SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
x ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2018
o TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from to
Registrants; State of Incorporation;
Addresses; and Telephone Number
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
(An Arizona corporation)
400 North Fifth Street, P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
(An Arizona corporation)
400 North Fifth Street, P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title Of Each Class
Name Of Each Exchange On Which Registered
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
No Par Value
New York Stock Exchange
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY Common Stock, Par Value $2.50 per share
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes o No x
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes o No x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Yes x No o
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Yes x No o
Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or in any amendment to this Form 10-K.x
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
Large accelerated filer x
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company ☐
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Large accelerated filer o
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer x
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company ☐
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether each registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes o No x
State the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates, computed by reference to the price at which the common equity was last sold, or the average bid and asked price of such common equity, as of the last business day of each registrant’s most recently completed second fiscal quarter:
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
$9,020,511,769.84 as of June 30, 2018
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
$0 as of June 30, 2018
The number of shares outstanding of each registrant’s common stock as of February 15, 2019
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
Common Stock, $2.50 par value, 71,264,947 shares. Pinnacle West Capital Corporation is the sole holder of Arizona Public Service Company’s Common Stock.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of Pinnacle West Capital Corporation’s definitive Proxy Statement relating to its Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 15, 2019 are incorporated by reference into Part III hereof.
Arizona Public Service Company meets the conditions set forth in General Instruction I(1)(a) and (b) of Form 10-K and is therefore filing this form with the reduced disclosure format allowed under that General Instruction.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
This combined Form 10-K is separately filed by Pinnacle West and APS. Each registrant is filing on its own behalf all of the information contained in this Form 10-K that relates to such registrant and, where required, its subsidiaries. Except as stated in the preceding sentence, neither registrant is filing any information that does not relate to such registrant, and therefore makes no representation as to any such information. The information required with respect to each company is set forth within the applicable items. Item 8 of this report includes Consolidated Financial Statements of Pinnacle West and Consolidated Financial Statements of APS. Item 8 also includes Combined Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements.
GLOSSARY OF NAMES AND TECHNICAL TERMS
4C Acquisition, LLC, a subsidiary of the Company
Arizona Corporation Commission
Arizona Department of Environmental Quality
Allowance for Funds Used During Construction
Arizona Nuclear Power Project, also known as Palo Verde
Arizona Public Service Company, a subsidiary of the Company
Asset retirement obligations
Accounting Standards Update
Best available retrofit technology
Base Fuel Rate
The portion of APS’s retail base rates attributable to fuel and purchased power costs
Bright Canyon Energy Corporation, a subsidiary of the Company
BHP Billiton New Mexico Coal, Inc.
BHP Navajo Coal Company
California Independent System Operator
Coal combustion residuals
Cholla Power Plant
distributed energy systems
Small-scale renewable energy technologies that are located on customers’ properties, such as rooftop solar systems
United States Department of Energy
United States Department of the Interior
Demand side management
Energy Efficiency Standard
El Dorado Investment Company, a subsidiary of the Company
El Paso Electric Company
United States Environmental Protection Agency
United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
Four Corners Power Plant
Gigawatt-hour, one billion watts per hour
Kilovolt, one thousand volts
Kilowatt-hour, one thousand watts per hour
Lost Fixed Cost Recovery Mechanism
One million British Thermal Units
Megawatt, one million watts
Megawatt-hour, one million watts per hour
Retail and wholesale sales supplied under traditional cost-based rate regulation
Navajo Generating Station
North American Electric Reliability Corporation
United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission
Navajo Transitional Energy Company, LLC
Other comprehensive income
Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement
Palo Verde Generating Station or PVGS
Pinnacle West Capital Corporation (any use of the words “Company,” “we,” and “our” refer to Pinnacle West)
Power supply adjustor approved by the ACC to provide for recovery or refund of variations in actual fuel and purchased power costs compared with the Base Fuel Rate
Arizona Renewable Energy Standard and Tariff
Salt River Project or SRP
Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District
Southern California Edison Company
Transmission cost adjustor
Tax expense adjustor mechanism
Variable interest entity
This document contains forward-looking statements based on current expectations. These forward-looking statements are often identified by words such as “estimate,” “predict,” “may,” “believe,” “plan,” “expect,” “require,” “intend,” “assume,” “project” and similar words. Because actual results may differ materially from expectations, we caution readers not to place undue reliance on these statements. A number of factors could cause future results to differ materially from historical results, or from outcomes currently expected or sought by Pinnacle West or APS. In addition to the Risk Factors described in Item 1A and in Item 7 — “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this report, these factors include, but are not limited to:
our ability to manage capital expenditures and operations and maintenance costs while maintaining reliability and customer service levels;
variations in demand for electricity, including those due to weather, seasonality, the general economy, customer and sales growth (or decline), and the effects of energy conservation measures and distributed generation;
power plant and transmission system performance and outages;
competition in retail and wholesale power markets;
regulatory and judicial decisions, developments and proceedings;
new legislation, ballot initiatives and regulation, including those relating to environmental requirements, regulatory policy, nuclear plant operations and potential deregulation of retail electric markets;
fuel and water supply availability;
our ability to achieve timely and adequate rate recovery of our costs, including returns on and of debt and equity capital investment;
our ability to meet renewable energy and energy efficiency mandates and recover related costs;
risks inherent in the operation of nuclear facilities, including spent fuel disposal uncertainty;
current and future economic conditions in Arizona, including in real estate markets;
the development of new technologies which may affect electric sales or delivery;
the cost of debt and equity capital and the ability to access capital markets when required;
environmental, economic and other concerns surrounding coal-fired generation, including regulation of greenhouse gas emissions;
volatile fuel and purchased power costs;
the investment performance of the assets of our nuclear decommissioning trust, pension, and other postretirement benefit plans and the resulting impact on future funding requirements;
the liquidity of wholesale power markets and the use of derivative contracts in our business;
potential shortfalls in insurance coverage;
new accounting requirements or new interpretations of existing requirements;
generation, transmission and distribution facility and system conditions and operating costs;
the ability to meet the anticipated future need for additional generation and associated transmission facilities in our region;
the willingness or ability of our counterparties, power plant participants and power plant land owners to meet contractual or other obligations or extend the rights for continued power plant operations; and
restrictions on dividends or other provisions in our credit agreements and ACC orders.
These and other factors are discussed in the Risk Factors described in Item 1A of this report, and in Item 7 — “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of this report, which readers should review carefully before placing any reliance on our financial statements or disclosures. Neither Pinnacle West nor APS assumes any obligation to update these statements, even if our internal estimates change, except as required by law.
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Pinnacle West is a holding company that conducts business through its subsidiaries. We derive essentially all of our revenues and earnings from our wholly-owned subsidiary, APS. APS is a vertically-integrated electric utility that provides either retail or wholesale electric service to most of the State of Arizona, with the major exceptions of about one-half of the Phoenix metropolitan area, the Tucson metropolitan area and Mohave County in northwestern Arizona.
Pinnacle West’s other subsidiaries are El Dorado, BCE and 4CA. Additional information related to these subsidiaries is provided later in this report.
Our reportable business segment is our regulated electricity segment, which consists of traditional regulated retail and wholesale electricity businesses (primarily electric service to Native Load customers) and related activities, and includes electricity generation, transmission and distribution.
BUSINESS OF ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY
APS currently provides electric service to approximately 1.2 million customers. We own or lease 6,015 MW of regulated generation capacity (which is expected to increase by 510 MW upon completion of the Ocotillo Modernization Project by the middle of 2019) and we hold a mix of both long-term and short-term purchased power agreements for additional capacity, including a variety of agreements for the purchase of renewable energy. During 2018, no single purchaser or user of energy accounted for more than 2.7% of our electric revenues.
The following map shows APS’s retail service territory, including the locations of its generating facilities and principal transmission lines.
Energy Sources and Resource Planning
To serve its customers, APS obtains power through its various generation stations and through purchased power agreements. Resource planning is an important function necessary to meet Arizona’s future energy needs. APS’s sources of energy by type used to supply energy to Native Load customers during 2018 were as follows:
APS has ownership interests in or leases the coal, nuclear, gas, oil and solar generating facilities described below. For additional information regarding these facilities, see Item 2.
Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities
Four Corners — Four Corners is located in the northwestern corner of New Mexico, and was originally a 5-unit coal-fired power plant. APS owns 100% of Units 1, 2 and 3, which were retired as of December 30, 2013. APS operates the plant and owns 63% of Four Corners Units 4 and 5 following the acquisition of SCE’s interest in Units 4 and 5 described below. APS has a total entitlement from Four Corners of 970 MW. Additionally, 4CA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pinnacle West, owned 7% of Units 4 and 5 from July 2016 through July 2018 following its acquisition of El Paso's interest in these units described below.
On December 30, 2013, APS purchased SCE’s 48% interest in each of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners. Concurrently with the closing of the SCE transaction, BHP Billiton, the parent company of BNCC, the coal
supplier and operator of the mine that served Four Corners, transferred its ownership of BNCC to NTEC, a company formed by the Navajo Nation to own the mine and develop other energy projects. Also occurring concurrently with the closing, the Four Corners’ co-owners executed a long-term agreement for the supply of coal to Four Corners from July 2016 through 2031 (the "2016 Coal Supply Agreement"). El Paso, a 7% owner of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners, did not sign the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement. Under the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement, APS agreed to assume the 7% shortfall obligation. (See Note 10 for a discussion of certain matters related to the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement.) On February 17, 2015, APS and El Paso entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the purchase by APS, or an affiliate of APS, of El Paso’s 7% interest in each of Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners. 4CA purchased the El Paso interest on July 6, 2016. The purchase price was immaterial in amount, and 4CA assumed El Paso's reclamation and decommissioning obligations associated with the 7% interest.
NTEC had the option to purchase the 7% interest within a certain timeframe pursuant to an option granted to NTEC. On December 29, 2015, NTEC provided notice of its intent to exercise the option. The purchase did not occur during the originally contemplated timeframe. Concurrent with the settlement of the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement matter described in Note 10, NTEC and 4CA agreed to allow for the purchase by NTEC of the 7% interest, consistent with the option. On June 29, 2018, 4CA and NTEC entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the sale to NTEC of 4CA's 7% interest in Four Corners. Completion of the sale was subject to the receipt of approval by FERC, which was received on July 2, 2018, and the sale transaction closed on July 3, 2018. NTEC purchased the 7% interest at 4CA’s book value, approximately $70 million, and will pay 4CA the purchase price over a period of four years pursuant to a secured interest-bearing promissory note. In connection with the sale, Pinnacle West guaranteed certain obligations that NTEC will have to the other owners of Four Corners, such as NTEC's 7% share of capital expenditures and operating and maintenance expenses. Pinnacle West's guarantee is secured by a portion of APS's payments to be owed to NTEC under the 2016 Coal Supply Agreement.
The 2016 Coal Supply Agreement contained alternate pricing terms for the 7% interest in the event NTEC did not purchase the interest. Until the time that NTEC purchased the 7% interest, the alternate pricing provisions were applicable to 4CA as the holder of the 7% interest. These terms included a formula under which NTEC must make certain payments to 4CA for reimbursement of operations and maintenance costs and a specified rate of return, offset by revenue generated by 4CA’s power sales. Such payments are due to 4CA at the end of each calendar year. A $10 million payment was due to 4CA at December 31, 2017, which NTEC satisfied by directing to 4CA a prepayment from APS of a portion of a future mine reclamation obligation. The balance of the amount under this formula due December 31, 2018 for calendar year 2017 is approximately $20 million, which was paid to 4CA on December 14, 2018. The balance of the amount under this formula at December 31, 2018 for calendar year 2018 (up to the date that NTEC purchased the 7% interest) is approximately $10 million, which is due to 4CA at December 31, 2019.
APS, on behalf of the Four Corners participants, negotiated amendments to an existing facility lease with the Navajo Nation, which extends the Four Corners leasehold interest from 2016 to 2041. The Navajo Nation approved these amendments in March 2011. The effectiveness of the amendments also required the approval of the DOI, as did a related federal rights-of-way grant. A federal environmental review was undertaken as part of the DOI review process, and culminated in the issuance by DOI of a record of decision on July 17, 2015 justifying the agency action extending the life of the plant and the adjacent mine.
On April 20, 2016, several environmental groups filed a lawsuit against OSM and other federal agencies in the District of Arizona in connection with their issuance of the approvals that extended the life of Four Corners and the adjacent mine. The lawsuit alleges that these federal agencies violated both the Endangered Species Act ("ESA") and the National Environmental Policy Act ("NEPA") in providing the
federal approvals necessary to extend operations at Four Corners and the adjacent Navajo Mine past July 6, 2016. APS filed a motion to intervene in the proceedings, which was granted on August 3, 2016.
On September 15, 2016, NTEC, the company that owns the adjacent mine, filed a motion to intervene for the purpose of dismissing the lawsuit based on NTEC's tribal sovereign immunity. On September 11, 2017, the Arizona District Court issued an order granting NTEC's motion, dismissing the litigation with prejudice, and terminating the proceedings. On November 9, 2017, the environmental group plaintiffs appealed the district court order dismissing their lawsuit. Oral argument for this appeal has been scheduled for March 2019. We cannot predict whether this appeal will be successful and, if it is successful, the outcome of further district court proceedings.
Cholla — Cholla was originally a 4-unit coal-fired power plant, which is located in northeastern Arizona. APS operates the plant and owns 100% of Cholla Units 1, 2 and 3. PacifiCorp owns Cholla Unit 4, and APS operates that unit for PacifiCorp. On September 11, 2014, APS announced that it would close its 260 MW Unit 2 at Cholla and cease burning coal at Units 1 and 3 by the mid-2020s if EPA approves a compromise proposal offered by APS to meet required environmental and emissions standards and rules. On April 14, 2015, the ACC approved APS's plan to retire Unit 2, without expressing any view on the future recoverability of APS's remaining investment in the Unit, which was later addressed in the March 27, 2017 settlement agreement regarding APS's general retail case (the "2017 Settlement Agreement"). (See Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset and allowed recovery set forth in the 2017 Settlement Agreement.) APS believes that the environmental benefits of this proposal are greater in the long-term than the benefits that would have resulted from adding the emissions control equipment. APS closed Unit 2 on October 1, 2015. Following the closure of Unit 2, APS has a total entitlement from Cholla of 387 MW. In early 2017, EPA approved a final rule incorporating APS's compromise proposal, which took effect for Cholla on April 26, 2017.
APS purchases all of Cholla’s coal requirements from a coal supplier that mines all of the coal under long-term leases of coal reserves with the federal and state governments and private landholders. The Cholla coal contract runs through 2024. In addition, APS has a coal transportation contract that runs through 2019, with the ability to extend the contract annually through 2024.
Navajo Plant — The Navajo Plant is a 3-unit coal-fired power plant located in northern Arizona. Salt River Project operates the plant and APS owns a 14% interest in Units 1, 2 and 3. APS has a total entitlement from the Navajo Plant of 315 MW. The Navajo Plant’s coal requirements are purchased from a supplier with long-term leases from the Navajo Nation and the Hopi Tribe. The Navajo Plant is under contract with its coal supplier through 2019, with extension rights through 2026. The Navajo Plant site is leased from the Navajo Nation and is also subject to an easement from the federal government.
The co-owners of the Navajo Plant and the Navajo Nation agreed that the Navajo Plant will remain in operation until December 2019 under the existing plant lease. The co-owners and the Navajo Nation executed a lease extension on November 29, 2017 that will allow for decommissioning activities to begin after the plant ceases operations in December 2019. Various stakeholders, including regulators, tribal representatives, the plant's coal supplier and DOI have been meeting to determine if an alternate solution can be reached that would permit continued operation of the plant beyond 2019. Although we cannot predict whether any alternate plans will be found that would be acceptable to all of the stakeholders and feasible to implement, we believe it is probable that the current owners of the Navajo Plant will cease plant operations in 2019.
APS is currently recovering depreciation and a return on the net book value of its interest in the Navajo Plant over its previously estimated life through 2026. APS will seek continued recovery in rates for the book value of its remaining investment in the plant (see Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset)
plus a return on the net book value as well as other costs related to retirement and closure, which are still being assessed and which may be material.
On February 14, 2017, the ACC opened a docket titled "ACC Investigation Concerning the Future of the Navajo Generating Station" with the stated goal of engaging stakeholders and negotiating a sustainable pathway for the Navajo Plant to continue operating in some form after December 2019. APS cannot predict the outcome of this proceeding.
These coal-fueled plants face uncertainties, including those related to existing and potential legislation and regulation, that could significantly impact their economics and operations. See “Environmental Matters” below and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations — Overview and Capital Expenditures” in Item 7 for developments impacting these coal-fueled facilities. See Note 10 for information regarding APS’s coal mine reclamation obligations.
Palo Verde Generating Station — Palo Verde is a 3-unit nuclear power plant located approximately 50 miles west of Phoenix, Arizona. APS operates the plant and owns 29.1% of Palo Verde Units 1 and 3 and approximately 17% of Unit 2. In addition, APS leases approximately 12.1% of Unit 2, resulting in a 29.1% combined ownership and leasehold interest in that unit. APS has a total entitlement from Palo Verde of 1,146 MW.
Palo Verde Leases — In 1986, APS entered into agreements with three separate lessor trust entities in order to sell and lease back approximately 42% of its share of Palo Verde Unit 2 and certain common facilities. The leaseback was originally scheduled to expire at the end of 2015 and contained options to renew the leases or to purchase the leased property for fair market value at the end of the lease terms. On July 7, 2014, APS exercised the fixed rate lease renewal options. The exercise of the renewal options resulted in APS retaining the assets through 2023 under one lease and 2033 under the other two leases. At the end of the lease renewal periods, APS will have the option to purchase the leased assets at their fair market value, extend the leases for up to two years, or return the assets to the lessors. See Note 18 for additional information regarding the Palo Verde Unit 2 sale leaseback transactions.
Palo Verde Operating Licenses — Operation of each of the three Palo Verde Units requires an operating license from the NRC. The NRC issued full power operating licenses for Unit 1 in June 1985, Unit 2 in April 1986 and Unit 3 in November 1987, and issued renewed operating licenses for each of the three units in April 2011, which extended the licenses for Units 1, 2 and 3 to June 2045, April 2046 and November 2047, respectively.
Palo Verde Fuel Cycle — The participant owners of Palo Verde are continually identifying their future nuclear fuel resource needs and negotiating arrangements to fill those needs. The fuel cycle for Palo Verde is comprised of the following stages:
•mining and milling of uranium ore to produce uranium concentrates;
•conversion of uranium concentrates to uranium hexafluoride;
•enrichment of uranium hexafluoride;
•fabrication of fuel assemblies;
•utilization of fuel assemblies in reactors; and
•storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel.
The Palo Verde participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for uranium concentrates through 2025 and 15% through 2028. In 2018, Palo Verde executed five uranium contracts covering the time period from 2019 to 2025.
The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for conversion services through 2025, and 40% through 2030. A long-term contract for conversion services was executed in 2018 covering years 2019 to 2030.
The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for enrichment services through 2021, 90% of enrichment services for 2022, and 80% for 2023 through 2026. In 2018, four enrichment contracts were executed to bring the requirements coverage to these levels.
The participants have contracted for 100% of Palo Verde’s requirements for fuel fabrication through 2027. In 2018, a fabrication contract was executed with a new fabrication supplier for Unit 2, and the existing fabrication contract was renegotiated for Units 1 and 3.
Spent Nuclear Fuel and Waste Disposal — The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (“NWPA”) required the DOE to accept, transport, and dispose of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste generated by the nation’s nuclear power plants by 1998. The DOE’s obligations are reflected in a contract for Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel and/or High-Level Radioactive Waste (the “Standard Contract”) with each nuclear power plant. The DOE failed to begin accepting spent nuclear fuel by 1998. APS is directly and indirectly involved in several legal proceedings related to the DOE’s failure to meet its statutory and contractual obligations regarding acceptance of spent nuclear fuel and high level waste.
APS Lawsuit for Breach of Standard Contract — In December 2003, APS, acting on behalf of itself and the Palo Verde participants, filed a lawsuit against the DOE in the United States Court of Federal Claims ("Court of Federal Claims") for damages incurred due to the DOE’s breach of the Standard Contract. The Court of Federal Claims ruled in favor of APS and the Palo Verde participants in October 2010 and awarded $30.2 million in damages to APS and the Palo Verde participants for costs incurred through December 2006.
On December 19, 2012, APS, acting on behalf of itself and the participant owners of Palo Verde, filed a second breach of contract lawsuit against the DOE in the Court of Federal Claims. This lawsuit sought to recover damages incurred due to the DOE’s breach of the Standard Contract for failing to accept Palo Verde’s spent nuclear fuel and high level waste from January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2011, as it was required to do pursuant to the terms of the Standard Contract and the NWPA. On August 18, 2014, APS and the DOE entered into a settlement agreement, stipulating to a dismissal of the lawsuit and payment of $57.4 million by the DOE to the Palo Verde owners for certain specified costs incurred by Palo Verde during the period January 1, 2007 through June 30, 2011. APS’s share of this amount is $16.7 million. Amounts recovered in the lawsuit and settlement were recorded as adjustments to a regulatory liability and had no impact on the amount of reported net income. In addition, the settlement agreement provides APS with a method for submitting claims and getting recovery for costs incurred through December 31, 2016, which has been extended to December 31, 2019.
APS has submitted and received payment for four claims pursuant to the terms of the August 18, 2014 settlement agreement, for four separate time periods during July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2018. The DOE has paid $74.2 million for these claims (APS’s share is $21.6 million). The amounts recovered were primarily recorded as adjustments to a regulatory liability and had no impact on reported net income. APS's next claim pursuant to the terms of the August 18, 2014 settlement agreement was submitted to the DOE on October 31, 2018 in the amount of $10.2 million (APS's share is $3 million). This claim is pending DOE review.
The One-Mill Fee — In 2011, the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners and the Nuclear Energy Institute challenged the DOE’s 2010 determination of the adequacy of the one tenth of a cent
per kWh fee (the “one-mill fee”) paid by the nation’s commercial nuclear power plant owners pursuant to their individual obligations under the Standard Contract. This fee is recovered by APS in its retail rates. In June 2012, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (the “D.C. Circuit”) held that the DOE failed to conduct a sufficient fee analysis in making the 2010 determination. The D.C. Circuit remanded the 2010 determination to the Secretary of the DOE (“Secretary”) with instructions to conduct a new fee adequacy determination within six months. In February 2013, upon completion of the DOE’s revised one-mill fee adequacy determination, the D.C. Circuit reopened the proceedings. On November 19, 2013, the D.C. Circuit found that the DOE did not conduct a legally adequate fee assessment and ordered the Secretary to notify Congress of his intent to suspend collecting annual fees for nuclear waste disposal from nuclear power plant operators, as he is required to do pursuant to the NWPA and the D.C. Circuit’s order. On January 3, 2014, the Secretary notified Congress of his intention to suspend collection of the one-mill fee, subject to Congress’ disapproval. On May 16, 2014, the DOE notified all commercial nuclear power plant operators who are party to a Standard Contract that it reduced the one-mill fee to zero, thus effectively terminating the one-mill fee.
DOE’s Construction Authorization Application for Yucca Mountain — The DOE had planned to meet its NWPA and Standard Contract disposal obligations by designing, licensing, constructing, and operating a permanent geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. In June 2008, the DOE submitted its Yucca Mountain construction authorization application to the NRC, but in March 2010, the DOE filed a motion to dismiss with prejudice the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. Several interested parties have also intervened in the NRC proceeding. Additionally, a number of interested parties filed a variety of lawsuits in different jurisdictions around the country challenging the DOE’s authority to withdraw the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application and the NRC’s cessation of its review of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. The cases have been consolidated into one matter at the D.C. Circuit. In August 2013, the D.C. Circuit ordered the NRC to resume its review of the application with available appropriated funds.
On October 16, 2014, the NRC issued Volume 3 of the safety evaluation report developed as part of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. This volume addresses repository safety after permanent closure, and its issuance is a key milestone in the Yucca Mountain licensing process. Volume 3 contains the staff’s finding that the DOE’s repository design meets the requirements that apply after the repository is permanently closed, including but not limited to the post-closure performance objectives in NRC regulations.
On December 18, 2014, the NRC issued Volume 4 of the safety evaluation report developed as part of the Yucca Mountain construction authorization application. This volume covers administrative and programmatic requirements for the repository. It documents the staff’s evaluation of whether the DOE’s research and development and performance confirmation programs, as well as other administrative controls and systems, meet applicable NRC requirements. Volume 4 contains the staff’s finding that most administrative and programmatic requirements in NRC regulations are met, except for certain requirements relating to ownership of land and water rights.
Publication of Volumes 3 and 4 does not signal whether or when the NRC might authorize construction of the repository.
Waste Confidence and Continued Storage — On June 8, 2012, the D.C. Circuit issued its decision on a challenge by several states and environmental groups of the NRC’s rulemaking regarding temporary storage and permanent disposal of high level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. The petitioners had challenged the NRC’s 2010 update to the agency’s waste confidence decision and temporary storage rule (“Waste Confidence Decision”).
The D.C. Circuit found that the agency’s Waste Confidence Decision update constituted a major federal action, which, consistent with NEPA, requires either an environmental impact statement or a finding of no significant impact from the agency’s actions. The D.C. Circuit found that the NRC’s evaluation of the environmental risks from spent nuclear fuel was deficient, and therefore remanded the Waste Confidence Decision update for further action consistent with NEPA.
On September 6, 2012, the NRC Commissioners issued a directive to the NRC staff to proceed directly with development of a generic environmental impact statement to support an updated Waste Confidence Decision. The NRC Commissioners also directed the staff to establish a schedule to publish a final rule and environmental impact study within 24 months of September 6, 2012.
In September 2013, the NRC issued its draft Generic Environmental Impact Statement (“GEIS”) to support an updated Waste Confidence Decision. On August 26, 2014, the NRC approved a final rule on the environmental effects of continued storage of spent nuclear fuel. Renamed as the Continued Storage Rule, the NRC’s decision adopted the findings of the GEIS regarding the environmental impacts of storing spent fuel at any reactor site after the reactor’s licensed period of operations. As a result, those generic impacts do not need to be re-analyzed in the environmental reviews for individual licenses. Although Palo Verde had not been involved in any licensing actions affected by the D.C. Circuit’s June 8, 2012, decision, the NRC lifted its suspension on final licensing actions on all nuclear power plant licenses and renewals that went into effect when the D.C. Circuit issued its June 2012 decision. The final Continued Storage Rule was subject to continuing legal challenges before the NRC and the Court of Appeals. In June 2016, the D.C. Circuit issued its final decision, rejecting all remaining legal challenges to the Continued Storage Rule. On August 8, 2016, the D.C. Circuit denied a petition for rehearing.
Palo Verde has sufficient capacity at its on-site independent spent fuel storage installation (“ISFSI”) to store all of the nuclear fuel that will be irradiated during the initial operating license period, which ends in December 2027. Additionally, Palo Verde has sufficient capacity at its on-site ISFSI to store a portion of the fuel that will be irradiated during the period of extended operation, which ends in November 2047. If uncertainties regarding the United States government’s obligation to accept and store spent fuel are not favorably resolved, APS will evaluate alternative storage solutions that may obviate the need to expand the ISFSI to accommodate all of the fuel that will be irradiated during the period of extended operation.
Nuclear Decommissioning Costs — APS currently relies on an external sinking fund mechanism to meet the NRC financial assurance requirements for decommissioning its interests in Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3. The decommissioning costs of Palo Verde Units 1, 2 and 3 are currently included in APS’s ACC jurisdictional rates. Decommissioning costs are recoverable through a non-bypassable system benefits charge (paid by all retail customers taking service from the APS system). Based on current nuclear decommissioning trust asset balances, site specific decommissioning cost studies, anticipated future contributions to the decommissioning trusts, and return projections on the asset portfolios over the expected remaining operating life of the facility, we are on track to meet the current site specific decommissioning costs for Palo Verde at the time the units are expected to be decommissioned. See Note 19 for additional information about APS’s nuclear decommissioning trusts.
Palo Verde Liability and Insurance Matters — See “Palo Verde Generating Station — Nuclear Insurance” in Note 10 for a discussion of the insurance maintained by the Palo Verde participants, including APS, for Palo Verde.
Natural Gas and Oil Fueled Generating Facilities
APS has six natural gas power plants located throughout Arizona, consisting of Redhawk, located near Palo Verde; Ocotillo, located in Tempe (discussed below); Sundance, located in Coolidge; West Phoenix, located in southwest Phoenix; Saguaro, located north of Tucson; and Yucca, located near Yuma. Several of the units at Yucca run on either gas or oil. APS has two oil-only power plants: Fairview, located in the town of Douglas, Arizona and Yucca GT-4 in Yuma, AZ. APS owns and operates each of these plants with the exception of one oil-only combustion turbine unit and one oil and gas steam unit at Yucca that are operated by APS and owned by the Imperial Irrigation District. APS has a total entitlement from these plants of 3,179 MW. Gas for these plants is financially hedged up to five years in advance of purchasing and the gas is generally purchased one month prior to delivery. APS has long-term gas transportation agreements with three different companies, some of which are effective through 2024. Fuel oil is acquired under short-term purchases delivered by truck directly to the power plants.
Ocotillo was originally a 330 MW 4-unit gas plant located in the metropolitan Phoenix area. In early 2014, APS announced a project to modernize the plant, which involves retiring two older 110 MW steam units, adding five 102 MW combustion turbines and maintaining two existing 55 MW combustion turbines. In total, this increases the capacity of the site by 290 MW to 620 MW. (See Note 3 for rate recovery as part of the ACC final written Opinion and Order issued reflecting its decision in APS’s general retail rate case (the "2017 Rate Case Decision")). On September 9, 2016, Maricopa County issued a final permit decision that authorizes construction of the Ocotillo modernization project and construction began in early 2017 with completion targeted by the middle of 2019.
APS developed utility scale solar resources through the 170 MW ACC-approved AZ Sun Program, investing approximately $675 million in this program. These facilities are owned by APS and are located in multiple locations throughout Arizona. In addition to the AZ Sun Program, APS developed the 40 MW Red Rock Solar Plant, which it owns and operates. Two of our large customers purchase renewable energy credits from APS that are equivalent to the amount of renewable energy that Red Rock is projected to generate.
APS owns and operates more than forty small solar systems around the state. Together they have the capacity to produce approximately 4 MW of renewable energy. This fleet of solar systems includes a 3 MW facility located at the Prescott Airport and 1 MW of small solar systems in various locations across Arizona. APS has also developed solar photovoltaic distributed energy systems installed as part of the Community Power Project in Flagstaff, Arizona. The Community Power Project, approved by the ACC on April 1, 2010, was a pilot program through which APS owns, operates and receives energy from approximately 1 MW of solar photovoltaic distributed energy systems located within a certain test area in Flagstaff, Arizona. The pilot program is now complete, and as part of the 2017 Rate Case Decision, the participants have been transferred to the Solar Partner Program described below. Additionally, APS owns 12 MW of solar photovoltaic systems installed across Arizona through the ACC-approved Schools and Government Program.
In December 2014, the ACC voted that it had no objection to APS implementing an APS-owned rooftop solar research and development program aimed at learning how to efficiently enable the integration of rooftop solar and battery storage with the grid. The first stage of the program, called the "Solar Partner Program," placed 8 MW of residential rooftop solar on strategically selected distribution feeders in an effort to maximize potential system benefits, as well as made systems available to limited-income customers who could not easily install solar through transactions with third parties. The second stage of the program, which included an additional 2 MW of rooftop solar and energy storage, placed two energy storage systems sized at 2 MW on two different high solar penetration feeders to test various grid-related operation improvements and system
interoperability, and was in operation by the end of 2016. The costs for this program have been included in APS's rate base as part of the 2017 Rate Case Decision.
In the 2017 Rate Case Decision, the ACC also approved the "APS Solar Communities" program. APS Solar Communities is a three-year program authorizing APS to spend $10 million - $15 million in capital costs each year to install utility-owned distributed generation systems on low to moderate income residential homes, buildings of non-profit entities, Title I schools and rural government facilities. The 2017 Rate Case Decision provided that all operations and maintenance expenses, property taxes, marketing and advertising expenses, and the capital carrying costs for this program will be recovered through the RES.
APS deploys a number of advanced technologies on its system, including energy storage. Storage can provide capacity, improve power quality, be utilized for system regulation, integrate renewable generation, and can be used to defer certain traditional infrastructure investments. Battery storage can also aid in integrating higher levels of renewables by storing excess energy when system demand is low and renewable production is high and then releasing the stored energy during peak demand hours later in the day and after sunset. APS is utilizing grid-scale battery storage projects to evaluate the potential benefits for customers and further our understanding of how storage works with other advanced technologies and the grid. We are preparing for additional battery storage in the future.
In early 2018, APS entered into a 15-year power purchase agreement for a 65 MW solar facility that charges a 50 MW solar-fueled battery. Service under this agreement is scheduled to begin in 2021. APS issued a request for proposal for approximately 106 MW of battery storage to be located at up to five of its AZ Sun sites. Based upon our evaluation of the RFP responses, APS has decided to expand the initial phase of battery deployment to 141 MW by adding a sixth AZ Sun site. In February 2019, we contracted for the 141 MW and anticipate such facilities could be in service by mid-2020. Additionally, in February 2019, APS signed two 20-year power purchase agreements for energy storage totaling 150 MW. Service under these agreements are scheduled to begin in 2021. We plan to install at least an additional 660 MW of APS-owned solar plus battery storage and stand-alone battery storage systems by the summer of 2025, with the first 260 MW being procured in 2019 (60 MW on additional AZ Sun sites and 100 MW of solar plus 100 MW of battery storage).
Purchased Power Contracts
In addition to its own available generating capacity, APS purchases electricity under various arrangements, including long-term contracts and purchases through short-term markets to supplement its owned or leased generation and hedge its energy requirements. A portion of APS’s purchased power expense is netted against wholesale sales on the Consolidated Statements of Income. (See Note 16.) APS continually assesses its need for additional capacity resources to assure system reliability. In addition, APS has also entered into several power purchase agreements for energy storage. (See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Energy Storage" above for details of our energy storage power purchase agreements.)
Purchased Power Capacity — APS’s purchased power capacity under long-term contracts as of December 31, 2018 is summarized in the table below. All capacity values are based on net capacity unless otherwise noted.
Purchase Agreement (a)
Year-round through June 14, 2020
Exchange Agreement (b)
May 15 to September 15 annually through February 2021
Summer seasons through October 2019
Demand Response Agreement (c)
Summer seasons through 2024
Summer seasons from Summer 2020 through Summer 2025
June 1 through September 30, 2020-2026
Renewable Energy (d)
Up to 60 MW of capacity is available; however, the amount of electricity available to APS under this agreement is based in large part on customer demand and is adjusted annually.
This is a seasonal capacity exchange agreement under which APS receives electricity during the summer peak season (from May 15 to September 15) and APS returns a like amount of electricity during the winter season (from October 15 to February 15).
The capacity under this agreement may be increased in 10 MW increments in years 2017 through 2024, up to a maximum of 50 MW.
Renewable energy purchased power agreements are described in detail below under “Current and Future Resources — Renewable Energy Standard — Renewable Energy Portfolio.”
In February 2019, APS entered into a power purchase agreement for 463 MW of summer seasonal capacity from May to October annually from 2021 through 2027.
Current and Future Resources
Current Demand and Reserve Margin
Electric power demand is generally seasonal. In Arizona, demand for power peaks during the hot summer months. APS’s 2018 peak one-hour demand on its electric system was recorded on July 24, 2018 at 7,320 MW, compared to the 2017 peak of 7,363 MW recorded on June 20, 2017. APS’s reserve margin at the time of the 2018 peak demand, calculated using system load serving capacity, was 18%. For 2019, due to expiring purchase contracts, APS is procuring market resources to maintain its minimum 15% planning reserve criteria.
Future Resources and Resource Plan
APS filed its preliminary 2017 Integrated Resource Plan ("IRP") on March 1, 2016 and an updated preliminary 2017 IRP on September 30, 2016. In March of 2018, the ACC reviewed the 2017 IRPs of its jurisdictional utilities and voted to not acknowledge any of the plans. APS does not believe that this lack of acknowledgment will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows. Based on an ACC decision, APS is required to file a Preliminary IRP by April 1, 2019 and its final IRP by April 1, 2020.
See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities" above for information regarding future plans for the Cholla Plant, Four Corners Plant, Navajo Plant and Ocotillo Plant. See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Purchased Power Contracts" above for information regarding future plans for purchased power contracts.
Energy Imbalance Market
In 2015, APS and the CAISO, the operator for the majority of California's transmission grid, signed an agreement for APS to begin participation in the Energy Imbalance Market (“EIM”). APS's participation in the EIM began on October 1, 2016. The EIM allows for rebalancing supply and demand in 15-minute blocks, with dispatching every five minutes before the energy is needed, instead of the traditional one hour blocks. APS continues to expect that its participation in EIM will lower its fuel costs, improve visibility and situational awareness for system operations in the Western Interconnection power grid, and improve integration of APS’s renewable resources.
Renewable Energy Standard
In 2006, the ACC adopted the RES. Under the RES, electric utilities that are regulated by the ACC must supply an increasing percentage of their retail electric energy sales from eligible renewable resources, including solar, wind, biomass, biogas and geothermal technologies. The renewable energy requirement is 9% of retail electric sales in 2019 and increases annually until it reaches 15% in 2025. In APS’s 2009 general retail rate case settlement agreement (the “2009 Settlement Agreement”), APS committed to use its best efforts to have 1,700 GWh of new renewable resources in service by year-end 2015 in addition to its RES renewable resource commitments. APS met its settlement commitment in 2015.
A component of the RES is focused on stimulating development of distributed energy systems. Accordingly, under the RES, an increasing percentage of that requirement must be supplied from distributed energy resources. This distributed energy requirement is 30% of the overall RES requirement of 9% in 2019. On June 29, 2018, APS filed its 2019 RES Implementation Plan and requested a permanent waiver of the residential distributed energy requirement for 2019. The following table summarizes the RES requirement standard (not including the additional commitment required by the 2009 Settlement Agreement) and its timing:
RES as a % of retail electric sales
Percent of RES to be supplied from distributed energy resources
On April 21, 2015, the RES rules were amended to require utilities to report on all eligible renewable resources in their service territory, irrespective of whether the utility owns renewable energy credits associated with such renewable energy. The rules allow the ACC to consider such information in determining whether APS has satisfied the requirements of the RES. See "Clean Resource Energy Standard and Tariff" in Note 3 for information regarding an additional renewable energy standards proposal.
Renewable Energy Portfolio. To date, APS has a diverse portfolio of existing and planned renewable resources totaling 1,806 MW, including solar, wind, geothermal, biomass and biogas. Of this portfolio, 1,717 MW are currently in operation and 89 MW are under contract for development or are under construction. Renewable resources in operation include 238 MW of facilities owned by APS, 629 MW of long-term purchased power agreements, and an estimated 817 MW of customer-sited, third-party owned distributed energy resources.
APS’s strategy to achieve its RES requirements includes executing purchased power contracts for new facilities, ongoing development of distributed energy resources and procurement of new facilities to be owned by APS. See "Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Solar Facilities" above for information regarding APS-owned solar facilities.
The following table summarizes APS’s renewable energy sources currently in operation and under development as of December 31, 2018. Agreements for the development and completion of future resources are subject to various conditions, including successful siting, permitting and interconnection of the projects to the electric grid.
AZ Sun Program:
Gila Bend, AZ
Gila Bend, AZ
Hyder Phase 1
Hyder Phase 2
Chino Valley, AZ
Gila Bend, AZ
Subtotal AZ Sun Program
Red Rock, AZ
APS Owned (a)
Total APS Owned
Purchased Power Agreements
Gila Bend, AZ
Sun E AZ 1
Maricopa County, AZ
Solar + Energy Storage:
Santa Rosa, NM
Perrin Ranch Wind
Imperial County, CA
NW Regional Landfill
Total Purchased Power Agreements
Total Distributed Energy
Total Renewable Portfolio
Includes Flagstaff Community Power Project, APS School and Government Program and APS Solar Partner Program.
Includes rooftop solar facilities owned by third parties. Distributed generation is produced in DC and is converted to AC for reporting purposes.
Demand Side Management
In December 2009, Arizona regulators placed an increased focus on energy efficiency and other demand side management programs to encourage customers to conserve energy, while incentivizing utilities to aid in these efforts that ultimately reduce the demand for energy. The ACC initiated its Energy Efficiency rulemaking, with a proposed EES of 22% cumulative annual energy savings by 2020. This standard was adopted and became effective on January 1, 2011. This standard will likely impact Arizona’s future energy resource needs. (See Note 3 for energy efficiency and other demand side management obligations).
Competitive Environment and Regulatory Oversight
The ACC regulates APS’s retail electric rates and its issuance of securities. The ACC must also approve any significant transfer or encumbrance of APS’s property used to provide retail electric service and approve or receive prior notification of certain transactions between Pinnacle West, APS and their respective affiliates. (See Note 3 for information regarding ACC's regulation of APS's retail electric rates.)
APS is subject to varying degrees of competition from other investor-owned electric and gas utilities in Arizona (such as Southwest Gas Corporation), as well as cooperatives, municipalities, electrical districts and similar types of governmental or non-profit organizations. In addition, some customers, particularly industrial and large commercial customers, may own and operate generation facilities to meet some or all of their own energy requirements. This practice is becoming more popular with customers installing or having installed products such as rooftop solar panels to meet or supplement their energy needs.
On May 9, 2013, the ACC voted to re-examine the facilitation of a deregulated retail electric market in Arizona. The ACC subsequently opened a docket for this matter and received comments from a number of interested parties on the considerations involved in establishing retail electric deregulation in the state. One of these considerations was whether various aspects of a deregulated market, including setting utility rates on a “market” basis, would be consistent with the requirements of the Arizona Constitution. On September 11, 2013, after receiving legal advice from the ACC staff, the ACC voted 4-1 to close the current docket and await full Arizona Constitutional authority before any further examination of this matter. The motion approved by the ACC also included opening one or more new dockets in the future to explore options to offer more rate choices to customers and innovative changes within the existing cost-of-service regulatory model that could include elements of competition. The ACC opened a docket on November 4, 2013 to explore technological advances and innovative changes within the electric utility industry. A series of workshops in this docket were held in 2014 and another in February of 2015.
On November 17, 2018, the ACC voted 5-0 to again re-examine retail competition. A Special Open Meeting Workshop was held on December 3, 2018. No substantive action was taken, but interested parties were asked to submit written comments and respond to a list of questions from ACC Staff. Those comments and responses are still being submitted. The ACC is planning at least one more workshop on the issue in 2019. APS cannot predict whether these efforts will result in any changes.
FERC regulates rates for wholesale power sales and transmission services. (See Note 3 for information regarding APS’s transmission rates.) During 2018, approximately 4.7% of APS’s electric operating revenues resulted from such sales and services. APS’s wholesale activity primarily consists of managing fuel and purchased power supplies to serve retail customer energy requirements. APS also sells, in the wholesale market, its generation output that is not needed for APS’s Native Load and, in doing so, competes with other utilities, power marketers and independent power producers. Additionally, subject to specified parameters, APS hedges both electricity and fuels. The majority of these activities are undertaken to mitigate risk in APS’s portfolio.
Subpoena from Arizona Corporation Commissioner Robert Burns
On August 25, 2016, Commissioner Burns, individually and not by action of the ACC as a whole, served subpoenas in APS’s then current retail rate proceeding on APS and Pinnacle West for the production of records and information relating to a range of expenditures from 2011 through 2016. The subpoenas requested information concerning marketing and advertising expenditures, charitable donations, lobbying expenses, contributions to 501(c)(3) and (c)(4) nonprofits and political contributions. The return date for the production of information was set as September 15, 2016. The subpoenas also sought testimony from Company personnel having knowledge of the material, including the Chief Executive Officer.
On September 9, 2016, APS filed with the ACC a motion to quash the subpoenas or, alternatively, to stay APS's obligations to comply with the subpoenas and decline to decide APS's motion pending court proceedings. Contemporaneously with the filing of this motion, APS and Pinnacle West filed a complaint for special action and declaratory judgment in the Superior Court of Arizona for Maricopa County, seeking a declaratory judgment that Commissioner Burns’ subpoenas are contrary to law. On September 15, 2016, APS produced all non-confidential and responsive documents and offered to produce any remaining responsive documents that are confidential after an appropriate confidentiality agreement is signed.
On February 7, 2017, Commissioner Burns opened a new ACC docket and indicated that its purpose is to study and rectify problems with transparency and disclosure regarding financial contributions from regulated monopolies or other stakeholders who may appear before the ACC that may directly or indirectly benefit an ACC Commissioner, a candidate for ACC Commissioner, or key ACC Staff. As part of this docket, Commissioner Burns set March 24, 2017 as a deadline for the production of all information previously requested through the subpoenas. Neither APS nor Pinnacle West produced the information requested and instead objected to the subpoena. On March 10, 2017, Commissioner Burns filed suit against APS and Pinnacle West in the Superior Court of Arizona for Maricopa County in an effort to enforce his subpoenas. On March 30, 2017, APS filed a motion to dismiss Commissioner Burns' suit against APS and Pinnacle West. In response to the motion to dismiss, the court stayed the suit and ordered Commissioner Burns to file a motion to compel the production of the information sought by the subpoenas with the ACC. On June 20, 2017, the ACC denied the motion to compel.
On August 4, 2017, Commissioner Burns amended his complaint to add all of the ACC Commissioners and the ACC itself as defendants. All defendants moved to dismiss the amended complaint. On February 15, 2018, the Superior Court dismissed Commissioner Burns’ amended complaint. On March 6, 2018, Commissioner Burns filed an objection to the proposed final order from the Superior Court and a motion to further amend his complaint. The Superior Court permitted Commissioner Burns to amend his complaint to add a claim regarding his attempted investigation into whether his fellow commissioners should have been disqualified from voting on APS’s 2017 rate case. Commissioner Burns filed his second amended complaint, and all defendants filed responses opposing the second amended complaint and requested that it be dismissed.
Oral argument occurred in November 2018 regarding the motion to dismiss. On December 18, 2018, the trial court granted the defendants’ motions to dismiss and entered final judgment on January 18, 2019. On February 13, 2019, Commissioner Burns filed a notice of appeal. APS and Pinnacle West cannot predict the outcome of this matter.
Legislative Initiatives. There have been no recent successful attempts by Congress to pass legislation that would regulate greenhouse gas ("GHG") emissions, and it is unclear at this time whether the 116th Congress will consider a climate change bill. In the event climate change legislation ultimately passes, the actual economic and operational impact of such legislation on APS depends on a variety of factors, none of which can be fully known until a law is written and enacted and the specifics of the resulting program are established. These factors include the terms of the legislation with regard to allowed GHG emissions; the cost to reduce emissions; in the event a cap-and-trade program is established, whether any permitted emissions allowances will be allocated to source operators free of cost or auctioned (and, if so, the cost of those allowances in the marketplace) and whether offsets and other measures to moderate the costs of compliance will be available; and, in the event of a carbon tax, the amount of the tax per pound of carbon dioxide (“CO2”) equivalent emitted.
In addition to federal legislative initiatives, state-specific initiatives may also impact our business. While Arizona has no pending legislation and no proposed agency rule regulating GHGs in Arizona at this time, the California legislature enacted AB 32 and SB 1368 in 2006 to address GHG emissions. In October 2011, the California Air Resources Board approved final regulations that established a state-wide cap on GHG emissions beginning on January 1, 2013 and established a GHG allowance trading program under that cap. The first phase of the program, which applies to, among other entities, importers of electricity, commenced on January 1, 2013. Under the program, entities selling electricity into California, including APS, must hold carbon allowances to cover GHG emissions associated with electricity sales into California from outside the state. APS is authorized to recover the cost of these carbon allowances through the PSA.
Regulatory Initiatives. In 2009, EPA determined that GHG emissions endanger public health and welfare. As a result of this “endangerment finding,” EPA determined that the Clean Air Act required new regulatory requirements for new and modified major GHG emitting sources, including power plants. APS will generally be required to consider the impact of GHG emissions as part of its traditional New Source Review ("NSR") analysis for new major sources and major modifications to existing plants.
On June 2, 2014, EPA issued two proposed rules to regulate GHG emissions from modified and reconstructed electric generating units ("EGUs") pursuant to Section 111(b) of the Clean Air Act and existing fossil fuel-fired power plants pursuant to Clean Air Act Section 111(d). On August 3, 2015, EPA finalized carbon pollution standards for EGUs, the "Clean Power Plan". On October 10, 2017, EPA issued a proposal to repeal the Clean Power Plan and proposed replacement regulations on August 21, 2018. In addition, judicial challenges to the Clean Power Plan are pending before the D.C. Circuit, though that litigation is currently in abeyance while EPA develops regulatory action to potentially repeal and replace that regulation.
EPA's pending proposal to regulate carbon emissions from EGUs replaces the Clean Power Plan with standards that are based entirely upon measures that can be implemented to improve the heat rate of steam-electric power plants, specifically coal-fired EGUs. In contrast with the Clean Power Plan, EPA's proposed "Affordable Clean Energy Rule" would not involve utility-level generation dispatch shifting away from coal-fired generation and toward renewable energy resources and natural gas-fired combined cycle power plants. In
addition, to address the NSR implications of power plant upgrades potentially necessary to achieve compliance with the proposed Affordable Clean Energy Rule standards, EPA also proposed to revise EPA's NSR regulations to more readily authorize the implementation of EGU efficiency upgrades.
We cannot predict the outcome of EPA's regulatory actions related to the August 2015 carbon pollution standards for EGU's, including any actions related to EPA's repeal proposal for the Clean Power Plan or additional rulemaking actions to approve the EPA's recently proposed Affordable Clean Energy Rule. In addition, we cannot predict whether the D.C. Circuit Court will continue to hold the litigation challenging the original Clean Power Plan in abeyance in light of EPA's repeal proposal, which is still pending.
Company Response to Climate Change Initiatives. We have undertaken a number of initiatives that address emission concerns, including renewable energy procurement and development, promotion of programs and rates that promote energy conservation, renewable energy use, and energy efficiency. (See “Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Current and Future Resources” above for details of these plans and initiatives.) APS currently has a diverse portfolio of renewable resources, including solar, wind, geothermal, biogas, and biomass.
APS prepares an annual inventory of GHG emissions from its operations. For APS's operations involving fossil-fuel electricity generation and electricity transmission and distribution, APS's annual GHG inventory is reported to EPA under the EPA GHG Reporting Program. APS also voluntarily tracks and reports the full-scope of the Company's GHG emissions arising from all APS operations. In addition to GHG emissions from generation and transmission and distribution operations, this data includes all other GHG emissions arising from ancillary Company operations, such as vehicle use, employee travel, portable generators and facility energy usage. This data is then voluntarily communicated to the public in Pinnacle West’s annual Corporate Responsibility Report, which is available on our website (www.pinnaclewest.com). The report provides information related to the Company and its approach to sustainability and its workplace and environmental performance. The information on Pinnacle West’s website, including the Corporate Responsibility Report, is not incorporated by reference into or otherwise a part of this report.
EPA Environmental Regulation
Regional Haze Rules. In 1999, EPA announced regional haze rules to reduce visibility impairment in national parks and wilderness areas. The rules require states (or, for sources located on tribal land, EPA) to determine what pollution control technologies constitute the BART for certain older major stationary sources, including fossil-fired power plants. EPA subsequently issued the Clean Air Visibility Rule, which provides guidelines on how to perform a BART analysis.
Cholla. APS believed that EPA’s original 2012 final rule establishing controls constituting BART for Cholla, which would require installation of selective catalytic reduction ("SCR") controls, was unsupported and that EPA had no basis for disapproving Arizona’s State Implementation Plan ("SIP") and promulgating a Federal Implementation Plan ("FIP") that was inconsistent with the state’s considered BART determinations under the regional haze program. In September 2014, APS met with EPA to propose a compromise BART strategy, whereby APS would permanently close Cholla Unit 2 and cease burning coal at Units 1 and 3 by the mid-2020s. (See Note 3 for details related to the resulting regulatory asset.) APS made the proposal with the understanding that additional emission control equipment is unlikely to be required in the future because retiring and/or converting the units as contemplated in the proposal is more cost effective than, and will result in increased visibility improvement over, the BART requirements for oxides of nitrogen ("NOx") imposed through EPA's BART FIP. In early 2017, EPA approved a final rule incorporating APS's compromise proposal, which took effect for Cholla on April 26, 2017.
Four Corners. Based on EPA’s final standards, APS's 63% share of the cost of required BART controls for Four Corners Units 4 and 5 is approximately $400 million, the majority of which has already been incurred. (See Note 3 for information regarding the related rate recovery.) In addition, APS and El Paso entered into an asset purchase agreement providing for the purchase by APS, or an affiliate of APS, of El Paso's 7% interest in Four Corners Units 4 and 5. 4CA purchased the El Paso interest on July 6, 2016. NTEC purchased the interest from 4CA on July 3, 2018. (See "Four Corners Coal Supply Agreement - 4CA Matter" in Note 10 for a discussion of the NTEC purchase.) The cost of the pollution controls related to the 7% interest is approximately $45 million, which was assumed by NTEC through its purchase of the 7% interest.
Navajo Plant. APS estimates that its share of costs for upgrades at the Navajo Plant, based on EPA’s FIP, could be up to approximately $200 million; however, given the future plans for the Navajo Plant, we do not expect to incur these costs. See "Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities - Navajo Generating Station" above and "Navajo Plant" in Note 3 for information regarding future plans for the Navajo Plant.
Coal Combustion Waste. On December 19, 2014, EPA issued its final regulations governing the handling and disposal of CCR, such as fly ash and bottom ash. The rule regulates CCR as a non-hazardous waste under Subtitle D of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ("RCRA") and establishes national minimum criteria for existing and new CCR landfills and surface impoundments and all lateral expansions consisting of location restrictions, design and operating criteria, groundwater monitoring and corrective action, closure requirements and post closure care, and recordkeeping, notification, and internet posting requirements. The rule generally requires any existing unlined CCR surface impoundment that is contaminating groundwater above a regulated constituent’s groundwater protection standard to stop receiving CCR and either retrofit or close, and further requires the closure of any CCR landfill or surface impoundment that cannot meet the applicable performance criteria for location restrictions or structural integrity. Such closure requirements are deemed "forced closure" or "closure for cause" of unlined surface impoundments, and are the subject of recent regulatory and judicial activities described below.
On December 16, 2016, President Obama signed the Water Infrastructure Improvements for the Nation ("WIIN") Act into law, which contains a number of provisions requiring EPA to modify the self-implementing provisions of the Agency's current CCR rules under Subtitle D. Such modifications include new EPA authority to directly enforce the CCR rules through the use of administrative orders and providing states, like Arizona, where the Cholla facility is located, the option of developing CCR disposal unit permitting programs, subject to EPA approval. For facilities in states that do not develop state-specific permitting programs, EPA is required to develop a federal permit program, pending the availability of congressional appropriations. By contrast, for facilities located within the boundaries of Native American tribal reservations, such as the Navajo Nation, where the Navajo Plant and Four Corners facilities are located, EPA is required to develop a federal permit program regardless of appropriated funds.
ADEQ has initiated a process to evaluate how to develop a state CCR permitting program that would cover EGUs, including Cholla. While APS has been working with ADEQ on the development of this program, we are unable to predict when Arizona will be able to finalize and secure EPA approval for a state-specific CCR permitting program. With respect to the Navajo Nation, APS has sought clarification as to when and how EPA would be initiating permit proceedings for facilities on the reservation, including Four Corners. We are unable to predict at this time when EPA will be issuing CCR management permits for the facilities on the Navajo Nation. At this time, it remains unclear how the CCR provisions of the WIIN Act will affect APS and its management of CCR.
Based upon utility industry petitions for EPA to reconsider the RCRA Subtitle D regulations for CCR, which were premised in part on the CCR provisions of the 2016 WIIN Act, on September 13, 2017, EPA
agreed to evaluate whether to revise these federal CCR regulations. On July 17, 2018, EPA finalized a revision to its RCRA Subtitle D regulations for CCR, the "Phase I, Part I" revision to its CCR regulations, deferring for future action a number of other proposed changes contemplated in a March 1, 2018 proposal. For the final rule issued on July 17, 2018, EPA established nationwide health-based standards for certain constituents of CCR subject to groundwater corrective action, and delayed the closure deadlines for certain unlined CCR surface impoundments by 18 months (for example, those disposal units required to undergo forced closure). These changes to the federal regulations governing CCR disposal are unlikely to have a material impact on APS. As for those aspects of the March 2018 rulemaking proposal for which EPA has yet to take final action, it remains unclear which specific provisions of the federal CCR rules will ultimately be modified, how they will be modified, or when such modification will occur.
Pursuant to a June 24, 2016 order by the D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals in the litigation by industry- and environmental-groups challenging EPA’s CCR regulations, EPA is required to complete a rulemaking proceeding in the near future concerning whether or not boron must be included on the list of groundwater constituents that might trigger corrective action under EPA’s CCR rules. Simultaneously with the issuance of EPA's proposed modifications to the federal CCR rules in response to industry petitions, on March 1, 2018, EPA issued a proposed rule seeking comment as to whether or not boron should be included on this list. EPA is not required to take final action approving the inclusion of boron. Should EPA take final action adding boron to the list of groundwater constituents that might trigger corrective action, any resulting corrective action measures may increase APS's costs of compliance with the CCR rule at our coal-fired generating facilities. At this time APS cannot predict the eventual results of this rulemaking proceeding concerning boron.
On August 21, 2018, the D.C. Circuit Court issued its decision on the merits in this litigation. The Court upheld the legality of EPA’s CCR regulations, though it vacated and remanded back to EPA a number of specific provisions, which are to be corrected in accordance with the Court’s order. Among the issues affecting APS’s management of CCR, the D.C. Circuit’s decision vacated and remanded those provisions of the EPA CCR regulations that allow for the operation of unlined CCR surface impoundments, even where those unlined impoundments have not otherwise violated a regulatory location restriction or groundwater protection standard (i.e., otherwise triggering forced closure). At this time, it remains unclear how this D.C. Circuit Court decision will affect APS’s operations or financial results, as EPA has yet to take regulatory action on remand to revise its 2015 CCR regulations consistent with the Court’s order.
Based on this decision, on December 17, 2018, certain environmental groups filed an emergency motion with the D.C. Circuit to either stay or summarily vacate EPA's July 17, 2018 final rule extending the closure-initiation deadline for certain unlined CCR surface impoundments until October 2020. In response, EPA filed a motion to remand but not vacate that deadline extension regulation. We cannot predict the outcome of the D.C. Circuit's consideration of these dueling motions, and whether or how such a ruling would affect APS's operations or financial results.
APS currently disposes of CCR in ash ponds and dry storage areas at Cholla and Four Corners. APS estimates that its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for Four Corners is approximately $22 million and its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for Cholla is approximately $20 million. The Navajo Plant currently disposes of CCR in a dry landfill storage area. APS estimates that its share of incremental costs to comply with the CCR rule for the Navajo Plant is approximately $1 million. Additionally, the CCR rule requires ongoing, phased groundwater monitoring. By October 17, 2017, electric utility companies that own or operate CCR disposal units, such as APS, must have collected sufficient groundwater sampling data to initiate a detection monitoring program. To the extent that certain threshold constituents are identified through this initial detection monitoring at levels above the CCR rule’s standards, the rule required the initiation of an assessment monitoring program by April 15, 2018.
APS recently completed the statistical analyses for its CCR disposal units that triggered assessment monitoring. APS determined that several of its CCR disposal units at Cholla and Four Corners will need to undergo corrective action. In addition, all such units must cease operating and initiate closure by October of 2020. APS currently estimates that the additional incremental costs to complete this corrective action and closure work, along with the costs to develop replacement CCR disposal capacity, could be approximately $5 million for both Cholla and Four Corners. APS initiated an assessment of corrective measures on January 14, 2019, and anticipates completing this assessment during the summer of 2019. During this assessment, APS will gather additional groundwater data, solicit input from the public, host public hearings, and select remedies. As such, this $5 million cost estimate may change based upon APS’s performance of the CCR rule’s corrective action assessment process. Given uncertainties that may exist until we have fully completed the corrective action assessment process, we cannot predict any ultimate impacts to the Company; however, at this time we do not believe any potential change to the cost estimate would have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Effluent Limitation Guidelines. On September 30, 2015, EPA finalized revised effluent limitation guidelines establishing technology-based wastewater discharge limitations for fossil-fired EGUs. EPA’s final regulation targets metals and other pollutants in wastewater streams originating from fly ash and bottom ash handling activities, scrubber activities, and coal ash disposal leachate. Based upon an earlier set of preferred alternatives, the final effluent limitations generally require chemical precipitation and biological treatment for flue gas desulfurization scrubber wastewater, “zero discharge” from fly ash and bottom ash handling, and impoundment for coal ash disposal leachate.
On August 11, 2017, EPA announced that it would be initiating rulemaking proceedings to potentially revise the September 2015 effluent limitation guidelines. On September 18, 2017, EPA finalized a regulation postponing the earliest date on which compliance with the effluent limitation guidelines for these waste-streams would be required from November 1, 2018 until November 1, 2020. Until EPA issues a proposal describing how it intends to change the effluent limitation guidelines for bottom ash transport water and flue gas desulfurization wastewater, it is unclear how EPA’s reconsideration process will affect how the Four Corners plant manages these waste-streams. We expect that compliance with these limitations will be required in connection with National Pollution Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") discharge permit renewals. APS anticipates that, in connection with EPA's current reconsideration of the NPDES permit for Four Corners (see "Four Corners National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit" below), EPA will propose a compliance deadline for the effluent limitation guidelines governing bottom ash transport water during March of 2019. Until EPA proposes a new NPDES permit reissuance for Four Corners, it is unclear what date EPA will assign as a compliance deadline for Four Corners. Cholla and the Navajo Plant do not require NPDES permitting.
Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. On October 1, 2015, EPA finalized revisions to the primary ground-level ozone national ambient air quality standards (“NAAQS”) at a level of 70 parts per billion (“ppb”). With ozone standards becoming more stringent, our fossil generation units will come under increasing pressure to reduce emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds, and to generate emission offsets for new projects or facility expansions located in ozone nonattainment areas. EPA was expected to designate attainment and nonattainment areas relative to the new 70 ppb standard by October 1, 2017. While EPA took action designating attainment and unclassifiable areas on November 6, 2017, the Agency's final action designating non-attainment areas was not issued until April 30, 2018. At that time, EPA designated the geographic areas containing Yuma and Phoenix, Arizona as in non-attainment with the 2015 70 ppb ozone NAAQS. The vast majority of APS's natural gas-fired EGUs are located in these jurisdictions. Areas of Arizona and the Navajo Nation where the remainder of APS's fossil-fuel fired EGU fleet is located were designated as in attainment. We anticipate that revisions to the SIPs and FIPs implementing required controls to achieve the new 70 ppb standard will be in place between 2020 and 2021. At this time, because proposed SIPs and FIPs
implementing the revised ozone NAAQSs have yet to be released, APS is unable to predict what impact the adoption of these standards may have on the Company. APS will continue to monitor these standards as they are implemented within the jurisdictions affecting APS.
Superfund-Related Matters. The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act ("CERCLA" or "Superfund") establishes liability for the cleanup of hazardous substances found contaminating the soil, water or air. Those who released, generated, transported to, or disposed of hazardous substances at a contaminated site are among the parties who are potentially responsible ("PRPs"). PRPs may be strictly, and often are jointly and severally, liable for clean-up. On September 3, 2003, EPA advised APS that EPA considers APS to be a PRP in the Motorola 52nd Street Superfund Site, Operable Unit 3 ("OU3") in Phoenix, Arizona. APS has facilities that are within this Superfund site. APS and Pinnacle West have agreed with EPA to perform certain investigative activities of the APS facilities within OU3. In addition, on September 23, 2009, APS agreed with EPA and one other PRP to voluntarily assist with the funding and management of the site-wide groundwater remedial investigation and feasibility study ("RI/FS") for OU3. Based upon discussions between the OU3 working group parties and EPA, along with the results of recent technical analyses prepared by the OU3 working group to supplement the RI/FS, APS anticipates finalizing the RI/FS in the summer or fall of 2019. We estimate that our costs related to this investigation and study will be approximately $2 million. We anticipate incurring additional expenditures in the future, but because the overall investigation is not complete and ultimate remediation requirements are not yet finalized, at the present time expenditures related to this matter cannot be reasonably estimated.
On August 6, 2013, the Roosevelt Irrigation District ("RID") filed a lawsuit in Arizona District Court against APS and 24 other defendants, alleging that RID’s groundwater wells were contaminated by the release of hazardous substances from facilities owned or operated by the defendants. The lawsuit also alleges that, under Superfund laws, the defendants are jointly and severally liable to RID. The allegations against APS arise out of APS’s current and former ownership of facilities in and around OU3. As part of a state governmental investigation into groundwater contamination in this area, on January 25, 2015, ADEQ sent a letter to APS seeking information concerning the degree to which, if any, APS’s current and former ownership of these facilities may have contributed to groundwater contamination in this area. APS responded to ADEQ on May 4, 2015. On December 16, 2016, two RID environmental and engineering contractors filed an ancillary lawsuit for recovery of costs against APS and the other defendants in the RID litigation. That same day, another RID service provider filed an additional ancillary CERCLA lawsuit against certain of the defendants in the main RID litigation, but excluded APS and certain other parties as named defendants. Because the ancillary lawsuits concern past costs allegedly incurred by these RID vendors, which were ruled unrecoverable directly by RID in November of 2016, the additional lawsuits do not increase APS's exposure or risk related to these matters.
On April 5, 2018, RID and the defendants in that particular litigation executed a settlement agreement, fully resolving RID's CERCLA claims concerning both past and future cost recovery. APS's share of this settlement was immaterial. In addition, the two environmental and engineering vendors voluntarily dismissed their lawsuit against APS and the other named defendants without prejudice. An order to this effect was entered on April 17, 2018. With this disposition of the case, the vendors may file their lawsuit again in the future. In addition, APS and certain other parties not named in the remaining RID service provider lawsuit may be brought into the litigation via third-party complaints filed by the current direct defendants. We are unable to predict the outcome of these matters; however, we do not expect the outcome to have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Manufactured Gas Plant Sites. Certain properties which APS now owns or which were previously owned by it or its corporate predecessors were at one time sites of, or sites associated with, manufactured gas plants. APS is taking action to voluntarily remediate these sites. APS does not expect these matters to have a material adverse effect on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Federal Agency Environmental Lawsuit Related to Four Corners
On April 20, 2016, several environmental groups filed a lawsuit against OSM and other federal agencies in the District of Arizona in connection with their issuance of the approvals that extended the life of Four Corners and the adjacent mine. The lawsuit alleges that these federal agencies violated both ESA and NEPA in providing the federal approvals necessary to extend operations at the Four Corners Power Plant and the adjacent Navajo Mine past July 6, 2016. APS filed a motion to intervene in the proceedings, which was granted on August 3, 2016.
On September 15, 2016, NTEC, the company that owns the adjacent mine, filed a motion to intervene for the purpose of dismissing the lawsuit based on NTEC's tribal sovereign immunity. On September 11, 2017, the Arizona District Court issued an order granting NTEC's motion, dismissing the litigation with prejudice, and terminating the proceedings. On November 9, 2017, the environmental group plaintiffs appealed the district court order dismissing their lawsuit. Oral arguments in this appeal will be heard in March 2019. We cannot predict whether this appeal will be successful and, if it is successful, the outcome of further district court proceedings.
Four Corners National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System ("NPDES") Permit
On July 16, 2018, several environmental groups filed a petition for review before the EPA Environmental Appeals Board ("EAB") concerning the NPDES wastewater discharge permit for Four Corners, which was reissued on June 12, 2018. The environmental groups allege that the permit was reissued in contravention of several requirements under the Clean Water Act and did not contain required provisions concerning EPA’s 2015 revised effluent limitation guidelines for steam-electric EGUs, 2014 existing-source regulations governing cooling-water intake structures, and effluent limits for surface seepage and subsurface discharges from coal-ash disposal facilities. To address certain of these issues through a reconsidered permit, EPA took action on December 19, 2018 to withdraw the NPDES permit reissued in June 2018. Withdrawal of the permit moots the EAB appeal, and EPA filed a motion to dismiss on that basis. EPA indicated that it anticipates proposing a replacement NPDES permit by March 2019 and, depending on the extent of public comments concerning that proposal, taking final action on a new NPDES permit by June 2019. At this time, we cannot predict the outcome of EPA's reconsideration of the NPDES permit and whether reconsideration will have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
Navajo Nation Environmental Issues
Four Corners and the Navajo Plant are located on the Navajo Reservation and are held under rights of way granted by the federal government, as well as leases from the Navajo Nation. See “Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generation Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities” above for additional information regarding these plants.
In July 1995, the Navajo Nation enacted the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, the Navajo Nation Safe Drinking Water Act, and the Navajo Nation Pesticide Act (collectively, the “Navajo Acts”). The Navajo Acts purport to give the Navajo Nation Environmental Protection Agency authority to promulgate regulations covering air quality, drinking water, and pesticide activities, including those activities that occur at Four Corners and the Navajo Plant. On October 17, 1995, the Four Corners participants and the Navajo Plant participants each filed a lawsuit in the District Court of the Navajo Nation, Window Rock District, challenging the applicability of the Navajo Acts as to Four Corners and the Navajo Plant. The Court has stayed these proceedings pursuant to a request by the parties, and the parties are seeking to negotiate a settlement.
In April 2000, the Navajo Nation Council approved operating permit regulations under the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. APS believes the Navajo Nation exceeded its authority when it adopted the operating permit regulations. On July 12, 2000, the Four Corners participants and the Navajo Plant participants each filed a petition with the Navajo Supreme Court for review of these regulations. Those proceedings have been stayed, pending the settlement negotiations mentioned above. APS cannot currently predict the outcome of this matter.
On May 18, 2005, APS, SRP, as the operating agent for the Navajo Plant, and the Navajo Nation executed a Voluntary Compliance Agreement to resolve their disputes regarding the Navajo Nation Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act. As a result of this agreement, APS sought, and the courts granted, dismissal of the pending litigation in the Navajo Nation Supreme Court and the Navajo Nation District Court, to the extent the claims relate to the Clean Air Act. The agreement does not address or resolve any dispute relating to other Navajo Acts. APS cannot currently predict the outcome of this matter.
Assured supplies of water are important for APS’s generating plants. At the present time, APS has adequate water to meet its operating needs. The Four Corners region, in which Four Corners is located, has historically experienced drought conditions that may affect the water supply for the plants if adequate moisture is not received in the watershed that supplies the area. However, during the past 12 months the region has received snowfall and precipitation sufficient to recover the Navajo Reservoir to an optimum operating level, reducing the probability of shortage in future years. Although the watershed and reservoirs are in a good condition at this time, APS is continuing to work with area stakeholders to implement agreements to minimize the effect, if any, on future drought conditions that could have an impact on operations of its plants.
Conflicting claims to limited amounts of water in the southwestern United States have resulted in numerous court actions, which, in addition to future supply conditions, have the potential to impact APS’s operations.
San Juan River Adjudication. Both groundwater and surface water in areas important to APS’s operations have been the subject of inquiries, claims, and legal proceedings, which will require a number of years to resolve. APS is one of a number of parties in a proceeding, filed March 13, 1975, before the Eleventh Judicial District Court in New Mexico to adjudicate rights to a stream system from which water for Four Corners is derived. An agreement reached with the Navajo Nation in 1985, however, provides that if Four Corners loses a portion of its rights in the adjudication, the Navajo Nation will provide, for an agreed upon cost, sufficient water from its allocation to offset the loss. In addition, APS is a party to a water contract that allows the company to secure water for Four Corners in the event of a water shortage and is a party to a shortage sharing agreement, which provides for the apportionment of water supplies to Four Corners in the event of a water shortage in the San Juan River Basin.
Gila River Adjudication. A summons served on APS in early 1986 required all water claimants in the Lower Gila River Watershed in Arizona to assert any claims to water on or before January 20, 1987, in an action pending in Arizona Superior Court. Palo Verde is located within the geographic area subject to the summons. APS’s rights and the rights of the other Palo Verde participants to the use of groundwater and effluent at Palo Verde are potentially at issue in this adjudication. As operating agent of Palo Verde, APS filed claims that dispute the court’s jurisdiction over the Palo Verde participants’ groundwater rights and their contractual rights to effluent relating to Palo Verde. Alternatively, APS seeks confirmation of such rights. Several of APS’s other power plants are also located within the geographic area subject to the summons, including a number of gas-fired power plants located within Maricopa and Pinal Counties. In November 1999,
the Arizona Supreme Court issued a decision confirming that certain groundwater rights may be available to the federal government and Indian tribes. In addition, in September 2000, the Arizona Supreme Court issued a decision affirming the lower court’s criteria for resolving groundwater claims. Litigation on both of these issues has continued in the trial court. In December 2005, APS and other parties filed a petition with the Arizona Supreme Court requesting interlocutory review of a September 2005 trial court order regarding procedures for determining whether groundwater pumping is affecting surface water rights. The Arizona Supreme Court denied the petition in May 2007, and the trial court is now proceeding with implementation of its 2005 order. No trial date concerning APS’s water rights claims has been set in this matter.
At this time, the lower court proceedings in the Gila River adjudication are in the process of determining the specific hydro-geologic testing protocols for determining which groundwater wells located outside of the subflow zone of the Gila River should be subject to the adjudication court’s jurisdiction. A hearing to determine this jurisdictional test question was held in March of 2018 in front of a special master, and a draft decision based on the evidence heard during that hearing was issued on May 17, 2018. The decision of the special master, which was finalized on November 14, 2018, but which is subject to further review by the trial court judge, accepts the proposed hydro-geologic testing protocols supported by APS and other industrial users of groundwater. Upon a final decision by the trial court judge in this matter, further proceedings thereafter will be dedicated to determining the specific hydro-geologic testing protocols for subflow depletion determinations. The determinations made in this final stage of the proceedings will ultimately govern the adjudication of rights for parties, such as APS, that rely on groundwater extraction to support their industrial operations. At this time, APS cannot predict the outcome of these proceedings.
Little Colorado River Adjudication. APS has filed claims to water in the Little Colorado River Watershed in Arizona in an action pending in the Apache County, Arizona, Superior Court, which was originally filed on September 5, 1985. APS’s groundwater resource utilized at Cholla is within the geographic area subject to the adjudication and, therefore, is potentially at issue in the case. APS’s claims dispute the court’s jurisdiction over its groundwater rights. Alternatively, APS seeks confirmation of such rights. Other claims have been identified as ready for litigation in motions filed with the court. On December 20, 2018, the court issued a case management order governing future proceedings in the adjudication, whereby discovery is currently scheduled to close in December 2019 and a trial will be held in June 2020.
Although the above matters remain subject to further evaluation, APS does not expect that the described litigation will have a material adverse impact on its financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
BUSINESS OF OTHER SUBSIDIARIES
Bright Canyon Energy
On July 31, 2014, Pinnacle West announced its creation of a wholly-owned subsidiary, BCE. BCE's focus is on new growth opportunities that leverage the Company’s core expertise in the electric energy industry. BCE’s first initiative is a 50/50 joint venture with BHE U.S. Transmission LLC, a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Energy Company. The joint venture, named TransCanyon, is pursuing independent transmission opportunities within the eleven states that comprise the Western Electricity Coordinating Council, excluding opportunities related to transmission service that would otherwise be provided under the tariffs of the retail service territories of the venture partners’ utility affiliates. TransCanyon continues to pursue transmission development opportunities in the western United States consistent with its strategy.
On March 29, 2016, TransCanyon entered into a strategic alliance agreement with Pacific Gas and Electric Company ("PG&E") to jointly pursue competitive transmission opportunities solicited by the CAISO,
the operator for the majority of California's transmission grid. TransCanyon and PG&E intend to jointly engage in the development of future transmission infrastructure and compete to develop, build, own and operate transmission projects approved by the CAISO.
El Dorado owns minority interests in several energy-related investments and Arizona community-based ventures. El Dorado’s short-term goal is to prudently realize the value of its existing investments. As of December 31, 2018, El Dorado had total assets of approximately $8 million. El Dorado is not expected to contribute in any material way to our future financial performance, nor will it require any material amounts of capital over the next three years.
As of December 31, 2018, 4CA had total assets of approximately $72 million, primarily consisting of a note receivable from NTEC. See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Generating Facilities - Coal-Fueled Generating Facilities - Four Corners" above for information regarding 4CA and the note receivable from NTEC.
Pinnacle West has received grand jury subpoenas issued in connection with an investigation by the office of the United States Attorney for the District of Arizona. The subpoenas seek information principally pertaining to the 2014 statewide election races in Arizona for Secretary of State and for positions on the ACC. The subpoenas request records involving certain Pinnacle West officers and employees, including the Company’s Chief Executive Officer, as well as communications between Pinnacle West personnel and a former ACC Commissioner. Pinnacle West is cooperating fully with the United States Attorney’s office in this matter.
Pinnacle West, APS and El Dorado are all incorporated in the State of Arizona. BCE and 4CA are incorporated in Delaware. Additional information for each of these companies is provided below:
Principal Executive Office
December 31, 2018
400 North Fifth Street
Phoenix, AZ 85004
400 North Fifth Street
P.O. Box 53999
Phoenix, AZ 85072-3999
400 East Van Buren
Phoenix, AZ 85004
400 East Van Buren
Phoenix, AZ 85004
400 North Fifth Street
Phoenix, AZ 85004
The APS number includes employees at jointly-owned generating facilities (approximately 2,526 employees) for which APS serves as the generating facility manager. Approximately 1,330 APS employees are union employees, represented by the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers ("IBEW"). In January 2018, the Company concluded negotiations with the IBEW and approved a two-year extension of the contract set to expire on April 1, 2018. Under the extension, union members received wage increases for 2018 and 2019; there were no other changes. The current contract expires on April 1, 2020.
WHERE TO FIND MORE INFORMATION
We use our website (www.pinnaclewest.com) as a channel of distribution for material Company information. The following filings are available free of charge on our website as soon as reasonably practicable after they are electronically filed with, or furnished to, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”): Annual Reports on Form 10-K, definitive proxy statements for our annual shareholder meetings, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and all amendments to those reports. The SEC maintains a website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, such as the Company, that file electronically with the SEC. The address of that website is www.sec.gov. Our board and committee charters, Code of Ethics for Financial Executives, Code of Ethics and Business Practices and other corporate governance information is also available on the Pinnacle West website. Pinnacle West will post any amendments to the Code of Ethics for Financial Executives and Code of Ethics and Business Practices, and any waivers that are required to be disclosed by the rules of either the SEC or the New York Stock Exchange, on its website. The information on Pinnacle West’s website is not incorporated by reference into this report.
You can request a copy of these documents, excluding exhibits, by contacting Pinnacle West at the following address: Pinnacle West Capital Corporation, Office of the Corporate Secretary, Mail Station 8602, P.O. Box 53999, Phoenix, Arizona 85072-3999 (telephone 602-250-4400).
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
In addition to the factors affecting specific business operations identified in the description of these operations contained elsewhere in this report, set forth below are risks and uncertainties that could affect our financial results. Unless otherwise indicated or the context otherwise requires, the following risks and uncertainties apply to Pinnacle West and its subsidiaries, including APS.
Our financial condition depends upon APS’s ability to recover costs in a timely manner from customers through regulated rates and otherwise execute its business strategy.
APS is subject to comprehensive regulation by several federal, state and local regulatory agencies that significantly influence its business, liquidity and results of operations and its ability to fully recover costs from utility customers in a timely manner. The ACC regulates APS’s retail electric rates and FERC regulates rates for wholesale power sales and transmission services. The profitability of APS is affected by the rates it may charge and the timeliness of recovering costs incurred through its rates. Consequently, our financial condition and results of operations are dependent upon the satisfactory resolution of any APS rate proceedings and ancillary matters which may come before the ACC and FERC, including in some cases how court challenges to these regulatory decisions are resolved. Arizona, like certain other states, has a statute that allows the ACC to reopen prior decisions and modify otherwise final orders under certain circumstances.
The ACC must also approve APS’s issuance of securities and any significant transfer or encumbrance of APS property used to provide retail electric service, and must approve or receive prior notification of certain transactions between us, APS and our respective affiliates. Decisions made by the ACC or FERC could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
APS’s ability to conduct its business operations and avoid fines and penalties depends upon compliance with federal, state and local statutes, regulations and ACC requirements, and obtaining and maintaining certain regulatory permits, approvals and certificates.
APS must comply in good faith with all applicable statutes, regulations, rules, tariffs, and orders of agencies that regulate APS’s business, including FERC, NRC, EPA, the ACC, and state and local governmental agencies. These agencies regulate many aspects of APS’s utility operations, including safety and performance, emissions, siting and construction of facilities, customer service and the rates that APS can charge retail and wholesale customers. Failure to comply can subject APS to, among other things, fines and penalties. For example, under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, FERC can impose penalties (approximately $1.2 million dollars per day per violation) for failure to comply with mandatory electric reliability standards. APS is also required to have numerous permits, approvals and certificates from these agencies. APS believes the necessary permits, approvals and certificates have been obtained for its existing operations and that APS’s business is conducted in accordance with applicable laws in all material respects. However, changes in regulations or the imposition of new or revised laws or regulations could have an adverse impact on our results of operations. We are also unable to predict the impact on our business and operating results from pending or future regulatory activities of any of these agencies.
The operation of APS’s nuclear power plant exposes it to substantial regulatory oversight and potentially significant liabilities and capital expenditures.
The NRC has broad authority under federal law to impose safety-related, security-related and other licensing requirements for the operation of nuclear generating facilities. Events at nuclear facilities of other operators or impacting the industry generally may lead the NRC to impose additional requirements and regulations on all nuclear generating facilities, including Palo Verde. In the event of noncompliance with its requirements, the NRC has the authority to impose a progressively increased inspection regime that could ultimately result in the shut-down of a unit or civil penalties, or both, depending upon the NRC’s assessment of the severity of the situation, until compliance is achieved. The increased costs resulting from penalties, a heightened level of scrutiny and implementation of plans to achieve compliance with NRC requirements may adversely affect APS’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
APS is subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations, and changes in, or liabilities under, existing or new laws or regulations may increase APS’s cost of operations or impact its business plans.
APS is, or may become, subject to numerous environmental laws and regulations affecting many aspects of its present and future operations, including air emissions of conventional pollutants and greenhouse gases, water quality, discharges of wastewater and waste streams originating from fly ash and bottom ash handling facilities, solid waste, hazardous waste, and coal combustion products, which consist of bottom ash, fly ash, and air pollution control wastes. These laws and regulations can result in increased capital, operating, and other costs, particularly with regard to enforcement efforts focused on power plant emissions obligations. These laws and regulations generally require APS to obtain and comply with a wide variety of environmental licenses, permits, and other approvals. If there is a delay or failure to obtain any required environmental regulatory approval, or if APS fails to obtain, maintain, or comply with any such approval, operations at affected facilities could be suspended or subject to additional expenses. In addition, failure to comply with applicable environmental laws and regulations could result in civil liability as a result of government
enforcement actions or private claims or criminal penalties. Both public officials and private individuals may seek to enforce applicable environmental laws and regulations. APS cannot predict the outcome (financial or operational) of any related litigation that may arise.
Environmental Clean Up. APS has been named as a PRP for a Superfund site in Phoenix, Arizona, and it could be named a PRP in the future for other environmental clean-up at sites identified by a regulatory body. APS cannot predict with certainty the amount and timing of all future expenditures related to environmental matters because of the difficulty of estimating clean-up costs. There is also uncertainty in quantifying liabilities under environmental laws that impose joint and several liability on all PRPs.
Coal Ash. In December 2014, EPA issued final regulations governing the handling and disposal of CCR, which are generated as a result of burning coal and consist of, among other things, fly ash and bottom ash. The rule regulates CCR as a non-hazardous waste. APS currently disposes of CCR in ash ponds and dry storage areas at Cholla and Four Corners and in a dry landfill storage area at the Navajo Plant. To the extent the rule requires the closure or modification of these CCR units or the construction of new CCR units beyond what we currently anticipate, APS would incur significant additional costs for CCR disposal. In addition, the rule may also require corrective action to address releases from CCR disposal units or the presence of CCR constituents within groundwater near CCR disposal units above certain regulatory thresholds.
Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In 2015, EPA finalized revisions to the national ambient air quality standards for nitrogen oxides, which set new, more stringent standards intended to protect human health and human welfare. Depending on the final attainment designations for the new standards and the state implementation requirements, APS may be required to invest in new pollution control technologies and to generate emission offsets for new projects or facility expansions located in ozone nonattainment areas.
APS cannot assure that existing environmental regulations will not be revised or that new regulations seeking to protect the environment will not be adopted or become applicable to it. Revised or additional regulations that result in increased compliance costs or additional operating restrictions, particularly if those costs incurred by APS are not fully recoverable from APS’s customers, could have a material adverse effect on its financial condition, results of operations or cash flows. Due to current or potential future regulations or legislation coupled with trends in natural gas and coal prices, the economics of continuing to own certain resources, particularly coal facilities, may deteriorate, warranting early retirement of those plants, which may result in asset impairments. APS would seek recovery in rates for the book value of any remaining investments in the plants as well as other costs related to early retirement, but cannot predict whether it would obtain such recovery.
APS faces potential financial risks resulting from climate change litigation and legislative and regulatory efforts to limit GHG emissions, as well as physical and operational risks related to climate effects.
Concern over climate change has led to significant legislative and regulatory efforts to limit CO2, which is a major byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuel, and other GHG emissions.
Potential Financial Risks - Greenhouse Gas Regulation, the Clean Power Plan and Potential Litigation. In 2015, EPA finalized a rule to limit carbon dioxide emissions from existing power plants. The implementation of this rule within the jurisdictions where APS operates could result in a shift in in-state generation from coal to natural gas and renewable generation. Such a substantial change in APS’s generation portfolio could require additional capital investments and increased operating costs, and thus have a significant financial impact on the Company. EPA took action in October 2017 to repeal these regulations and in August 2018 EPA proposed the Affordable Clean Energy Rule to replace the Clean Power Plan with a new set of regulations.
Depending on the final outcome of a pending judicial review of the Clean Power Plan, along with related regulatory activity to repeal or replace these regulations, the utility industry may face alternative efforts from private parties seeking to establish alternative GHG emission limitations from power plants. Alternative GHG emission limitations may arise from litigation under either federal or state common laws or citizen suit provisions of federal environmental statutes that attempt to force federal agency rulemaking or imposing direct facility emission limitations. Such lawsuits may also seek damages from harm alleged to have resulted from power plant GHG emissions.
Physical and Operational Risks. Weather extremes such as drought and high temperature variations are common occurrences in the Southwest’s desert area, and these are risks that APS considers in the normal course of business in the engineering and construction of its electric system. Large increases in ambient temperatures could require evaluation of certain materials used within its system and represent a greater challenge.
Co-owners of our jointly owned generation facilities may have unaligned goals and positions due to the effects of legislation, regulations, economic conditions or changes in our industry, which could have a significant impact on our ability to continue operations of such facilities.
APS owns certain of our power plants jointly with other owners with varying ownership interests in such facilities. Changes in the nature of our industry and the economic viability of certain plants, including impacts resulting from types and availability of other resources, fuel costs, legislation and regulation, together with timing considerations related to expiration of leases or other agreements for such facilities, could result in unaligned positions among co-owners. Such differences in the co-owners’ willingness or ability to continue their participation could ultimately lead to disagreements among the parties as to how and whether to continue operation of such plants, which could lead to eventual shut down of units or facilities and uncertainty related to the resulting cost recovery of such assets. See Note 3 for a discussion of the co-owners' plans to cease operations of the Navajo Plant and the related risks associated with APS's continued recovery of its remaining investment in the plant.
Deregulation or restructuring of the electric industry may result in increased competition, which could have a significant adverse impact on APS’s business and its results of operations.
In 1999, the ACC approved rules for the introduction of retail electric competition in Arizona. Retail competition could have a significant adverse financial impact on APS due to an impairment of assets, a loss of retail customers, lower profit margins or increased costs of capital. Although some very limited retail competition existed in APS’s service area in 1999 and 2000, there are currently no active retail competitors offering unbundled energy or other utility services to APS’s customers. This is in large part due to a 2004 Arizona Court of Appeals decision that found critical components of the ACC's rules to be violative of the Arizona Constitution. The ruling also voided the operating authority of all the competitive providers previously authorized by the ACC. On May 9, 2013, the ACC voted to re-examine the facilitation of a deregulated retail electric market in Arizona. The ACC subsequently opened a docket for this matter and received comments from a number of interested parties on the considerations involved in establishing retail electric deregulation in the state. One of these considerations is whether various aspects of a deregulated market, including setting utility rates on a “market” basis, would be consistent with the requirements of the Arizona Constitution. On September 11, 2013, after receiving legal advice from the ACC staff, the ACC voted 4-1 to close the current docket and await full Arizona Constitutional authority before any further examination of this matter. The motion approved by the ACC also included opening one or more new dockets in the future to explore options to offer more rate choices to customers and innovative changes within the existing cost-of-service regulatory model that could include elements of competition.
One of these options would be a continuation or expansion of APS’s existing AG (Alternative Generation)-X program, which essentially allows up to 200 MW of cumulative load to be served via a buy-
through arrangement with competitive suppliers of generation. The AG-X program was approved by the ACC as part of the 2017 Settlement Agreement.
In November 2018, the ACC voted to again re-examine retail competition. Interested parties were asked to submit written comments, which are still being submitted. In addition, proposals to enable or support retail electric competition may be made from time to time through ballot initiatives, legislative action or other forums in Arizona. The ACC held one workshop on retail competition in December 2018 and is planning at least one more workshop on the issue in 2019. We cannot predict future regulatory or legislative action that might result in increased competition.
Proposals to change policy in Arizona or other states made through ballot initiatives or referenda may increase the Company’s cost of operations or impact its business plans.
In Arizona and other states, a person or organization may file a ballot initiative or referendum with the Arizona Secretary of State or other applicable state agency and, if a sufficient number of verifiable signatures are presented, the initiative or referendum may be placed on the ballot for the public to vote on the matter. Ballot initiatives and referenda may relate to any matter, including policy and regulation related to the electric industry, and may change statutes or the state constitution in ways that could impact Arizona utility customers, the Arizona economy and the Company. Some ballot initiatives and referenda are drafted in an unclear manner and their potential industry and economic impact can be subject to varied and conflicting interpretations. We may oppose certain initiatives or referenda (including those that could result in negative impacts to our customers, the state or the Company) via the electoral process, litigation, traditional legislative mechanisms, agency rulemaking or otherwise, which could result in significant costs to the Company. The passage of certain initiatives or referenda could result in laws and regulations that impact our business plans and have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
APS’s results of operations can be adversely affected by various factors impacting demand for electricity.
Weather Conditions. Weather conditions directly influence the demand for electricity and affect the price of energy commodities. Electric power demand is generally a seasonal business. In Arizona, demand for power peaks during the hot summer months, with market prices also peaking at that time. As a result, APS’s overall operating results fluctuate substantially on a seasonal basis. In addition, APS has historically sold less power, and consequently earned less income, when weather conditions are milder. As a result, unusually mild weather could diminish APS’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Higher temperatures may decrease the snowpack, which might result in lowered soil moisture and an increased threat of forest fires. Forest fires could threaten APS’s communities and electric transmission lines and facilities. Any damage caused as a result of forest fires could negatively impact APS’s financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Effects of Energy Conservation Measures and Distributed Energy Resources. The ACC has enacted rules regarding energy efficiency that mandate a 22% cumulative annual energy savings requirement by 2020. This will likely increase participation by APS customers in energy efficiency and conservation programs and other demand-side management efforts, which in turn will impact the demand for electricity. The rules also include a requirement for the ACC to review and address financial disincentives, recovery of fixed costs and the recovery of net lost income/revenue that would result from lower sales due to increased energy efficiency requirements. To that end, the LFCR is designed to address these matters.
APS must also meet certain distributed energy requirements. A portion of APS’s total renewable energy requirement must be met with an increasing percentage of distributed energy resources (generally, small scale renewable technologies located on customers’ properties). The distributed energy requirement was 25% of the overall RES requirement of 3% in 2011 and increased to 30% of the applicable RES requirement for 2012 and subsequent years. Customer participation in distributed energy programs would result in lower demand, since customers would be meeting some of their own energy needs.
In addition to these rules and requirements, energy efficiency technologies and distributed energy resources continue to evolve, which may have similar impacts on demand for electricity. Reduced demand due to these energy efficiency requirements, distributed energy requirements and other emerging technologies, unless substantially offset through ratemaking mechanisms, could have a material adverse impact on APS’s financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Actual and Projected Customer and Sales Growth. Retail customers in APS's service territory increased 1.7% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared with the prior year. For the three years 2016 through 2018, APS’s retail customer growth averaged 1.6% per year. We currently project annual customer growth to be 1.5 - 2.5% for 2019 and to average in the range of 1.5 - 2.5% for 2019 through 2021 based on our assessment of improving economic conditions in Arizona.
Retail electricity sales in kWh, adjusted to exclude the effects of weather variations, increased 0.1% for the year ended December 31, 2018 compared with the prior year. Improving economic conditions and customer growth were offset by energy savings driven by customer conservation, energy efficiency, and distributed renewable generation initiatives. For the three years 2016 through 2018, annual retail electricity sales were about flat, adjusted to exclude the effects of weather variations. We currently project that annual retail electricity sales in kWh will increase in the range of 1.0 - 2.0% for 2019 and increase on average in the range of 1.5 - 2.5% during 2019 through 2021, including the effects of customer conservation and energy efficiency and distributed renewable generation initiatives, but excluding the effects of weather variations. A slower recovery of the Arizona economy or acceleration of the expected effects of customer conservation, energy efficiency or distributed renewable generation initiatives could further impact these estimates.
Actual customer and sales growth may differ from our projections as a result of numerous factors, such as economic conditions, customer growth, usage patterns and energy conservation, impacts of energy efficiency programs and growth in distributed renewable generation, and responses to retail price changes. Additionally, recovery of a substantial portion of our fixed costs of providing service is based upon the volumetric amount of our sales. If our customer growth rate does not continue to improve as projected, or if we experience acceleration of expected effects of customer conservation, energy efficiency or distributed renewable generation initiatives, we may be unable to reach our estimated sales projections, which could have a negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
The operation of power generation facilities and transmission systems involves risks that could result in reduced output or unscheduled outages, which could materially affect APS’s results of operations.
The operation of power generation, transmission and distribution facilities involves certain risks, including the risk of breakdown or failure of equipment, fuel interruption, and performance below expected levels of output or efficiency. Unscheduled outages, including extensions of scheduled outages due to mechanical failures or other complications, occur from time to time and are an inherent risk of APS’s business. Because our transmission facilities are interconnected with those of third parties, the operation of our facilities could be adversely affected by unexpected or uncontrollable events occurring on the larger transmission power grid, and the operation or failure of our facilities could adversely affect the operations of others. Concerns over physical security of these assets could include damage to certain of our facilities due to vandalism or other
deliberate acts that could lead to outages or other adverse effects. If APS’s facilities operate below expectations, especially during its peak seasons, it may lose revenue or incur additional expenses, including increased purchased power expenses.
The impact of wildfires could negatively affect APS's results of operations.
Wildfires have the potential to affect the communities that APS serves and APS's vast network of electric transmission lines and facilities. The potential likelihood of wildfires has increased due to many of the same weather impacts existing in Arizona as those that led to the recent wildfires in Northern California. While we proactively take steps to mitigate wildfire risk in the areas of our electrical assets, given APS's expansive service territory, wildfire risk is always present. APS could be held liable for damages incurred as a result of wildfires that were caused by or enhanced due to APS's negligence. The Arizona liability standard is different from that of California, which generally imposes liability for resulting damages without regard to fault. Any damage caused to our assets, loss of service to our customers or liability imposed as a result of wildfires could negatively impact APS's financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
The inability to successfully develop or acquire generation resources to meet reliability requirements and other new or evolving standards or regulations could adversely impact our business.
Potential changes in regulatory standards, impacts of new and existing laws and regulations, including environmental laws and regulations, and the need to obtain various regulatory approvals create uncertainty surrounding our generation portfolio. The current abundance of low, stably priced natural gas, together with environmental and other concerns surrounding coal-fired generation resources, create strategic challenges as to the appropriate generation portfolio and fuel diversification mix. In addition, APS is required by the ACC to meet certain energy resource portfolio requirements, including those related to renewables development and energy efficiency measures. The development of any generation facility is subject to many risks, including those related to financing, siting, permitting, new and evolving technology, and the construction of sufficient transmission capacity to support these facilities. APS’s inability to adequately develop or acquire the necessary generation resources could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
In expressing concerns about the environmental and climate-related impacts from continued extraction, transportation, delivery and combustion of fossil fuels, environmental advocacy groups and other third parties have in recent years undertaken greater efforts to oppose the permitting and construction of fossil fuel infrastructure projects. These efforts may increase in scope and frequency depending on a number of variables, including the future course of Federal environmental regulation and the increasing financial resources devoted to these opposition activities. APS cannot predict the effect that any such opposition may have on our ability to develop and construct fossil fuel infrastructure projects in the future.
The lack of access to sufficient supplies of water could have a material adverse impact on APS’s business and results of operations.
Assured supplies of water are important for APS’s generating plants. Water in the southwestern United States is limited, and various parties have made conflicting claims regarding the right to access and use such limited supply of water. Both groundwater and surface water in areas important to APS’s generating plants have been and are the subject of inquiries, claims and legal proceedings. In addition, the region in which APS’s power plants are located is prone to drought conditions, which could potentially affect the plants’ water supplies. APS’s inability to access sufficient supplies of water could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
We are subject to cybersecurity risks and risks of unauthorized access to our systems.
We operate in a highly regulated industry that requires the continued operation of sophisticated information technology systems and network infrastructure. In the regular course of our business, we handle a range of sensitive security, customer and business systems information. There appears to be an increasing level of activity, sophistication and maturity of threat actors, in particular nation state actors, that seek to exploit potential vulnerabilities in the electric utility industry and wish to disrupt the U.S. bulk power, transmission and distribution system. Our information technology systems, generation (including our Palo Verde nuclear facility), transmission and distribution facilities, and other infrastructure facilities and systems and physical assets could be targets of unauthorized access and are critical areas of cyber protection for us.
Despite implementation of security measures, our technology systems are vulnerable to disability, failures or unauthorized access. If a significant cybersecurity event or breach were to occur, we may not be able to fulfill critical business functions and we could (i) experience property damage, disruptions to our business, theft of or unauthorized access to customer, employee, financial or system operation information or other information; (ii) experience loss of revenue or incur significant costs for repair, remediation and breach notification, and increased capital and operating costs to implement increased security measures; and (iii) be subject to increased regulation, litigation and reputational damage. These types of events could also require significant management attention and resources, and could have a material adverse impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
We are subject to laws and rules issued by multiple government agencies concerning safeguarding and maintaining the confidentiality of our security, customer and business information. One of these agencies, NERC, has issued comprehensive regulations and standards surrounding the security of bulk power systems, and is continually in the process of developing updated and additional requirements with which the utility industry must comply. The NRC also has issued regulations and standards related to the protection of critical digital assets at commercial nuclear power plants. The increasing promulgation of NERC and NRC rules and standards will increase our compliance costs and our exposure to the potential risk of violations of the standards. Experiencing a cybersecurity incident could cause us to be non-compliant with applicable laws and regulations, such as those promulgated by NERC and the NRC, or contracts that require us to securely maintain confidential data, causing us to incur costs related to legal claims or proceedings and regulatory fines or penalties.
The risk of these system-related events and security breaches occurring continues to intensify. We have experienced, and expect to continue to experience, threats and attempted intrusions to our information technology systems and we could experience such threats and attempted intrusions to our operational control systems. To date we have not experienced a material breach or disruption to our network or information systems or our service operations. However, as such attacks continue to increase in sophistication and frequency, we may be unable to prevent all such attacks from being successful in the future.
We have obtained cyber insurance to provide coverage for a portion of the losses and damages that may result from a security breach of our information technology systems, but such insurance is subject to a number of exclusions and may not cover the total loss or damage caused by a breach. The market for cybersecurity insurance is relatively new and coverage available for cybersecurity events may evolve as the industry matures. In the future, adequate insurance may not be available at rates that we believe are reasonable, and the costs of responding to and recovering from a cyber incident may not be covered by insurance or recoverable in rates.
The ownership and operation of power generation and transmission facilities on Indian lands could result in uncertainty related to continued leases, easements and rights-of-way, which could have a significant impact on our business.
Certain APS power plants and portions of certain APS transmission lines are located on Indian lands pursuant to leases, easements or other rights-of-way that are effective for specified periods. APS is unable to predict the final outcomes of pending and future approvals by the applicable sovereign governing bodies with respect to renewals of these leases, easements and rights-of-way.
There are inherent risks in the ownership and operation of nuclear facilities, such as environmental, health, fuel supply, spent fuel disposal, regulatory and financial risks and the risk of terrorist attack.
APS has an ownership interest in and operates, on behalf of a group of participants, Palo Verde, which is the largest nuclear electric generating facility in the United States. Palo Verde constitutes approximately 18% of our owned and leased generation capacity. Palo Verde is subject to environmental, health and financial risks, such as the ability to obtain adequate supplies of nuclear fuel; the ability to dispose of spent nuclear fuel; the ability to maintain adequate reserves for decommissioning; potential liabilities arising out of the operation of these facilities; the costs of securing the facilities against possible terrorist attacks; and unscheduled outages due to equipment and other problems. APS maintains nuclear decommissioning trust funds and external insurance coverage to minimize its financial exposure to some of these risks; however, it is possible that damages could exceed the amount of insurance coverage. In addition, APS may be required under federal law to pay up to $120.1 million (but not more than $17.9 million per year) of liabilities arising out of a nuclear incident occurring not only at Palo Verde, but at any other nuclear power reactor in the United States. Although we have no reason to anticipate a serious nuclear incident at Palo Verde, if an incident did occur, it could materially and adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition. A major incident at a nuclear facility anywhere in the world could cause the NRC to limit or prohibit the operation or licensing of any domestic nuclear unit and to promulgate new regulations that could require significant capital expenditures and/or increase operating costs.
The use of derivative contracts in the normal course of our business could result in financial losses that negatively impact our results of operations.
APS’s operations include managing market risks related to commodity prices. APS is exposed to the impact of market fluctuations in the price and transportation costs of electricity, natural gas and coal to the extent that unhedged positions exist. We have established procedures to manage risks associated with these market fluctuations by utilizing various commodity derivatives, including exchange traded futures and over-the-counter forwards, options, and swaps. As part of our overall risk management program, we enter into derivative transactions to hedge purchases and sales of electricity and fuels. The changes in market value of such contracts have a high correlation to price changes in the hedged commodity. To the extent that commodity markets are illiquid, we may not be able to execute our risk management strategies, which could result in greater unhedged positions than we would prefer at a given time and financial losses that negatively impact our results of operations.
The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd-Frank Act”) contains measures aimed at increasing the transparency and stability of the over-the counter, or OTC, derivative markets and preventing excessive speculation. The Dodd-Frank Act could restrict, among other things, trading positions in the energy futures markets, require different collateral or settlement positions, or increase regulatory reporting over derivative positions. Based on the provisions included in the Dodd-Frank Act and the implementation of regulations, these changes could, among other things, impact our ability to hedge commodity price and interest rate risk or increase the costs associated with our hedging programs.
We are exposed to losses in the event of nonperformance or nonpayment by counterparties. We use a risk management process to assess and monitor the financial exposure of all counterparties. Despite the fact that the majority of APS’s trading counterparties are rated as investment grade by the rating agencies, there is still a possibility that one or more of these companies could default, which could result in a material adverse impact on our earnings for a given period.
Changes in technology could create challenges for APS’s existing business.
Alternative energy technologies that produce power or reduce power consumption or emissions are being developed and commercialized, including renewable technologies such as photovoltaic (solar) cells, customer-sited generation, energy storage (batteries), and efficiency technologies. Advances in technology and equipment/appliance efficiency could reduce the demand for supply from conventional generation and increase the complexity of managing APS's information technology and power system operations, which could adversely affect APS’s business.
APS continues to pursue and implement advanced grid technologies, including transmission and distribution system technologies and digital meters enabling two-way communications between the utility and its customers. Many of the products and processes resulting from these and other alternative technologies have not yet been widely used or tested on a long-term basis, and their use on large-scale systems is not as established or mature as APS’s existing technologies and equipment. The implementation of new and additional technologies adds complexity to our information technology and operational technology systems, which could require additional infrastructure and resources. Widespread installation and acceptance of new technologies could also enable the entry of new market participants, such as technology companies, into the interface between APS and its customers and could have other unpredictable effects on APS’s traditional business model.
Deployment of renewable energy technologies is expected to continue across the western states and result in a larger portion of the overall energy production coming from these sources. These trends, which have benefited from historical and continuing government support for certain technologies, have the potential to put downward pressure on wholesale power prices throughout the western states which could make APS's existing generating facilities less economical and impact their operational patterns and long-term viability.
We are subject to employee workforce factors that could adversely affect our business and financial condition.
Like many companies in the electric utility industry, our workforce is maturing, with approximately 30% of employees eligible to retire by the end of 2020. Although we have undertaken efforts to recruit, train and develop new employees, we face increased competition for talent. We are subject to other employee workforce factors, such as the availability and retention of qualified personnel and the need to negotiate collective bargaining agreements with union employees. These or other employee workforce factors could negatively impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Financial market disruptions or new rules or regulations may increase our financing costs or limit our access to various financial markets, which may adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to implement our financial strategy.
Pinnacle West and APS rely on access to credit markets as a significant source of liquidity and the capital markets for capital requirements not satisfied by cash flow from our operations. We believe that we will maintain sufficient access to these financial markets. However, certain market disruptions or rules or regulations may cause our cost of borrowing to increase generally, and/or otherwise adversely affect our ability to access these financial markets.
In addition, the credit commitments of our lenders under our bank facilities may not be satisfied or continued beyond current commitment periods for a variety of reasons, including new rules and regulations, periods of financial distress or liquidity issues affecting our lenders or financial markets, which could materially adversely affect the adequacy of our liquidity sources and the cost of maintaining these sources.
Changes in economic conditions, monetary policy, financial regulation or other factors could result in higher interest rates, which would increase interest expense on our existing variable rate debt and new debt we expect to issue in the future, and thus reduce funds available to us for our current plans.
Additionally, an increase in our leverage, whether as a result of these factors or otherwise, could adversely affect us by:
causing a downgrade of our credit ratings;
increasing the cost of future debt financing and refinancing;
increasing our vulnerability to adverse economic and industry conditions; and
requiring us to dedicate an increased portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, which would reduce funds available to us for operations, future investment in our business or other purposes.
A downgrade of our credit ratings could materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Our current ratings are set forth in “Liquidity and Capital Resources — Credit Ratings” in Item 7. We cannot be sure that any of our current ratings will remain in effect for any given period of time or that a rating will not be lowered or withdrawn entirely by a rating agency if, in its judgment, circumstances in the future so warrant. Any downgrade or withdrawal could adversely affect the market price of Pinnacle West’s and APS’s securities, limit our access to capital and increase our borrowing costs, which would diminish our financial results. We would be required to pay a higher interest rate for future financings, and our potential pool of investors and funding sources could decrease. In addition, borrowing costs under our existing credit facilities depend on our credit ratings. A downgrade could also require us to provide additional support in the form of letters of credit or cash or other collateral to various counterparties. If our short-term ratings were to be lowered, it could severely limit access to the commercial paper market. We note that the ratings from rating agencies are not recommendations to buy, sell or hold our securities and that each rating should be evaluated independently of any other rating.
Investment performance, changing interest rates and other economic, social and political factors could decrease the value of our benefit plan assets and nuclear decommissioning trust funds or increase the valuation of our related obligations, resulting in significant additional funding requirements. We are also subject to risks related to the provision of employee healthcare benefits and healthcare reform legislation. Any inability to fully recover these costs in our utility rates would negatively impact our financial condition.
We have significant pension plan and other postretirement benefits plan obligations to our employees and retirees, and legal obligations to fund our pension trust and nuclear decommissioning trusts for Palo Verde. We hold and invest substantial assets in these trusts that are designed to provide funds to pay for certain of these obligations as they arise. Declines in market values of the fixed income and equity securities held in these trusts may increase our funding requirements into the related trusts. Additionally, the valuation of liabilities related to our pension plan and other postretirement benefit plans are impacted by a discount rate, which is the interest rate used to discount future pension and other postretirement benefit obligations. Declining interest rates decrease the discount rate, increase the valuation of the plan liabilities and may result in increases in pension and other postretirement benefit costs, cash contributions, regulatory assets, and charges to OCI. Changes in demographics, including increased number of retirements or changes in life expectancy and changes in other actuarial assumptions, may also result in similar impacts. The minimum contributions required under these plans are impacted by federal legislation and related regulations. Increasing liabilities or otherwise increasing funding requirements under these plans, resulting from adverse changes in legislation or otherwise, could result in significant cash funding obligations that could have a material impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
We recover most of the pension costs and other postretirement benefit costs and all of the currently estimated nuclear decommissioning costs in our regulated rates. Any inability to fully recover these costs in a timely manner would have a material negative impact on our financial condition, results of operations or cash flows.
Employee healthcare costs in recent years have continued to rise. While most of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provisions have been implemented, changes to or repeal of that Act and pending or future federal or state legislative or regulatory activity or court proceedings could increase costs of providing medical insurance for our employees and retirees. Any potential changes and resulting cost impacts cannot be determined with certainty at this time.
Our cash flow depends on the performance of APS.
We derive essentially all of our revenues and earnings from our wholly-owned subsidiary, APS. Accordingly, our cash flow and our ability to pay dividends on our common stock is dependent upon the earnings and cash flows of APS and its distributions to us. APS is a separate and distinct legal entity and has no obligation to make distributions to us.
APS’s financing agreements may restrict its ability to pay dividends, make distributions or otherwise transfer funds to us. In addition, an ACC financing order requires APS to maintain a common equity ratio of at least 40% and does not allow APS to pay common dividends if the payment would reduce its common equity below that threshold. The common equity ratio, as defined in the ACC order, is total shareholder equity divided by the sum of total shareholder equity and long-term debt, including current maturities of long-term debt.
Pinnacle West’s ability to meet its debt service obligations could be adversely affected because its debt securities are structurally subordinated to the debt securities and other obligations of its subsidiaries.
Because Pinnacle West is structured as a holding company, all existing and future debt and other liabilities of our subsidiaries will be effectively senior in right of payment to our debt securities. The assets and cash flows of our subsidiaries will be available, in the first instance, to service their own debt and other obligations. Our ability to have the benefit of their cash flows, particularly in the case of any insolvency or financial distress affecting our subsidiaries, would arise only through our equity ownership interests in our subsidiaries and only after their creditors have been satisfied.
The market price of our common stock may be volatile.
The market price of our common stock could be subject to significant fluctuations in response to factors such as the following, some of which are beyond our control:
variations in our quarterly operating results;
operating results that vary from the expectations of management, securities analysts and investors;
changes in expectations as to our future financial performance, including financial estimates by securities analysts and investors;
developments generally affecting industries in which we operate;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant contracts, acquisitions, joint marketing relationships, joint ventures or capital commitments;
announcements by third parties of significant claims or proceedings against us;
favorable or adverse regulatory or legislative developments;
our dividend policy;
future sales by the Company of equity or equity-linked securities; and
general domestic and international economic conditions.
In addition, the stock market in general has experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.
Certain provisions of our articles of incorporation and bylaws and of Arizona law make it difficult for shareholders to change the composition of our board and may discourage takeover attempts.
These provisions, which could preclude our shareholders from receiving a change of control premium, include the following:
restrictions on our ability to engage in a wide range of “business combination” transactions with an “interested shareholder” (generally, any person who owns 10% or more of our outstanding voting power or any of our affiliates or associates) or any affiliate or associate of an interested shareholder, unless specific conditions are met;
anti-greenmail provisions of Arizona law and our bylaws that prohibit us from purchasing shares of our voting stock from beneficial owners of more than 5% of our outstanding shares unless specified conditions are satisfied;
the ability of the Board of Directors to increase the size of the Board of Directors and fill vacancies on the Board of Directors, whether resulting from such increase, or from death, resignation, disqualification or otherwise; and
the ability of our Board of Directors to issue additional shares of common stock and shares of preferred stock and to determine the price and, with respect to preferred stock, the other terms, including preferences and voting rights, of those shares without shareholder approval.
While these provisions have the effect of encouraging persons seeking to acquire control of us to negotiate with our Board of Directors, they could enable the Board of Directors to hinder or frustrate a transaction that some, or a majority, of our shareholders might believe to be in their best interests and, in that case, may prevent or discourage attempts to remove and replace incumbent directors.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
Neither Pinnacle West nor APS has received written comments regarding its periodic or current reports from the SEC staff that were issued 180 days or more preceding the end of its 2018 fiscal year and that remain unresolved.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
APS’s portfolio of owned and leased generating facilities is provided in the table below:
Palo Verde (b)
Four Corners 4, 5 (c)
Total Combined Cycle
Yucca 1, 2, 3
Yucca 5, 6
Total Combustion Turbine
Cotton Center (f)
Hyder I (f)
Gila Bend (f)
Hyder II (f)
Desert Star (f)
APS Owned Distributed Energy
100% unless otherwise noted.
See “Business of Arizona Public Service Company — Energy Sources and Resource Planning — Generation Facilities — Nuclear” in Item 1 for details regarding leased interests in Palo Verde. The other participants are Salt River Project (17.49%), SCE (15.8%), El Paso (15.8%), Public Service Company of New Mexico (10.2%), Southern California Public Power Authority (5.91%), and Los Angeles Department of Water & Power (5.7%). The plant is operated by APS.
The other participants are Salt River Project (10%), Public Service Company of New Mexico (13%), Tucson Electric Power Company (7%) and NTEC (7%). The plant is operated by APS.
The other participants are Salt River Project (42.9%), Nevada Power Company (11.3%), the United States Government (24.3%) and Tucson Electric Power Company (7.5%). The plant is operated by Salt River Project. In July 2016, Salt River Project purchased Los Angeles Department of Water & Power's share in this plant (21.2%).
Ocotillo Steam Units 1 and 2 were retired on January 10, 2019. Units 3 through 7 are expected to go into service by the middle of 2019 and will increase generation capacity by 510 MW.
APS is under contract to add battery storage at these AZ Sun sites and anticipates such storage facilities could be in service by mid-2020. (See "Business of Arizona Public Service Company - Energy Sources and Resource Planning - Energy Storage" above for details related to these and other energy storage agreements.)
See “Business of Arizona Public Service Company — Environmental Matters” in Item 1 with respect to matters having a possible impact on the operation of certain of APS’s generating facilities.
See “Business of Arizona Public Service Company” in Item 1 for a map detailing the location of APS’s major power plants and principal transmission lines.
4CA, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Pinnacle West, purchased El Paso's 7% interest in Units 4 and 5 of Four Corners on July 6, 2016 and subsequently sold the interest to NTEC on July 3, 2018. See "Areas of Business Focus - Operational Performance, Reliability and Recent Developments - Four Corners - Asset Purchase Agreement and Coal Supply Matters" in Item 7 for additional information about 4CA's interest in Four Corners.
Transmission and Distribution Facilities
Current Facilities. APS’s transmission facilities consist of approximately 6,192 pole miles of overhead lines and approximately 49 miles of underground lines, 5,969 miles of which are located in Arizona. APS’s distribution facilities consist of approximately 11,194 miles of overhead lines and approximately 21,854 miles of underground primary cable, all of which are located in Arizona. APS distribution facilities reflect an actual net gain of 357 miles in 2018. APS shares ownership of some of its transmission facilities with other companies.
The following table shows APS’s jointly-owned interests in those transmission facilities recorded on the Consolidated Balance Sheets at December 31, 2018:
Morgan — Pinnacle Peak System
Palo Verde — Rudd 500kV System
Round Valley System
ANPP 500kV System
Navajo Southern System
Four Corners Switchyards
Palo Verde — Yuma 500kV System
Phoenix — Mead System
Palo Verde — Morgan System
Hassayampa — North Gila System
Cholla 500kV Switchyard
Saguaro 500kV Switchyard
Kyrene - Knox System
Expansion. Each year APS prepares and files with the ACC a ten-year transmission plan. In APS’s 2019 plan, APS projects it will develop 15 miles of new transmission lines over the next ten years. One significant project, the Palo Verde to Morgan project recently completed all phases and is a new 500kV path that spans from the Palo Verde hub around the western and northern edges of the Phoenix metropolitan area and terminates at a bulk substation in the northeast part of Phoenix. The Palo Verde to Morgan project includes Palo Verde-Delaney-Sun Valley-Morgan-Pinnacle Peak. The project consisted of four phases and the fourth phase, Morgan to Sun Valley 500kV, was energized in April of 2018. In total, the project consisted of over 100 miles of new 500kV lines, with many of those miles constructed with the capability to string a 230kV line as a second circuit.
APS continues to work with regulators to identify transmission projects necessary to support renewable energy facilities. Two such projects, which have been completed and were included in previous APS transmission plans, are the Delaney to Palo Verde line and the North Gila to Hassayampa line, both of which support the transmission of renewable energy to Phoenix and California. The North Gila to Hassayampa line went into service in May 2015 and the Delaney to Palo Verde line went into service in May 2016.
Physical Security Standards. On July 14, 2015, FERC approved version 2 of the proposed Physical Security Reliability Standard CIP-014. APS completed its initial implementation in 2018. No additional significant financial or operational impacts on APS are anticipated.
NERC Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards. Since 2014, APS has been implementing a comprehensive project to ensure compliance with NERC's Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards ("CIP"). As a result of recent revisions to the CIP standards, the final compliance date is now January 1, 2020. APS is 95% complete in its compliance implementation activities with total expenditures of $60.4 million incurred by APS as of December 31, 2018. APS anticipates an additional expenditure of approximately $0.2 million with a final completion date in September 2019.
Plant and Transmission Line Leases and Rights-of-Way on Indian Lands
The Navajo Plant and Four Corners are located on land held under leases from the Navajo Nation and also under rights-of-way from the federal government. The co-owners of the Navajo Plant and the Navajo
Nation agreed that the Navajo Plant will remain in operation until December 2019 under the existing plant lease. The co-owners and the Navajo Nation executed a lease extension on November 29, 2017 that will allow for decommissioning activities to begin after the plant ceases operations in December 2019. Various stakeholders, including regulators, tribal representatives, the plant's coal supplier and the DOI have been meeting to determine if an alternate solution can be reached that would permit continued operation of the plant beyond 2019. Although we cannot predict whether any alternate plans will be found that would be acceptable to all of the stakeholders and feasible to implement, we believe it is probable that the current owners of the Navajo Plant will cease plant operations in December 2019.
APS, on behalf of the Four Corners participants, negotiated amendments to the Four Corners facility lease with the Navajo Nation, which extends the Four Corners leasehold interest from 2016 to 2041. See "Areas of Business Focus - Operational Performance, Reliability and Recent Developments - Four Corners - Lease Extension" in Item 7 for additional information about the Four Corners right-of-way and lease matters.
Certain portions of our transmission lines are located on Indian lands pursuant to rights-of-way that are effective for specified periods. Some of these rights-of-way have expired and our renewal applications have not yet been acted upon by the appropriate Indian tribes or federal agencies. Other rights expire at various times in the future and renewal action by the applicable tribe or federal agencies will be required at that time. In recent negotiations, certain of the affected Indian tribes have required payments substantially in excess of amounts that we have paid in the past for such rights-of-way. The ultimate cost of renewal of certain of the rights-of-way for our transmission lines is therefore uncertain.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
See “Business of Arizona Public Service Company — Environmental Matters” in Item 1 with regard to pending or threatened litigation and other disputes.
See Note 3 for ACC and FERC-related matters.
See Note 10 for information regarding environmental matters and Superfund–related matters.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF PINNACLE WEST
Pinnacle West’s executive officers are elected no less often than annually and may be removed by the Board of Directors at any time. The executive officers, their ages at February 22, 2019, current positions and principal occupations for the past five years are as follows:
Donald E. Brandt
Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of Pinnacle West; Chairman of the Board of APS
President of APS
President of Pinnacle West
Chief Executive Officer of APS
Robert S. Bement
Executive Vice President and Chief Nuclear Officer, PVGS, of APS
Senior Vice President, Site Operations, PVGS, of APS
Denise R. Danner
Vice President, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer of Pinnacle West; Chief Accounting Officer of APS
Vice President and Controller of APS
Donna M. Easterly
Vice President, Human Resources and Ethics of APS
Vice President, Chief Procurement Officer of APS
Director, Transmission and Distribution Construction of APS
Director, Statewide Energy Delivery of APS
Daniel T. Froetscher
Executive Vice President, Operations of APS
Senior Vice President, Transmission, Distribution & Customers of APS
Vice President, Energy Delivery of APS
Jeffrey B. Guldner
President of APS
Executive Vice President, Public Policy of Pinnacle West
Executive Vice President, Public Policy of APS
General Counsel of Pinnacle West and APS
Senior Vice President, Public Policy of APS
Senior Vice President, Customers and Regulation of APS
James R. Hatfield
Executive Vice President of Pinnacle West and APS
Chief Financial Officer of Pinnacle West and APS
John S. Hatfield
Vice President, Communications of APS
Barbara D. Lockwood
Vice President, Regulation of APS
General Manager, Regulatory Policy and Compliance of APS
General Manager, Innovation of APS
Lee R. Nickloy
Vice President and Treasurer of Pinnacle West and APS
Robert E. Smith
Senior Vice President and General Counsel of Pinnacle West and APS
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANTS’ COMMON EQUITY, RELATED
STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Pinnacle West’s common stock is publicly held and is traded on the New York Stock Exchange under stock symbol PNW. At the close of business on February 15, 2019, Pinnacle West’s common stock was held of record by approximately 17,769 shareholders.
APS’s common stock is wholly-owned by Pinnacle West and is not listed for trading on any stock exchange. The sole holder of APS’s common stock, Pinnacle West, is entitled to dividends when and as declared out of legally available funds. At December 31, 2018, APS did not have any outstanding preferred stock.
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
PINNACLE WEST CAPITAL CORPORATION – CONSOLIDATED
The selected data presented below as of and for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015 and 2014 are derived from the Consolidated Financial Statements. The data should be read in connection with the Consolidated Financial Statements including the related notes included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
(dollars in thousands, except per share amounts)
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
Net income attributable to common shareholders
COMMON STOCK DATA
Book value per share – year-end
Earnings per weighted-average common share outstanding:
Net income attributable to common shareholders – basic
Net income attributable to common shareholders – diluted
Dividends declared per share
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – basic
Weighted-average common shares outstanding – diluted
BALANCE SHEET DATA
Liabilities and equity:
Long-term debt less current maturities
Deferred credits and other
Total liabilities and equity
SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
ARIZONA PUBLIC SERVICE COMPANY – CONSOLIDATED
(dollars in thousands)
Fuel and purchased power costs
Other operating expenses
Interest expense — net of allowance for borrowed funds
Net income before income taxes
Less: Net income attributable to noncontrolling interests
Net income attributable to common shareholder
BALANCE SHEET DATA
Liabilities and equity:
Long-term debt less current maturities
Deferred credits and other
Total liabilities and equity
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS
OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Pinnacle West’s Consolidated Financial Statements and APS’s Consolidated Financial Statements and the related Notes that appear in Item 8 of this report. For information on factors that may cause our actual future results to differ from those we currently seek or anticipate, see “Forward-Looking Statements” at the front of this report and “Risk Factors” in Item 1A.
Pinnacle West owns all of the outstanding common stock of APS. APS is a vertically-integrated electric utility that provides either retail or wholesale electric service to most of the state of Arizona, with the major exceptions of about one-half of the Phoenix metropolitan area, the Tucson metropolitan area and Mohave County in northwestern Arizona. APS currently accounts for essentially all of our revenues and earnings.
Areas of Business Focus
Operational Performance, Reliability and Recent Developments.