of retail used vehicle unit sales volume and total gross profit (from both the retail used vehicle sale and higher levels of F&I gross profit per retail unit). Our wholesale vehicle gross loss increased approximately $3.8 million, or 50.4%, during 2018, primarily driven by higher levels of wholesale unit sales volume in the first quarter of 2018. We focus on maintaining used vehicle inventory days’ supply in the 30- to 40- day range in order to limit our exposure to market pricing volatility. Our consolidated used vehicle inventory days’ supply was approximately 31 and 34 days as of December 31, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
In 2018, our Fixed Operations revenue increased 0.7% and our Fixed Operations gross profit increased 1.2%. Fixed Operations gross margin increased 30 basis points, to 48.4%, in 2018, driven primarily by higher levels of customer pay revenue and an increase in customer pay gross margin. Although vehicle sales and sales of associated finance, insurance and other aftermarket products are cyclical and are affected by many factors, including overall economic conditions, consumer confidence, levels of discretionary personal income, interest rates and available credit, our parts, service and collision repair services are not closely tied to vehicle sales and are not as dependent upon near-term sales volume. However, significant changes to the level of manufacturer recall and warranty activity could negatively impact our Fixed Operations results in the future.
Our F&I revenue increased 7.6% in 2018, driven by a 6.8% increase in F&I gross profit per retail unit, in addition to a 0.8% increase in combined retail new and used vehicle unit sales volume. F&I gross profit per retail unit increased $95 per unit, or 6.8%, to $1,493 per unit, in 2018. We believe that our proprietary software applications, playbook processes and customer-centric selling approach enable us to maximize gross profit per F&I contract and penetration rates (the number of F&I products
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sold per vehicle) across our F&I product lines. We believe that we will continue to increase revenue in this area as we refine our processes, train our associates and continue to sell high levels of retail new and used vehicles at our stores.
Results of Operations
The following table summarizes the percentages of total revenues represented by certain items reflected in our consolidated statements of income:
Percentage of Total Revenues
Year Ended December 31,
201820172016
Revenues:
New vehicles50.0 %53.7 %53.8 %
Used vehicles29.9 %26.6 %26.0 %
Wholesale vehicles2.2 %1.7 %2.2 %
Parts, service and collision repair13.9 %14.4 %14.5 %
Finance, insurance and other, net4.1 %3.6 %3.5 %
Total revenues100.0 %100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of sales85.5 %85.2 %85.3 %
Gross profit14.5 %14.8 %14.7 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses11.5 %11.6 %11.4 %
Impairment charges0.3 %0.1 %0.1 %
Depreciation and amortization0.9 %1.0 %0.8 %
Operating income (loss)1.8 %2.1 %2.4 %
Interest expense, floor plan0.5 %0.4 %0.3 %
Interest expense, other, net0.5 %0.5 %0.5 %
Other (income) expense, net0.0%0.1 %0.0%
Income (loss) from continuing operations before taxes0.8 %1.1 %1.6 %
Provision for income taxes for continuing operations - (benefit) expense0.2 %0.1 %0.6 %
Income (loss) from continuing operations0.5 %1.0 %1.0 %

Results of Operations - Consolidated
New Vehicles – Consolidated
New vehicle revenues include the sale of new vehicles to retail customers, as well as the sale of fleet vehicles. New vehicle revenues and gross profit can be influenced by vehicle manufacturer incentives to consumers (which vary from cash-back incentives to low interest rate financing, among other things), the availability of consumer credit and the level and type of manufacturer-to-dealer incentives, as well as manufacturers providing adequate inventory allocations to our dealerships to meet customer demands. The automobile manufacturing industry is cyclical and historically has experienced periodic downturns characterized by oversupply and weak demand. As an automotive retailer, we seek to mitigate the effects of this sales cycle by maintaining a diverse brand mix of dealerships. Our brand diversity allows us to offer a broad range of products at a wide range of prices from lower-priced/economy vehicles to luxury vehicles.
The U.S. retail automotive industry’s new vehicle unit sales volume below reflects all brands marketed or sold in the United States. This industry sales volume includes brands we do not sell and markets in which we do not operate, therefore our new vehicle sales volume may not trend directly in line with industry sales volume. We believe that retail unit sales volume is a more meaningful metric for comparing our new vehicles sales volume to the industry due to our minimal fleet vehicle business.
Year Ended December 31,Year Ended December 31,
(In millions of vehicles)20182017% Change20162015% Change
U.S. industry volume - Retail (1)13.6 13.9 (2.2)% 14.1 14.2 (0.7)% 
U.S. industry volume - Fleet3.6 3.3 9.1%  3.4 3.2 6.3%  
U.S. industry volume - Total (2)17.2 17.2 —%  17.5 17.4 0.6%  
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(1) Source: PIN from J.D. Power
(2) Source: Bloomberg Financial Markets, provided by Stephens Inc.
According to industry analysts, industry volume expectations for 2019 range from 16.8 million to 17.0 million vehicles, which would represent a decrease of 1.2% to 2.3% compared to the industry volume for 2018.
The following tables provide a reconciliation of consolidated same store basis and reported basis for total new vehicles (combined retail and fleet data):
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total new vehicle revenue:
Same store$4,897,389 $4,992,552 $(95,163)(1.9)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions76,708 302,499 (225,791)NM 
Total as reported$4,974,097 $5,295,051 $(320,954)(6.1)%
Total new vehicle gross profit:
Same store$238,648 $255,795 $(17,147)(6.7)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions2,854 9,131 (6,277)NM 
Total as reported$241,502 $264,926 $(23,424)(8.8)%
Total new vehicle unit sales:
Same store120,400 126,101 (5,701)(4.5)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions2,317 9,562 (7,245)NM
Total as reported122,717 135,663 (12,946)(9.5)%
NM = Not Meaningful
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total new vehicle revenue:
Same store$4,960,012 $4,914,970 $45,042 0.9 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions335,039 319,535 15,504 4.9 %
Total as reported$5,295,051 $5,234,505 $60,546 1.2 %
Total new vehicle gross profit:
Same store$253,412 $252,477 $935 0.4 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions11,514 8,117 3,397 41.9 %
Total as reported$264,926 $260,594 $4,332 1.7 %
Total new vehicle unit sales:
Same store125,525 125,600 (75)(0.1)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions10,138 10,403 (265)(2.5)%
Total as reported135,663 136,003 (340)(0.2)%

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Our consolidated reported new vehicle results (combined retail and fleet data) are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported new vehicle:
Revenue$4,974,097 $5,295,051 $(320,954)(6.1)%
Gross profit$241,502 $264,926 $(23,424)(8.8)%
Unit sales122,717 135,663 (12,946)(9.5)%
Revenue per unit$40,533 $39,031 $1,502 3.8 %
Gross profit per unit$1,968 $1,953 $15 0.8 %
Gross profit as a % of revenue4.9 %5.0 %(10)bps

Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported new vehicle:
Revenue$5,295,051 $5,234,505 $60,546 1.2 %
Gross profit$264,926 $260,594 $4,332 1.7 %
Unit sales135,663 136,003 (340)(0.2)%
Revenue per unit$39,031 $38,488 $543 1.4 %
Gross profit per unit$1,953 $1,916 $37 1.9 %
Gross profit as a % of revenue5.0 %5.0 %— bps
Our consolidated same store new vehicle results (combined retail and fleet data) are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Same store new vehicle:
Revenue$4,897,389 $4,992,552 $(95,163)(1.9)%
Gross profit$238,648 $255,795 $(17,147)(6.7)%
Unit sales120,400 126,101 (5,701)(4.5)%
Revenue per unit$40,676 $39,592 $1,084 2.7 %
Gross profit per unit$1,982 $2,028 $(46)(2.3)%
Gross profit as a % of revenue4.9 %5.1 %(20)bps

Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Same store new vehicle:
Revenue$4,960,012 $4,914,970 $45,042 0.9 %
Gross profit$253,412 $252,477 $935 0.4 %
Unit sales125,525 125,600 (75)(0.1)%
Revenue per unit$39,514 $39,132 $382 1.0 %
Gross profit per unit$2,019 $2,010 $0.4 %
Gross profit as a % of revenue5.1 %5.1 %— bps
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For further analysis of new vehicle results, see the tables and discussion under the heading “New Vehicles – Franchised Dealerships Segment” in the Franchised Dealerships Segment section below.
Used Vehicles – Consolidated
Used vehicle revenues consist of sales to retail customers and are directly affected by a number of factors, including the level of manufacturer incentives on new vehicles, the number and quality of trade-ins and lease turn-ins, the availability and pricing of used vehicles acquired at auction and the availability of consumer credit.
The following tables provide a reconciliation of consolidated same store basis and reported basis for retail used vehicles:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total used vehicle revenue:
Same store$2,593,725 $2,427,306 $166,419 6.9 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions379,773 194,747 185,026 NM  
Total as reported$2,973,498 $2,622,053 $351,445 13.4 %
Total used vehicle gross profit:
Same store$136,200 $138,677 $(2,477)(1.8)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions6,788 16,226 (9,438)NM  
Total as reported$142,988 $154,903 $(11,915)(7.7)%
Total used vehicle unit sales:
Same store120,339 112,605 7,734 6.9 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions19,266 10,884 8,382 NM  
Total as reported139,605 123,489 16,116 13.1 %
NM = Not Meaningful 
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total used vehicle revenue:
Same store$2,349,053 $2,354,926 $(5,873)(0.2)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions273,000 178,196 94,804 NM  
Total as reported$2,622,053 $2,533,122 $88,931 3.5 %
Total used vehicle gross profit:
Same store$136,889 $140,775 $(3,886)(2.8)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions18,014 17,810 204 NM  
Total as reported$154,903 $158,585 $(3,682)(2.3)%
Total used vehicle unit sales:
Same store108,798 109,091 (293)(0.3)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions14,691 10,083 4,608 NM  
Total as reported123,489 119,174 4,315 3.6 %
NM = Not Meaningful
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Our consolidated reported retail used vehicle results are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported used vehicle:
Revenue$2,973,498 $2,622,053 $351,445 13.4 %
Gross profit$142,988 $154,903 $(11,915)(7.7)%
Unit sales139,605 123,489 16,116 13.1 %
Revenue per unit$21,299 $21,233 $66 0.3 %
Gross profit per unit$1,024 $1,254 $(230)(18.3)%
Gross profit as a % of revenue4.8 %5.9 %(110)bps

Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported used vehicle:
Revenue$2,622,053 $2,533,122 $88,931 3.5 %
Gross profit$154,903 $158,585 $(3,682)(2.3)%
Unit sales123,489 119,174 4,315 3.6 %
Revenue per unit$21,233 $21,256 $(23)(0.1)%
Gross profit per unit$1,254 $1,331 $(77)(5.8)%
Gross profit as a % of revenue5.9 %6.3 %(40)bps
Our consolidated same store retail used vehicle results are as follows:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Same store used vehicle:
Revenue$2,593,725 $2,427,306 $166,419 6.9 %
Gross profit$136,200 $138,677 $(2,477)(1.8)%
Unit sales120,339 112,605 7,734 6.9 %
Revenue per unit$21,553 $21,556 $(3)0.0%
Gross profit per unit$1,132 $1,232 $(100)(8.1)%
Gross profit as a % of revenue5.3 %5.7 %(40)bps

Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Same store used vehicle:
Revenue$2,349,053 $2,354,926 $(5,873)(0.2)%
Gross profit$136,889 $140,775 $(3,886)(2.8)%
Unit sales108,798 109,091 (293)(0.3)%
Revenue per unit$21,591 $21,587 $0.0 %
Gross profit per unit$1,258 $1,290 $(32)(2.5)%
Gross profit as a % of revenue5.8 %6.0 %(20)bps
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For further analysis of retail used vehicle results, see the tables and discussion under the headings “Used Vehicles – Franchised Dealerships Segment” and “Used Vehicles and F&I - EchoPark Segment” in the Franchised Dealerships Segment and EchoPark Segment sections, respectively, below.
Wholesale Vehicles - Consolidated
Wholesale vehicle revenues consist of sales at third-party auction sites and are highly correlated with new and used vehicle retail sales and the associated trade-in volume. Wholesale vehicle revenues are also significantly affected by our corporate inventory management strategy and policies, which are designed to optimize our total used vehicle inventory and reduce our risk of inventory price depreciation prior to sale.
The following tables provide a reconciliation of consolidated same store basis and reported basis for wholesale vehicles:
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total wholesale vehicle revenue:
Same store$200,574 $158,787 $41,787 26.3 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions17,051 12,277 4,774 NM
Total as reported$217,625 $171,064 $46,561 27.2 %
Total wholesale vehicle gross profit (loss):
Same store$(11,215)$(7,455)$(3,760)(50.4)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions(34)(1,259)1,225 NM
Total as reported$(11,249)$(8,714)$(2,535)(29.1)%
Total wholesale vehicle unit sales:
Same store31,080 28,547 2,533 8.9 %
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions3,087 2,838 249 NM
Total as reported34,167 31,385 2,782 8.9 %
NM = Not Meaningful
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit data)
Total wholesale vehicle revenue:
Same store$156,808 $195,944 $(39,136)(20.0)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions14,256 15,104 (848)NM
Total as reported$171,064 $211,048 $(39,984)(18.9)%
Total wholesale vehicle gross profit (loss):
Same store$(7,566)$(5,731)$(1,835)(32.0)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions(1,148)(1,585)437 NM
Total as reported$(8,714)$(7,316)$(1,398)(19.1)%
Total wholesale vehicle unit sales:
Same store28,152 31,959 (3,807)(11.9)%
Acquisitions, open points and dispositions3,233 3,139 94 NM
Total as reported31,385 35,098 (3,713)(10.6)%
NM = Not Meaningful
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Our consolidated reported wholesale vehicle results are as follows: 
Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20182017Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported wholesale vehicle:
Revenue$217,625 $171,064 $46,561 27.2 %
Gross profit (loss)$(11,249)$(8,714)$(2,535)(29.1)%
Unit sales34,167 31,385 2,782 8.9 %
Revenue per unit$6,369 $5,451 $918 16.8 %
Gross profit (loss) per unit$(329)$(278)$(51)(18.3)%
Gross profit (loss) as a % of revenue(5.2)%(5.1)%(10)bps

Year Ended December 31,Better / (Worse)
20172016Change% Change
(In thousands, except unit and per unit data)
Reported wholesale vehicle: