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Lkq Corp (LKQ) SEC Filing 10-K Annual report for the fiscal year ending Thursday, December 31, 2020

Lkq Corp

CIK: 1065696 Ticker: LKQ
Exhibit 99.1
lkqpressreleaseimage1.jpg


LKQ CORPORATION ANNOUNCES RESULTS FOR FOURTH QUARTER AND FULL YEAR 2020


Fourth quarter revenue of $3.0 billion (down 1.9% year-over-year); annual revenue of $11.6 billion (down 7.0% year-over-year)
Fourth quarter parts and services organic revenue declined 5.2%; annual parts and services organic revenue declined 7.6%
Fourth quarter 2020 diluted EPS1 of $0.59 (up 28.3%); adjusted diluted EPS1 of $0.69 (up 27.8%)
Annual diluted EPS1 of $2.09 (up 20.1%); adjusted diluted EPS1 of $2.55 (up 7.6%)
Record segment EBITDA for North America operations; Europe segment tops second half 2020 segment EBITDA margin outlook
Annual operating cash flow of $1.4 billion (up 35.7%); free cash flow of $1.3 billion (up 59.2%)
Net debt leverage down to 1.9x EBITDA
2021 outlook provided

Chicago, IL (February 18, 2021) -- LKQ Corporation (Nasdaq:LKQ) today reported fourth quarter and full year 2020 results that reflect continued improvement in operational and balance sheet productivity and further debt reduction, despite softening revenue trends in many markets as a result of mobility restrictions from COVID-19.
“Our focus throughout the COVID-19 crisis has been the health and safety of our employees as well as our customers. Despite the headwinds we faced throughout 2020, we were able to execute on our key operating initiatives of pursuing profitable revenue, enhanced margins and free cash flow generation. Additionally, the cost reductions our teams implemented in 2020 to confront the pandemic’s impact on demand are lessons that we will apply to our operations in 2021 and beyond,” noted Dominick Zarcone, President and Chief Executive Officer. “We again delivered strong quarterly results, with the fourth quarter 2020 being the second highest quarterly earnings, and highest fourth quarter earnings, in the Company’s history. Additionally, we achieved our highest level of annual free cash flow at $1.3 billion and North America’s highest annual segment EBITDA margin of 16.8%. Europe completed a strong second half with a Segment EBITDA margin of 8.9%, above the range of 8.0% to 8.5% presented at our September 2020 Investor Day. As we look to the year ahead, I am confident that the strength of our operations, balance sheet and free cash flow all position LKQ for solid growth and value creation for our stakeholders.”
Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2020 Financial Results
Revenue for the fourth quarter of 2020 was $2.95 billion, a decrease of 1.9% as compared to $3.01 billion in the fourth quarter of 2019. For the fourth quarter of 2020, parts and services organic revenue decreased 5.2% (6.1% on a per day basis), while the net impact of acquisitions and divestitures decreased revenue 0.8% and foreign exchange rates increased revenue 2.7%, for a total parts and services revenue decline of 3.3%.
1 References to Net income and Diluted earnings per share, and the corresponding adjusted figures, in this release reflect amounts from continuing operations attributable to LKQ stockholders.


The following information was filed by Lkq Corp (LKQ) on Thursday, February 18, 2021 as an 8K 2.02 statement, which is an earnings press release pertaining to results of operations and financial condition. It may be helpful to assess the quality of management by comparing the information in the press release to the information in the accompanying 10-K Annual Report statement of earnings and operation as management may choose to highlight particular information in the press release.

UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
________________________________________ 
FORM 10-K
________________________________________ 
(Mark One)
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _______ to _______

Commission File Number: 000-50404
________________________________________ 
LKQ CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
________________________________________ 
Delaware 36-4215970
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)
500 West Madison Street,Suite 2800, 
Chicago,Illinois60661
(Address of principal executive offices) (Zip Code)
Registrant’s telephone number, including area code: (312) 621-1950
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of Each ClassTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $.01 per shareLKQNASDAQ Global Select Market
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
________________________________________
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Act.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant: (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).    Yes      No  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filerAccelerated filer
Non-accelerated filer
  
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.  
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C.7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).    Yes      No  
As of June 30, 2020, the aggregate market value of common stock outstanding held by stockholders who were not affiliates (as defined by regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission) of the registrant was approximately $7.9 billion (based on the closing sale price on the NASDAQ Global Select Market on such date). The number of outstanding shares of the registrant's common stock as of February 19, 2021 was 303,312,439.
Documents Incorporated by Reference
Those sections or portions of the registrant's proxy statement for the Annual Meeting of Stockholders to be held on May 11, 2021, described in Part III hereof, are incorporated by reference in this report.



PART I
SPECIAL NOTE ON FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
Statements and information in this Annual Report on Form 10-K that are not historical are forward-looking statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and are made pursuant to the “safe harbor” provisions of such Act.
Forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements regarding our outlook, guidance, expectations, beliefs, hopes, intentions and strategies.  Words such as "may," "will," "plan," "should," "expect," "anticipate," "believe," "if," "estimate," "intend," "project" and similar words or expressions are used to identify these forward-looking statements.  These statements are subject to a number of risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors, including the unfavorable effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic ("COVID-19"), that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different.  All forward-looking statements are based on information available to us at the time the statements are made.  We undertake no obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.
You should not place undue reliance on our forward-looking statements.  Actual events or results may differ materially from those expressed or implied in the forward-looking statements.  The risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors that could cause actual results to differ from the results predicted or implied by our forward-looking statements include those identified in the risk factor summary below and in the full “Risk Factors” section in Part 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risk Factor Summary
Below is a summary of our risk factors. See "Risk Factors" in Part 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a detailed discussion of the risk factors summarized below. Our risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be carefully considered. The occurrence of any of the risks or of unknown risks and uncertainties may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition.
Risks Relating to Our Business
effects on our business from the disruption to economic activity caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, including a substantial decrease in the demand for our products and services, interruptions to supply chains, and the inability of customers to pay for products and services;
employment-related issues arising from the COVID-19 pandemic, including employment law claims resulting from the layoffs and furloughs of employees to reduce costs during the period of decreased demand, increased healthcare costs, workforce shortages, and health and safety issues at the workplace;
changes in economic, political and social conditions in the U.S. and other countries in which we are located or do business, including the U.K. withdrawal from the European Union (also known as Brexit), and the impact of these changes on our businesses, the demand for our products and our ability to obtain financing for operations;
increasing competition in the automotive parts industry, including parts sold on online marketplaces and the potential competitive advantage to original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") with "connected car" technology, as well as the various efforts by OEMs to restrict or prohibit the sale of aftermarket or recycled parts;
changes to our business relationships with insurance companies or changes by insurance companies to their business practices relating to the use of our products as well as changes in the level of acceptance and promotion of alternative automotive parts by insurance companies and vehicle repairers;
restrictions or prohibitions on selling or importing aftermarket products through enforcement by OEMs or governmental agencies of intellectual property rights or import laws;
variations in the number of vehicles manufactured and sold, vehicle accident rates, miles driven, and the age profile of vehicles in accidents, the increase of accident avoidance systems being installed in vehicles, the potential loss of sales of certain mechanical parts due to the rise of electric vehicle sales, or changes in the demand for our products and the supply of our inventory due to severity of weather and seasonality of weather patterns;
fluctuations in the prices of fuel, scrap metal and other commodities;
changes in our relationships with our suppliers, disruption to our supply of inventory, or the misconduct, performance failures or negligence of our third party vendors or service providers could increase our expenses, impede our ability to serve our customers, or expose us to liability; as well as price increases, interruptions or disruptions to the supply of vehicle parts from aftermarket suppliers and vehicles from salvage auctions;
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if our goodwill or other intangible assets become impaired, or there are declines in the values of our assets, including as a result of the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business, we may incur significant charges to our pre-tax income;
product liability claims by the end users of our products or claims by other parties who we have promised to indemnify for product liability matters and costs associated with recalls of the products we sell;
our ability to identify acquisition candidates at reasonable prices and our ability to successfully divest underperforming businesses and our ability to integrate, realize expected synergies, and successfully operate acquired companies and any companies acquired in the future, and the risks associated with these companies;
Risks Relating to Our Financial Structure
our ability to satisfy our debt obligations and to operate within the limitations imposed by financing arrangements, including the possibility of not satisfying one or more of the financial covenants in our credit facility or the terms of the indentures governing our senior notes;
our senior notes are subject to risks that could affect the value of the notes, require holders of the notes to return payments received from us or the guarantors, or affect our ability to repurchase the notes upon a change of control or pursuant to an asset sale offer;
our ability to obtain financing on acceptable terms to finance our growth;
Legal and Regulatory Risks
changes in laws or regulations affecting our business;
our operations are subject to environmental regulations and we may incur costs relating to environmental matters;
Our bylaws provide that the courts in the State of Delaware are the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders;
changes to applicable U.S. and foreign tax laws, changes to interpretations of tax laws, and changes in our mix of earnings among the jurisdictions in which we operate;
the implementation of a border tax or tariff on imports and the negative impact on our business due to the amount of inventory we import;
governmental agencies may refuse to grant or renew our operating licenses and permits for our salvage, self service and refurbishing businesses;
General Risks
loss of key management personnel may affect our ability to successfully manage our business and achieve our objectives;
the risks associated with operating in foreign jurisdictions, including foreign laws and economic and political instabilities and currency fluctuations in the U.S. dollar, pound sterling and euro versus other currencies;
additional unionization efforts, new collective bargaining agreements, and work stoppages;
our ability to develop and implement the operational and financial systems needed to manage our operations; and interruptions, outages or breaches of our operational systems, security systems, or infrastructure as a result of attacks on, or malfunctions of, our systems;
costs of complying with laws relating to the security of personal information;
business interruptions affecting our distribution centers, computer systems and the availability of inventory;
problems with our fleet of trucks and other vehicles could affect our business;
potential losses of our right to operate at key locations if we are not able to negotiate lease renewals or due to environmental issues; and
disruptions to the management and operations of our business and the uncertainties caused by activist investors.
Other matters set forth in this Annual Report may also cause our actual results to differ materially from our forward-looking statements.
Copies of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K, and amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 are
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available free of charge through our website (www.lkqcorp.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file the material with, or furnish it to, the Securities and Exchange Commission.

ITEM 1.     BUSINESS
OVERVIEW
LKQ Corporation ("LKQ" or the "Company") is a global distributor of vehicle products, including replacement parts, components, and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles, and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles.
Buyers of vehicle replacement products have the option to purchase from primarily five sources: new products produced by original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs"); new products produced by companies other than the OEMs, which are referred to as aftermarket products; recycled products obtained from salvage and total loss vehicles; recycled products that have been refurbished; and recycled products that have been remanufactured. We distribute a variety of products to collision and mechanical repair shops, including aftermarket collision and mechanical products; recycled collision and mechanical products; refurbished collision products such as wheels, bumper covers and lights; and remanufactured engines and transmissions. Collectively, we refer to the four sources that are not new OEM products as alternative parts.
We are a leading provider of alternative vehicle collision and mechanical replacement products, with our sales, processing, and distribution facilities reaching most major markets in the United States and Canada. We are also a leading provider of alternative vehicle replacement and maintenance products in the United Kingdom, Germany, the Benelux region (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Italy, Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia, Austria, and various other European countries. In addition to our wholesale operations, we operate self service retail facilities across the U.S. that sell recycled automotive products from end-of-life vehicles. We are also a leading distributor of specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories reaching most major markets in the U.S. and Canada.
We are organized into four operating segments: Wholesale - North America, Europe, Specialty, and Self Service. We aggregate our Wholesale - North America and Self Service operating segments into one reportable segment, North America, resulting in three reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty. See Note 16, "Segment and Geographic Information" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for financial information by reportable segment and by geographic region.
HISTORY
We were initially formed in 1998 through the combination of a number of wholesale recycled products businesses and subsequently expanded through internal development and acquisitions of aftermarket, recycled, refurbished, and remanufactured product suppliers and manufacturers; self service retail businesses; and specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories suppliers. We have completed approximately 280 business acquisitions. Our most significant acquisitions include:
2007 acquisition of Keystone Automotive Industries, Inc., which, at the time of acquisition, was the leading domestic distributor of aftermarket products, including collision replacement products, paint products, refurbished steel bumpers, bumper covers and alloy wheels.
2011 acquisition of Euro Car Parts Holdings Limited ("ECP"), a vehicle mechanical aftermarket parts distribution company operating in the United Kingdom. This acquisition served as our entry into the European automotive aftermarket business, from which we have expanded our European footprint through organic growth and subsequent acquisitions.
2013 acquisition of Sator Beheer B.V. ("Sator," now known as Fource), a vehicle mechanical aftermarket parts distribution company based in the Netherlands, with operations in the Netherlands, Belgium and Northern France. This acquisition allowed us to further expand our geographic presence into continental Europe.
2014 acquisition of Keystone Automotive Holdings, Inc. (“Keystone Specialty”), which expanded our product offering and increased our addressable market to include specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories.
2016 acquisition of Rhiag-Inter Auto Parts Italia S.r.l. (“Rhiag”), a distributor of aftermarket spare parts for passenger cars and commercial vehicles in Italy, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Switzerland, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Poland and Spain. This acquisition expanded our geographic presence in continental Europe.
2016 acquisition of Pittsburgh Glass Works LLC (“PGW”), a distributor of aftermarket automotive replacement glass. The acquisition expanded our addressable market in North America.
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2018 acquisition of Stahlgruber GmbH (“Stahlgruber”), a wholesale distributor of aftermarket spare parts for passenger cars, tools, capital equipment and accessories with operations in Germany, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia, with further sales to Switzerland. This acquisition expanded our geographic presence in continental Europe and serves as an additional strategic hub for our European operations.
Further information regarding our recent acquisitions is included in Note 2, "Business Combinations" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Since 2017, we have divested eight businesses resulting from (i) the ongoing rationalization of our asset base by divesting certain non-core and/or low margin businesses, and (ii) mandatory divestiture requirements due to certain acquisitions. Two of these divestitures have been reported as discontinued operations.
STRATEGY
Our mission is to be the leading global value-added distributor of vehicle parts and accessories by offering our customers the most comprehensive, available and cost-effective selection of part solutions while building strong partnerships with our employees and the communities in which we operate. Beginning in 2019, we reduced our focus on growth primarily through acquisitions and emphasized operational excellence, through a strategy of organically taking market share with leading inventory breadth and depth, high fulfillment rates, delivery reliability and customer service.
We have four primary strategic pillars to build economic value: growth through diversified product offerings; expanding our footprint; adaptation to evolving technology; and rationalization of our asset base to enhance margins and return on capital. We believe our distribution network, with a broad inventory of quality collision and mechanical repair products and specialty vehicle aftermarket products, high fulfillment rates, and superior customer service, provide us with a competitive advantage. To execute our strategy, we focus on a number of key areas, including:
Continue to build and develop our extensive distribution network. We have invested significant capital to develop a network of alternative and specialty vehicle parts facilities across our operating segments. Our ability to move inventory throughout our distribution networks increases the availability of our products and allows us to fill a high percentage of our customers’ requests. In order to expand our distribution network, we may seek to enter new markets through geographic expansion, improve penetration through organic development, tuck in acquisitions, and by building critical capabilities such as diagnostic service offerings. We believe our North America segment has the largest distribution network of vehicle parts and accessories for the automotive collision repair market in North America. In our Europe segment, we are implementing a business transformation, a similar strategy to our North America operations, by establishing a Pan-European organization through the integration of the various acquisitions. We currently have operations in over 20 different European countries, which we believe represents the broadest and largest footprint in the aftermarket industry in Europe. On a global basis, we operate approximately 1,600 facilities.
Broad product offering. The breadth and depth of our inventory across our operating segments reinforces our ability to provide a “one-stop” solution for our customers’ alternative vehicle replacement, maintenance, diagnostic services and specialty vehicle product needs.
High fulfillment rates. We manage our inventory to improve stocking levels and delivery speed. Maintaining industry leading service levels and fill rates improves customer satisfaction and cycle time for repairs.
Strong business relationships. We have developed business relationships with key constituents, including customers, automobile insurance companies, multiple-location vehicle repair operations, vendor partners and other industry participants in North America, Europe, and Asia. We monitor the start-up and venture capital landscape to develop business relationships and enhance our portfolio of potential offerings.
Technology driven business processes. We focus on technology development to expand our competitive advantage. We have built advanced data analytics capabilities and data assets and believe that we can more cost effectively leverage our data to make better business decisions than most of our competitors.
Adaptation to evolving technology in the automotive industry. We are committed to monitoring and adapting our business to the technological changes in the automotive industry. We have a forward-looking strategy and innovation team that helps us monitor megatrends and assess the potential opportunities and risks associated with several areas including, but not limited to, electric vehicles, advanced driver assistance systems, vehicle connectivity, autonomous vehicles, e-commerce and ride-sharing trends.
Rationalized asset base. We have a portfolio review process and are continually analyzing and executing initiatives to reduce our operating costs and drive efficiencies, including brand rationalization, rightsizing efforts and productivity initiatives.
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Employees and communities. We focus on employees and communities through continuous improvement in our Environmental, Social and Governance initiatives. One of our top priorities is the health and safety of our employees, customers and communities in which we operate.
We will measure our progress toward achieving our strategic goals based on our performance with respect to the following key priorities: profitable growth, cash flow generation, European integration and talent acquisition. We have implemented various improvement plans in an attempt to enhance our operational efficiencies and actively monitor these and other important operating metrics.
COVID-19 IMPACT
The COVID-19 pandemic and the resulting governmental actions taken to control the virus have impacted, and are expected to continue to impact, our business in 2020 and into 2021. The effects include, but are not limited to, a reduction in demand for our products and services, liquidity challenges for certain of our customers and suppliers, and organizational changes, such as personnel reductions and route consolidation, driven by cost actions to mitigate the actual and expected revenue decline. The ultimate impact of COVID-19 on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows is dependent on future developments, including the severity and duration of the pandemic and the related impact on the global economy, which are uncertain and cannot be predicted at this time. For further discussion regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our business and financial results, see “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
NORTH AMERICA SEGMENT
Our North America segment is composed of wholesale operations, which consists of aftermarket and salvage operations, and self service retail operations.
Wholesale Operations
Inventory
Our wholesale operations in North America sell five product types (aftermarket, OEM recycled, OEM remanufactured, OEM refurbished and, to a lesser extent, new OEM parts) to professional collision and mechanical vehicle repair businesses. Our principal aftermarket product types consist of those most frequently damaged in collisions, including bumper covers, automotive body panels, lights and automotive glass products such as windshields. Platinum Plus is our exclusive product line offered under the Keystone brand of aftermarket products. We also developed a product line called “Value Line” for more value conscious, often self-pay, consumers. Certain of our products are certified by an independent organization, the Certified Automotive Parts Association (“CAPA”). CAPA is an association that evaluates the quality of aftermarket collision replacement products compared to OEM collision replacement products. Our salvage products include both mechanical and collision parts, including engines; transmissions; door assemblies; sheet metal products such as trunk lids, fenders and hoods; lights; and bumper assemblies. Additionally, by way of two acquisitions in 2019, we entered the diagnostics and repair services business, which we expect to grow in the coming years as the number of technological components in vehicles increases. In January 2021, the diagnostic and repair services acquisitions were combined into a single brand, known as Elitek Vehicle Services.
The aftermarket products we distribute are purchased from independent manufacturers and distributors located primarily in North America and Asia, principally Taiwan. In 2020, approximately 44% of our aftermarket purchases were made from our top 5 vendors, with our largest vendor providing approximately 13% of our annual inventory purchases for the North America segment. We believe we are one of the largest customers of each of these suppliers. Outside of this group, no other supplier provided more than 5% of our supply of aftermarket products in 2020. We purchased approximately 42% of our aftermarket products in 2020 directly from manufacturers in Taiwan and other Asian countries. Approximately 55% of our aftermarket products were purchased from vendors located in the U.S.; however, we believe the majority of these products were manufactured in Taiwan, Mexico or other foreign countries.
Within our wholesale operations, we focus our procurement on products that are in the most demand, based on a number of factors such as historical sales records of vehicles by model and year, customer requests, and projections of future supply and demand trends. Because lead times may be 40 days or more on imported aftermarket products, sales volumes and in-stock inventory are important factors in the procurement process.
We procure recycled products for our wholesale operations by acquiring total loss vehicles, typically sold at regional salvage auctions, and then dismantling and inventorying the parts. The availability and pricing of the salvage vehicles we procure for our wholesale recycled products operations may be impacted by a variety of factors, including the production level of new vehicles and the percentage of damaged vehicles declared total losses. Our bidding specialists are equipped with a proprietary software application that allows them to compare the vehicles at salvage auctions against our current inventory
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levels, historical demand, and recent average selling prices to arrive at an estimated maximum bid. Additionally, we are embedding artificial intelligence technology into our salvage procurement software to assist in the procurement decision making process, reducing the amount of labor and human error in the process.
Information Technology Systems
In our aftermarket operations, we use a third party enterprise management system and other third party software packages for an electronic data interchange tool, and E-commerce tools to enhance our online business-to-business initiatives - OrderKeystone.com and Keyless.
Our wholesale recycled product locations in North America operate an internally-developed, proprietary enterprise management system called LKQX. We believe that the use of a single system across a majority of our wholesale recycled product operations helps facilitate the sales process; allows for continued implementation of standard operating procedures; and improves training efficiency, employee transferability, access to our national inventory database, management reporting and data storage. The system also supports an electronic exchange process for identifying and locating parts at other select recyclers and facilitates brokered sales to fill customer orders for items not in stock.
We also use other third party software packages for both businesses to leverage the centralized data and information that a single system provides, such as a data warehouse to conduct enhanced analytics and reporting, and an integrated budgeting system.
Scrap and Other Materials
Our salvage operations generate scrap metal and other materials that we sell to metals recyclers. Vehicles that have been dismantled for recycled products and "crush only" end-of-life vehicles acquired from other companies are typically crushed using equipment on site. In other cases, we will hire mobile crushing equipment to crush the vehicles before they are transported to shredders and scrap metal processors. Damaged and unusable wheel cores are melted in our aluminum furnace and sold to consumers of aluminum ingot and sow for the production of various automotive products, including wheels. We also extract and sell the precious metals contained in certain of our recycled parts such as catalytic converters.
Customers
We sell our products to wholesale customers that include collision and mechanical repair shops and new and used car dealerships, as well as to retail customers. The majority of these customers tend to be individually-owned small businesses, although the number of independent and dealer-operated collision repair facilities has declined over the last decade, as regional or national multiple shop operators ("MSO") have increased their geographic presence through consolidation.
Automobile insurance companies affect the demand for our collision products; while insurance companies do not pay for our products directly, they ultimately pay for the repair costs of insured vehicles in excess of any deductible amount. As a result, insurance companies often influence the types of products used in a repair. The use of our alternative products instead of new OEM products provides a direct benefit to insurance companies by lowering the cost of repairs, by often decreasing the time required to return the repaired vehicle to the customer, and by providing a replacement product that is of high quality and comparable performance to the part replaced.
Our sales personnel are encouraged to promote LKQ to customers as a “one-stop shop” by offering comparable options from our other product lines if the desired part is not in stock. To support these efforts, our sales staff has access to both recycled and aftermarket sales systems to encourage cross selling.
To better serve our customers, we take a consolidated approach to the electronic sale of wholesale products in our North America segment. A full suite of e-commerce services is available to approved partners that helps us improve order accuracy, reduce return rate and better fit our customer workflow. Using these services in coordination with our partners, products can be searched, priced and ordered without leaving the customers' own operating systems.
Distribution
We have a distribution network of warehouses and cross dock facilities, which allows us to develop and maintain our service levels with local repair shops while providing industry leading fulfillment rates that are made possible by our nationwide presence. Our delivery fleet utilizes a third party software provider to optimize delivery routes, and to track the progress of delivery vehicles throughout their runs. This third party software connects into each of our wholesale systems to allow a single interface for our management team to have a single delivery to our customer, regardless of the product line or operating system. Our local presence allows us to provide daily deliveries as required by our customers, using drivers who routinely deliver to the same customers. Our sales force and local delivery drivers develop and maintain critical personal relationships with the local repair shops that benefit from access to our wide selection of products, which we are able to offer as a result of our regional inventory network. We operate a delivery fleet of medium-sized trucks and smaller trucks and vans,
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which deliver multiple product types on the same delivery routes to help minimize distribution costs and improve customer service.
Competition
We consider all suppliers of vehicle collision and mechanical products to be competitors, including aftermarket suppliers, recycling businesses, refurbishing operations, parts remanufacturers, OEMs and internet-based suppliers. We compete with alternative parts distributors on the basis of our nationwide distribution system, our product lines and inventory availability, customer service, our relationships with insurance companies, and to a lesser extent, price; we compete with OEMs primarily on the basis of price and, to a lesser extent, on service and product quality. We do not consider retail chains that focus on the do-it-yourself market to be our direct competitors since many of our wholesale product sales are influenced by insurance companies, who ultimately pay for the repair costs of insured vehicles in excess of any deductible amount, rather than the end user, and there is limited overlap in the products that we sell.
Self Service Operations
Our self service retail operations, most of which operate under the name “LKQ Pick Your Part,” allow consumers to come directly to the yard to pick parts off of salvage vehicles. In addition to revenue from the sale of parts, core, scrap steel and other metals, we charge a nominal admission fee to access the property.
Inventory
We acquire inventory for our self service retail product operations from a variety of sources, including but not limited to towing companies, vehicle auctions, the general public, municipality sales, insurance carriers, and charitable organizations. We procure salvage vehicles for our self service retail product operations that are generally older and priced lower than the salvage vehicles we purchase for our wholesale recycled product operations. Vehicles are delivered to our locations by the seller, or we arrange for transportation. Once on our property, minimal labor is required to process the vehicle other than removing the battery, fluids, refrigerants, catalytic converters and hazardous materials. The extracted fluids are stored in bulk and subsequently sold to recyclers. Vehicles are then placed in the yard for customers to remove parts. In our self service business, availability of a specific part will depend on which vehicles are currently at the site and to what extent parts may have been previously sold. We usually keep a vehicle at our facility for 30 to 120 days, depending on the capacity of the yard and size of the market, before it is crushed and sold to scrap metal processors.
Scrap and Other Materials
Our self service operations generate scrap metal, alloys and other materials that we sell to recyclers. Vehicles that we no longer make available to the public and "crush only" vehicles acquired from other companies, including OEMs, are typically crushed using equipment on site. Damaged and unusable wheel cores are melted in our aluminum furnace and sold to consumers of aluminum ingot and sow for the production of various automotive products, including wheels. We also extract and sell the precious metals contained in certain of our recycled parts such as catalytic converters.
Customers
The customers of our self service yards are frequently do-it-yourself mechanics, small independent repair shops servicing older vehicles, auto rebuilders, and resellers. The scrap from the vehicle hulks, when not processed by us, is sold to metals recyclers, with whom we may also compete when procuring salvage vehicles for our operations.
Competition
There are competitors operating self service businesses in all of the markets in which we operate. In some markets, there are numerous competitors, often operating in close proximity to our operations. We try to differentiate our business by the quality of the inventory and the size and cleanliness of the property. We also differentiate our business from our competitors through our app, which allows customers to receive daily push notifications when vehicles in which they have identified an interest are placed into their favorite yards. In addition to allowing customers to see our available inventory, the app also allows customers to input search parameters, including for specific parts, and the year, make, and model of the vehicle, to identify the population of vehicles that might be available from which to pull compatible parts. We do not consider retail chains that focus on the do-it-yourself market to be our direct competitors, as there is limited overlap in the products that we sell.
EUROPE SEGMENT
Our Europe segment operates in over 20 countries and was built on four key acquisitions: ECP (2011), Sator (2013), Rhiag (2016) and Stahlgruber (2018). Additionally, in 2014 we expanded our European segment to include wholesale recycling operations through our acquisition of a business with salvage and vehicle repair facilities in Sweden and Norway, and in 2016, we acquired an equity investment in Mekonomen AB ("Mekonomen"), the leading independent car parts distributor in the
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Nordic region of Europe. Mekonomen is independent of our existing European operations, but we have identified areas where the companies can work together in a mutually beneficial manner, primarily related to procurement and category management.
1 LKQ Europe
Our European strategy, facilitated through our 1 LKQ Europe program, is to leverage the strengths of acquired businesses, reduce procurement costs by consolidating and streamlining our product offerings, and combine an integrated organization driving for functional excellence with the necessary technology linking our business processes with our customers and suppliers. As part of our 1 LKQ Europe program, we are integrating our European operations as we optimize purchasing, warehousing, systems, logistics and back-office functions, and align our private label products across the segment. Under the 1 LKQ Europe program, we are reorganizing our non-customer-facing teams and support systems through various projects including the implementation of a common ERP platform, rationalization of our product portfolio, the creation of a Europe head office in Switzerland, and the establishment of a shared service center in Poland. While certain projects were delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as our procurement initiatives and the new headquarters in Switzerland, we also accelerated certain projects, such as the integration of previously acquired networks and sharing resources across LKQ Europe. We are targeting to complete the organizational design and implementation projects by the middle of 2021, with the remaining projects scheduled to be completed by 2024.
Inventory
Our inventory is primarily composed of mechanical aftermarket parts for the repair of vehicles 3 to 15 years old. Our top selling products include brake pads, discs and sensors, clutches, electrical products such as spark plugs and batteries, steering and suspension products, filters, and oil and automotive fluids. We currently have over 900,000 unique part numbers. Our goal is to reduce the complexity of our product portfolio, reduce the number of parts offered and reduce the number of suppliers. We have phased out or replaced more than 150 brands in the past couple of years. We believe that more than 70% of our product portfolio existing at the start of the program in 2019 could be reviewed for possible reduction.
In 2020, our top supplier represented 8% of our aftermarket inventory purchases for our Europe segment. No other suppliers comprised more than 5% of our purchases during 2020. In 2020, we purchased 94% of our products from companies in Europe. In 2020, 72% and 17% of our total inventory purchases were made in euros and pounds sterling, respectively. As part of our 1 LKQ Europe initiatives we are expanding the distribution of our private label products. Our key strategic private label products are Optimal, ERA and MPM Oils.
In our Nordic operations, we purchase severely damaged or total loss vehicles from insurance companies, which are transferred to our dismantling facilities or sold to other third party dismantlers.
Information Technology Systems
Our aftermarket operations in Europe use various information technology ("IT") systems. Our systems are complex and are designed to perform a variety of tasks (depending on the market), including but not limited to customer orders, inventory management, warehouse and logistics, and financial reporting. Certain of our IT systems can interface with the respective IT systems of our repair shop customers, which enables our customers to identify and order the part required for the repair. As part of our 1 LKQ Europe strategy to create an integrated European company, we initiated a multi-year program to develop and implement a European wide ERP system, which will reduce the number of IT systems we operate. A pilot for the ERP system was successfully deployed in our operating unit in Switzerland in the first quarter of 2020. After a pause during 2020 due to the disruption caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the implementation of the ERP program has been resumed and will next be tested and installed at our Italian operating unit.
Customers
We primarily operate a two-step (i.e. direct sales to repair shop customers) distribution model in Europe, although certain of our operations, such as in Italy, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary, operate partially a three-step (i.e. sales to distributors who in turn sell to repair shop customers) distribution model. In our two-step operations, we sell the majority of our products to commercial customers primarily consisting of professional repairers, including both independent mechanical repair shops and collision repair shops. In our three-step operations, we sell products to wholesale distributors or jobbers. In addition to our sales to repair shops and wholesale distributors, we generate a portion of our revenue through sales to retail customers from e-commerce platforms and from counter sales at the branch locations.
Distribution
Our European operations employ a distribution model in which inventory is stored at national or international distribution centers or regional hubs, with fast moving product stored at branch locations. The large distribution centers regularly re-stock the smaller branches and hubs and hold slower moving items helping us to improve fulfillment rates. Product is moved through the distribution network on our trucks, vans or via common carrier. We are building a new central distribution center in the Netherlands, similar to our central distribution centers in Tamworth, England and Sulzbach-Rosenberg, Germany,
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that will allow us to consolidate multiple regional distribution centers. We believe that our distribution network is larger than those of any of our principal competitors in Europe.
Competition
We view all suppliers of replacement repair products as our competitors, including other alternative parts suppliers and OEMs and their dealer networks. We face significant competition in many markets where even smaller competitors can compete on price and service, and the OEMs compete via ties to brand loyalty of the consumer while also remaining competitive on price, service and availability. We believe we have been able to distinguish ourselves from other alternative parts suppliers primarily through our distribution network, efficient stock management systems and proprietary technology, which allows us to deliver our products quickly, as well as through our product lines and inventory availability, pricing, and service reliability.
SPECIALTY SEGMENT
Our Specialty operating segment was formed in 2014 with our acquisition of Keystone Specialty, a leading distributor and marketer of specialty vehicle aftermarket products and accessories in North America. Our Specialty operations reach most major markets in the U.S. and Canada and serve the following six product segments: RV; truck and off-road; towing; speed and performance; wheels, tires and performance handling; and miscellaneous accessories. In 2017, we acquired Warn Industries, Inc. ("Warn"), a leading designer, manufacturer and marketer of high performance vehicle equipment and accessories. The acquisition of Warn expanded our presence in the specialty market and created viable points of entry into related markets.
Inventory    
The specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories we distribute and raw materials for products we manufacture are purchased from suppliers located primarily in the U.S., Canada, and China. Our top selling products are RV appliances & air conditioners, towing hitches, truck bed covers, vehicle protection products, cargo management products, and wheels, tires & suspension products. Specialty aftermarket suppliers are typically small to medium-sized, independent businesses that focus on a narrow product or market niche. Due to the highly fragmented supplier base for specialty vehicle aftermarket products, we have limited supplier concentration. In 2020, approximately 13% of our specialty vehicle aftermarket purchases were made from our top two suppliers to this segment, with our largest supplier providing approximately 8% of our annual inventory purchases. No other suppliers comprised more than 5% of our purchases during 2020. With our 2017 acquisition of Warn, we have internal capabilities to manufacture and source aftermarket winches, hoists, and bumpers.
Most of our Specialty operations utilize an internally developed inventory management and order entry system that interfaces with third party software systems for accounting, transaction processing, data analytics, and reporting.
Customers
Overall, the specialty vehicle aftermarket parts and accessories market serves a fragmented customer base composed of RV and specialty automotive dealers, installers, jobbers, builders, parts chains, and mail-order businesses. Our customers are principally small, independent businesses. These customers depend on us to provide a broad range of products, rapid delivery, marketing support and technical assistance. In addition to traditional customers, in recent years we have increased sales to several large parts and accessory online retailers. Our Specialty segment also operates retail stores in northeast Pennsylvania.
We promote our products to customers through marketing programs, which include: (i) catalogs, advertising, sponsorships and promotional activities, (ii) product level marketing and merchandising support, and (iii) online and digital marketing initiatives. We stage in-person and/or virtual trade shows across the U.S., which provide an opportunity to improve sales through the showcasing of new and innovative products from our vendors to our customers.
Online sales, which represent the majority of our sales, of our Specialty products take place primarily through our ekeystone.com and viantp.com sites and mobile app. These sites provide customers (i) the ability to match products with the make and model of vehicle thus allowing the customer to order the correct part, (ii) product information (e.g. pictures, attributes) available for review and (iii) the convenience of searching inventory availability and ordering the product on the site. Additionally, the site can provide sales opportunities by suggesting other parts to purchase based on an inquiry submitted by the customer.
Distribution
Our Specialty segment operations employ a hub-and-spoke distribution model that enables us to transport products from our primary distribution centers to our non-inventory stocking cross docks, some of which are co-located with our North America wholesale operations and provide distribution points to key regional markets and synergies with our existing infrastructure. We believe this provides added value to our customers through a broader product offering and more efficient distribution process. We use our delivery routes to provide delivery and returns of our products directly to and from our customers in all 48 continental U.S. states and 9 Canadian provinces, and we ship globally to customers in other countries. Our
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delivery fleet utilizes a third party software provider to optimize delivery routes, and to track the progress of delivery vehicles throughout their runs.
Competition
Industry participants have a variety of supply choices. Vendors can deliver products to market via warehouse distributors and mail order catalog businesses, or directly to retailers and/or consumers. We view all distributors of specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories as our competitors. We believe we have been able to distinguish ourselves from other specialty vehicle aftermarket parts and equipment distributors primarily through our broad product selection, which encompasses both popular and hard-to-find products, our national distribution network, and our efficient inventory management systems, as well as through our service. We compete on the basis of product breadth and depth, rapid and dependable delivery, marketing initiatives, support services, and price.
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
We own and have the right to use various intellectual property, including intellectual property acquired as a result of past acquisitions, such as intellectual property related to winches acquired in our acquisition of Warn. In addition to trade names, trademarks and patents, we also have technology-based intellectual property that has been both internally developed and obtained through license agreements and acquisitions. We do not believe that our business is materially dependent on any single item of intellectual property, or any single group of related intellectual property, owned or licensed, nor would the expiration of any particular item or related group of intellectual property, or the termination of any particular intellectual property license agreement, materially affect our business. See the risk factor "Intellectual property claims relating to aftermarket products could adversely affect our business." in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding the risks related to intellectual property.
HUMAN CAPITAL
Our people are our most valuable asset. The Company’s core values of dependability, excellence, leadership, integrity, value, efficiency and responsiveness establish the foundation on which our culture is built and give our people the opportunity to thrive. Our key human capital management objectives are to attract, retain and develop the highest quality talent. To support these objectives, our human resources programs are designed to acquire and develop talent to prepare them for critical roles within our Company and to facilitate a high-performing, diverse workforce; reward and support employees with competitive pay and benefit programs; and enhance our culture through efforts aimed at making the workplace more engaging and inclusive.
Employees
As of December 31, 2020, we employed approximately 44,000 persons, of which approximately 17,000 were employed in North America and approximately 27,000 were employed outside of North America. Of our employees in North America, approximately 800 were represented by unions. Outside of North America, we have government-mandated collective bargaining agreements and union contracts in certain countries, particularly in Europe where many of our employees are represented by unions and/or works councils. We consider our employee relations to be good.
Inclusion and Diversity
We value and promote inclusion and diversity in our workplace. We recognize that a diverse mix of backgrounds, skills and experiences drives new ideas, products and services. We recruit, hire, promote and retain employees based on merit and demonstrated skills. With respect to our employee population in the United States, as of December 31, 2020 approximately 42% have self-identified as Asian, Black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native American, Pacific Islander or two or more races. We have a long-standing commitment to equal employment opportunity. It is our policy and practice to hire, train, promote and compensate employees, and administer all of our personnel policies without regard to race, color, ethnicity, national origin, ancestry, citizenship status, religion, religious creed, sex, gender, gender identity and expression, age, disability, protected medical condition, marital status, veteran or military status, sexual orientation, pregnancy, genetic information or any other characteristic protected by civil rights laws.
Commitment to Values and Ethics
Along with our core values, we act in accordance with our Code of Ethics, which sets forth guidance for employees to make appropriate ethical decisions. Our Code of Ethics covers topics such as use of company assets, bribery and corruption, conflicts of interest, discrimination, harassment, health and safety, privacy and data protection, protecting confidential information, and reporting Code of Ethics violations. The Code of Ethics reflects our commitment to acting with a high level of integrity and providing guidance for reporting complaints in the event of alleged violations of our policies (including through an anonymous “Speak Up” hotline). We do not tolerate harassment or retaliation against persons that report improper behavior.

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Health and Safety
We are committed to providing all of our employees with a safe and secure work environment where no one is subject to unnecessary risk. As a key focus, we have implemented various programs and practices aimed to prevent accidents and foster a culture of safety. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we implemented new protocols to further support the health and safety of our employees and customers. We also provide several avenues for employees to speak up, including anonymously, if they see something that is inconsistent with good safety practices.
Compensation and Benefits
We strive to attract and retain our talented employees by providing market-competitive compensation and benefits. We engage an outside consulting firm to objectively evaluate our compensation program and benchmark it against industry peers and other similarly situated organizations. Our short and long-term incentive programs are aligned with our vision and key business objectives and are intended to motivate strong performance. We offer benefits that support the physical, financial and emotional well-being of our employees. We offer eligible employees medical, dental and vision coverage, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off, an employee assistance program, an employee assistance fund, voluntary short-term disability insurance, company paid long-term disability insurance, company paid term life insurance, a tuition reimbursement program, a scholarship program for the children of employees, a program to match charitable donations, and retirement plan contributions. Our benefits vary by location and are designed to meet or exceed local laws and to be competitive in the marketplace.

Professional Development and Training
We believe a key factor in employee retention is training and professional development. We have training programs across all levels of the Company to meet the needs of various roles, specialized skill sets and departments across the Company. We provide legal and ethics compliance education as well as general workplace safety and training to our employees. We are committed to the security and confidentiality of our employees’ personal information and employ software tools and periodic cyber security training to promote security and information protection.
FACILITIES
As of December 31, 2020, our operations included approximately 1,600 facilities, most of which are leased. Of our total facilities, approximately 525 facilities were located in the U.S. and approximately 1,075 facilities were located in over 25 other countries. Many of our locations stock multiple product types or serve more than one function.
Our global headquarters are located at 500 West Madison Street, Chicago, Illinois 60661.
Our North American headquarters, in Nashville, Tennessee, performs certain centralized functions for our North American operations, including accounting, procurement, and information systems support.
Our Europe headquarters are located in Zug, Switzerland. Our European operations are distributed throughout Europe with main offices in Tamworth, England; in Schiedam, the Netherlands; in Milan, Italy; in Prague, Czech Republic; and in Poing, Germany. In addition to these offices, we have two national distribution centers in Tamworth, England, totaling 250,000 and 1,025,000 square feet, respectively, which house inventory to supply the hubs and branches of our U.K. and Republic of Ireland operations, and one distribution center in Sulzbach-Rosenberg, Germany which supplies our operations in Germany, Austria, Italy, the Czech Republic and Switzerland. The shared service center in Katowice, Poland should begin operations in the second half of 2021, and the central distribution center in the Netherlands is scheduled to be fully operational by 2023.
Our Specialty operations maintain primary procurement, accounting and finance functions in Exeter, Pennsylvania.
Certain back-office support functions for our segments are performed in Bengaluru, India. Additionally, we operate an aftermarket parts warehouse in Taiwan to aggregate inventory for shipment to our locations in North America.
REGULATION
Our operations and properties are subject to laws and regulations relating to the protection of the environment in the U.S. and the other countries in which we operate. See the risk factor “We are subject to environmental regulations and incur costs relating to environmental matters” in Part I, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding the effects of environmental laws and regulations on us.
We may be affected by tariffs and other import laws and restrictions because we import into the U.S. a significant number of products for sale and distribution. See the risk factors “If significant tariffs or other restrictions are placed on products or materials we import or any related counter-measures are taken by countries to which we export products, our revenue and results of operations may be materially harmed” and “Intellectual property claims relating to aftermarket products could adversely affect our business” in Part 1, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding importation risks.
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              Our business processes and operations are subject to laws and regulations relating to privacy and data protection. See the risk factor “The costs of complying with the requirements of laws pertaining to the privacy and security of personal information and the potential liability associated with the failure to comply with such laws could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations” in Part 1, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information about privacy and data protection risks.
              Some jurisdictions have enacted laws to restrict or prohibit the sale of alternative vehicle parts. See the risk factor “Existing or new laws and regulations, or changes to enforcement or interpretation of existing laws or regulations, may prohibit, restrict or burden the sale of aftermarket, recycled, refurbished or remanufactured products” in Part 1, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information concerning regulatory restrictions on the sale of our products.
              We have thousands of employees located in the U.S. and many other countries and are subject to labor and employment laws in numerous jurisdictions. See the risk factor “Our business may be adversely affected by union activities and labor and employment laws” in Part 1, Item 1A of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information regarding these labor and employment risks.
SEASONALITY
Our operating results are subject to quarterly variations based on a variety of factors, influenced primarily by seasonal changes in weather patterns. During the winter months, we tend to have higher demand for our vehicle replacement products because there are more weather related repairs. Our aftermarket glass operations typically generate greater revenue and earnings in the second and third quarters, when the demand for automotive replacement glass increases after the winter weather. Our specialty vehicle operations typically generate greater revenue and earnings in the second quarter, when vehicle owners tend to install this equipment, and lower revenue and earnings in the fourth quarter, when the number of RV trips tends to decline as a result of the winter weather. However, the COVID-19 pandemic created an increased demand in the RV market in 2020, and the effect on demand extended into the fourth quarter. Additionally, seasonality may affect our product mix, for example, collision parts tend to have higher demand in the winter as there are generally higher accident rates.
ENVIRONMENTAL, SOCIAL AND GOVERNANCE MATTERS    
Environmental
We contribute to a healthy environment. For example, our North American recycling operations harvest vehicle components for reuse in the repair of vehicles. Once the parts are harvested, the remaining valuable materials are removed and repurposed for use in the manufacturing of new basic materials such as steel, aluminum, plastic and rubber. Additionally, we extract fluids that we recycle or utilize in our own operations, such as fuel to run our own truck fleet.
Our recycling efforts are a key pillar of our mission statement of being a responsible steward of the environment and a true partner with the communities in which we operate. This stewardship has been embedded in our culture since the company’s founding in 1998. Our recycling efforts preserve natural resources, reduce the demand for scarce landfill space, and help decrease air and water pollution.
The table below highlights our North American recycling operation’s efforts in 2020 to minimize the environmental impact of total loss and end-of-life vehicles with effective and proper vehicle disposition, and lists the approximate number or amount of parts or other materials removed from such vehicles and sold or used by us in our operations.
(in thousands)2020 Totals
Vehicles procured818 
Catalytic converters1,489 
Tires2,285 
Batteries658 
Fuel (in gallons)3,876 
Waste oil (in gallons)2,315 
Anti-freeze/Washer fluid (in gallons)305 
Crush Auto/Scrap (in tons)851 
Individual parts sold14,629 



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Social
We continuously strive to improve the effect of our operations, and the awareness of all of our employees, with respect to social issues. Refer to the "Human Capital" section above for more information.
We also strive to improve the communities in which we operate. The employees at our facilities are encouraged to volunteer in local community activities, and we have established a charitable foundation to distribute funds to local causes.
Governance
We have made substantial progress in the area of corporate governance. Our Board of Directors refreshment process has resulted in half of our current Board being added since August 2018, and we have three women on our Board. Additionally, over 80% of our directors are independent. We believe that the skill sets of our newly constituted Board effectively address the areas of focus that are important for our short and long-term strategic objectives, including the continued focus on the integration of our European operations.
                We have adopted “proxy access,” which permits an eligible stockholder to nominate and include in our proxy materials director nominees (subject to the terms set forth in our Bylaws). We also have majority voting for the election of our directors, requiring a director who fails to receive a majority vote to tender his or her resignation to the Board.
                Our Board of Directors adopted a revised Code of Ethics in 2019 to help ensure that everyone at LKQ is clear on our mission, values and guiding ethical principles.  The Code of Ethics covers a variety of topics, including the health and safety of our employees, fair dealing with our customers, suppliers and competitors, anti-bribery rules, conflict of interest prohibitions, and protecting personal data.
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ITEM 1A.     RISK FACTORS
The following risk factors and other information included in this Annual Report on Form 10-K should be carefully considered. The occurrence of any of the following risks or of unknown risks and uncertainties may adversely affect our business, operating results and financial condition. For a summary of risk factors refer to "Special Note on Forward-Looking Statements" in Part I of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Risks Relating to Our Business
Our operating results and financial condition have been and will likely continue to be adversely affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and could be adversely affected by other public health emergencies.
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting, and is expected to continue to adversely affect, our business and operations. Government authorities in the jurisdictions in which we operate have recommended or mandated precautions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including prohibitions on congregating in various locations, travel restrictions, shelter-in-place orders, and similar measures. These measures have resulted in a significant reduction in miles driven. As a result, we have experienced and expect to continue to experience unpredictable reductions in demand for our products. Although we have been permitted to continue to operate in most of the jurisdictions in which we operate, including in jurisdictions that have mandated the closure of certain businesses, there is no assurance that we will be permitted to continue operations under future government orders or other restrictions.
In order to reduce costs in an attempt to offset reductions in revenue, we have implemented various cost reductions to align with the lower level of economic activity, including employee layoffs and furloughs. These actions may result in a significant increase in employment-related claims and the associated risks and expenses related thereto. Due to the self-insured nature of our health insurance program, we may be subject to substantial increases in healthcare costs in the event that a significant number of our employees become ill and require medical treatment due to COVID-19 infections. Also, we may suffer workforce shortages and/or lose the services of key management personnel due to employees contracting the COVID-19 virus or due to employees being subject to quarantine because of possible exposure to a person who tested positive for the virus. Although we have been taking precautions as recommended by governmental agencies to protect the health and safety of our employees who are continuing to work, we may be subject to claims that we did not take adequate or appropriate measures in this regard. We have also implemented remote work arrangements for many of our employees, which may expose us to an increased risk of cyber-attack or other cyber-security threats.
In the event that the pandemic subsides and business increases, there can be no assurance that we will be able to recall or rehire the appropriate number of employees with the proper skill sets to handle the increase in business.
We are continuing to evaluate the applicability of certain financial assistance and relief programs from foreign governments. While we have pursued and will continue to pursue this government assistance where possible and advisable, there is no guarantee as to what amount, if any, we would qualify for and receive in the future.
The COVID-19 pandemic is adversely affecting our business partners, including our suppliers and customers. Depending on the extent of the adverse effects, we may not be able to source sufficient inventory to provide products to our customers even at reduced-demand levels, and the ability of our customers to continue operating or to pay us for our products may be disrupted.
Depending on the length and severity of the adverse effects on our business of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may determine that our goodwill or other long-lived assets have become impaired or that the carrying value of our receivables and inventory may no longer be recoverable. If either or both occur, we may incur significant charges to our pre-tax income.
Depending on the length and severity of the adverse effects on our business of the COVID-19 pandemic, we may not satisfy one or more of the financial or other covenants in our credit facility. Failure to satisfy any such covenant could inhibit our ability to borrow money under our credit facility should we need to do so or could result in a default under our credit facility. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused severe macroeconomic disruptions, including substantial price volatility in the equities markets, including the price of our common stock, and concerns about the liquidity of the credit markets. These macroeconomic disruptions may also affect our ability to borrow money or otherwise raise cash.
There is uncertainty with respect to the duration and breadth of the COVID-19 pandemic. Moreover, even after the mitigation measures are relaxed by government authorities, the timing and extent of the recovery of the economies in the countries where we operate is difficult to estimate. Thus, the ultimate impact on our business, financial results and financial condition cannot reasonably be estimated at this time. In addition, even if the adverse effects of the COVID-19 pandemic subside, there is the possibility of a recurrence of COVID-19 or the emergence of a different pandemic or health emergency with similar economic disruptions. Certain jurisdictions are reinstating mitigation measures at least through February 2021.
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Our operating results and financial condition have been and could continue to be adversely affected by the economic, political and social conditions in the U.S., Europe and elsewhere, as well as the economic health of vehicle owners and numbers and types of vehicles sold.
Changes in economic, political and social conditions in the U.S., Europe and other countries in which we are located or do business could have a material effect on our company. Negative effects to our supply chain, costs of doing business, sales and distribution activity may occur due to factors such as war or threats of war, natural disasters, nuclear facility accidents, public health emergencies, utility interruptions, terrorism and social unrest.
Our business is also affected by a number of other factors. For example, the number and types of new vehicles produced and sold by manufacturers affects our business. A decrease in the number of vehicles on the road may result in a decrease in repairs.
Our sales are also impacted by changes to the economic health of vehicle owners. The economic health of vehicle owners is affected by many factors, including, among others, general business conditions, interest rates, inflation, consumer debt levels, the availability of consumer credit, taxation, fuel prices, unemployment trends and other matters that influence consumer confidence and spending.  Many of these factors are outside of our control. If any of these conditions worsen, our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows could be adversely affected.
In addition, economic conditions, including decreased access to credit, may result in financial difficulties leading to restructurings, bankruptcies, liquidations and other unfavorable events for our customers, suppliers, logistics and other service providers and financial institutions that are counterparties to our credit facilities and hedge transactions. These unfavorable events affecting our business partners could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We have a substantial business presence in Europe, including a significant presence in the U.K. and the Republic of Ireland (“ROI”). In June 2016, voters in the U.K. decided by referendum to withdraw from the European Union (also known as Brexit). The U.K.’s withdrawal from the European Union became effective on January 31, 2020. The U.K. and the European Union negotiated a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) to govern the new relationship, which became effective on January 1, 2021. Following the adoption of the TCA, duties have increased on some of the products we import into the U.K., and we have observed shipment delays, particularly with respect to the products we supply to our business in the ROI. While the extent and impact of these issues is not clear at this point, they could have adverse impacts on our business. Notwithstanding the TCA, there continues to be uncertainty regarding the effects of Brexit on our U.K. and European businesses, including with respect to tariffs or trade sanctions on goods moving between the jurisdictions, increased administrative burdens, fluctuations in exchange rates, disruptions in access to markets by U.K. and ROI companies, and disagreements about the interpretation of the TCA.
The widespread use of social media platforms has increased the speed and scope that information or misinformation about us can be disseminated and could hamper our ability to correct misrepresentations or to otherwise respond effectively to negative publicity. Negative posts about us, our employees, our business practices, or our products or services, whether or not valid, could seriously damage our brands and reputation.
We face competition from local, national, international, and internet-based vehicle products providers, and this competition could negatively affect our business.
The vehicle replacement products industry and vehicle accessory parts industry are highly competitive and are served by numerous suppliers of OEM, recycled, aftermarket, refurbished and remanufactured products. Within each of these categories of suppliers, there are local owner-operated companies, larger regional suppliers, national and international providers, and internet-based suppliers and distributors. Providers of vehicle replacement and accessory products that have traditionally sold only certain categories of such products may decide to expand their product offerings into other categories of vehicle products, which may further increase competition. Some of our current and potential competitors may have more operational expertise; greater financial, technical, manufacturing, distribution, and other resources; longer operating histories; lower cost structures; and better relationships in the insurance and vehicle repair industries or with consumers, than we do. Business transacted on online marketplaces has been increasing, which presents additional competitive pressures on us; in addition, facilitators of these online marketplaces control access to this channel and may prohibit us from participating for various reasons.
In the U.S. and Europe, local companies have formed cooperative efforts in an attempt to more efficiently compete against us in all aspects of our business. As a result of these factors, our competitors may be able to provide products that we are unable to supply, provide their products at lower costs, or supply products to customers that we are unable to serve.
We believe that a majority of collision parts by dollar amount are supplied by OEMs, with the balance being supplied by distributors of alternative aftermarket, recycled, refurbished and remanufactured collision parts like us. The OEMs are
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therefore able to exert pricing pressure in the marketplace. We compete with the OEMs primarily on price and to a lesser extent on service and quality.
From time to time, the OEMs have engaged in efforts seeking to increase OEM market share and to restrict consumers’ choice to use recycled or aftermarket parts to repair consumers’ vehicles. Examples of these efforts include blocking the use of vehicle telematics by the independent repair industry, demanding that suppliers provide certain parts exclusively to the OEMs, embedding software in certain vehicle parts that prevents them from being recycled and used to repair other vehicles, repair shop certification programs that, in some cases, require the repair shops to use only OEM parts, refusing to sell certain OEM parts unless the buyer is an OEM-certified shop, obtaining patents and trademarks on various subcomponents of vehicles to prohibit the use of an aftermarket part alternative, and price matching and rebate programs on certain aftermarket products. See the risk factor entitled “Intellectual property claims relating to aftermarket products could adversely affect our business” for further information about the OEM patents and trademarks.
With respect to telematics, vehicles are increasingly being equipped with systems that transmit data to the OEMs wirelessly regarding, among other items, accident incidents, maintenance requirements, location of the vehicle, identification of the closest dealership, and other statistics about the vehicle and its driving history. To the extent that this data is not shared with alternative suppliers, the OEMs will have an advantage with respect to such matters as contacting the vehicle driver, recommending repairs and maintenance, and directing the vehicle owner to an affiliated dealership.
The frequency and intensity of these OEM efforts has been increasing over time. The growth and effectiveness of these efforts or the introduction of new ones could have a material adverse impact on our business.
We rely upon our customers and insurance companies to promote the usage of alternative parts.
Our success depends, in part, on the acceptance and promotion of alternative parts usage by automotive insurance companies and vehicle repair facilities. There can be no assurance that current levels of alternative parts usage will be maintained or will increase in the future.
We rely on business relationships with insurance companies. These insurance companies encourage vehicle repair facilities to use products we provide. The business relationships include in some cases participation in aftermarket quality and service assurance programs that may result in a higher usage of our aftermarket products than would be the case without the programs. Our arrangements with these companies may be terminated by them at any time, including in connection with their own business concerns relating to the offering, availability, standards or operations of the aftermarket quality and service assurance programs. We rely on these relationships for sales to some collision repair shops, and a termination of these relationships may result in a loss of sales, which could adversely affect our results of operations.
In an Illinois lawsuit involving State Farm Mutual Automobile Insurance Company ("Avery v. State Farm"), a jury decided in October 1999 that State Farm breached certain insurance contracts with its policyholders by using non-OEM replacement products to repair damaged vehicles when use of such products did not restore the vehicle to its "pre-loss condition." The jury found that State Farm misled its customers by not disclosing the use of non-OEM replacement products and the alleged inferiority of those products. Damages in excess of $1 billion were assessed against State Farm. In August 2005, the Illinois Supreme Court reversed the awards made by the lower courts and found, among other things, that the plaintiffs had failed to establish any breach of contract by State Farm. The plaintiffs filed a subsequent claim alleging that State Farm improperly influenced one of the justices on the Illinois Supreme Court. Prior to trial on the subsequent claim, the parties settled the case; as part of the settlement, State Farm paid the plaintiffs $250 million. As a result of this case, some insurance companies reduced or eliminated their use of aftermarket products. Our financial results could be adversely affected if insurance companies modified or terminated the arrangements pursuant to which repair shops buy aftermarket or recycled products from us due to a fear of similar claims.
In addition, to the extent that the collision repair industry continues to consolidate, the buying power of collision repair shop customers may further increase, putting additional pressure on our financial returns.
Intellectual property claims relating to aftermarket products could adversely affect our business.
OEMs and others have attempted to use claims of intellectual property infringement against manufacturers and distributors of aftermarket products to restrict or eliminate the sale of aftermarket products that are the subject of the claims. OEMs have brought such claims in federal court and with the U.S. International Trade Commission. In some cases, we have entered into patent license agreements with OEMs that allow us to sell aftermarket parts that replicate the patented parts in exchange for a royalty and otherwise in accordance with the terms of the agreements.
To the extent OEMs and other manufacturers obtain design patents or trademarks and are successful in asserting claims of infringement of these patents or trademarks against us, we could be restricted or prohibited from selling certain aftermarket products, which could have an adverse effect on our business. In the event that our license agreements, or other similar license arrangements with OEMs or others, are terminated or we are unable to agree upon renewal terms, we may be
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subject to costs and uncertainties of litigation as well as restrictions on our ability to sell aftermarket parts that replicate parts covered by those design patents or trademarks. We have filed, and may file in the future, challenges to OEM patents, including patents owned by OEMs with which we have patent license agreements. We also may file challenges to OEM trademarks. To the extent OEMs are successful in defending their patents or trademarks, we could be restricted or prohibited from selling the corresponding aftermarket products, which could have an adverse effect on our business. Also, we will likely incur expenses investigating, pursuing and defending intellectual property claims.
U.S. Customs and Border Protection has taken the position that certain of our aftermarket parts infringe certain OEM trademarks and seized our aftermarket parts as we attempted to import them into the U.S. We incur costs and expenses attempting to convince Customs and Border Protection to release the seized goods and in litigation where we seek a determination of non-infringement. In the event we are unsuccessful in obtaining their release, such goods may be subject to forfeiture and other penalties.
Aftermarket products certifying organizations may revoke the certification of parts that are the subject of the intellectual property disputes. Lack of certification may negatively impact us because many major insurance companies recommend or require the use of aftermarket products only if they have been certified by an independent certifying organization.
If the number of vehicles involved in accidents declines or the number of cars being repaired declines, or the mix of the types of vehicles in the overall vehicle population changes, our business could suffer.
Our business depends on vehicle accidents, mechanical failures and routine maintenance for both the demand for repairs using our products and the supply of recycled, remanufactured and refurbished parts. To the extent that a relatively higher percentage of damaged vehicles are declared total losses, there will be less demand for our products to repair such vehicles. In addition, our business is impacted by factors that influence the number and/or severity of accidents and mechanical failures including, but not limited to, the number of vehicles on the road, the number of miles driven, the ages of drivers, the occurrence and severity of certain weather conditions, the congestion of traffic, drivers distracted by electronic equipment, the use of alcohol or drugs by drivers, the usage rate and effectiveness of accident avoidance systems in new vehicles, the reliability of new OEM parts, and the condition of roadways. For example, an increase in the acceptance of ride-sharing could reduce the number of vehicles on the road. Additionally, an increase in fuel prices may cause the number of vehicles on the road, the number of miles driven, and the need for mechanical repairs and maintenance to decline, as motorists seek alternative transportation options. Mild weather conditions, particularly during winter months, tend to result in a decrease in vehicle accidents. Moreover, legislation banning the use of handheld cellular telephones or other electronic devices while driving could lead to a decline in accidents.
Systems designed to minimize accident frequency and severity are becoming more prevalent and more technologically sophisticated. To the extent OEMs install or are mandated by law to install accident avoidance systems in their vehicles, the number and severity of accidents could decrease, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
The average number of new vehicles sold annually has fluctuated from year-to-year.  Periods of decreased sales could result in a reduction in the number of vehicles on the road and consequently fewer vehicles involved in accidents or in need of mechanical repair or maintenance. Substantial further declines in automotive sales in the future could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition. In addition, if vehicle population trends result in a disproportionately high number of older vehicles on the road, insurance companies may find it uneconomical to repair such vehicles or there could be less costly repairs. If vehicle population trends result in a disproportionately high number of newer vehicles on the road, the demand generally for mechanical repairs and maintenance would likely decline due to the newer, longer-lasting parts in the vehicle population and mechanical failures being covered by OEM warranties for the first years of a vehicle's life. Moreover, alternative collision and mechanical parts are less likely to be used on newer vehicles. Our Specialty segment depends on sales of pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles, crossover utility vehicles, high performance vehicles and recreational vehicles; any reduction in the number of such vehicles in operation will adversely affect demand for our Specialty products.
Electric vehicles do not have traditional engines, transmissions, and certain related parts. Engines and transmissions represent some of our largest revenue generating SKUs in North America, and parts for engines and transmissions represent a significant amount of the revenue of our European operations. Thus, an increase in electric vehicles as a percentage of vehicles sold could have a negative impact on our sales of engines, transmissions, and other related parts.
Fluctuations in the prices of metals and other commodities could adversely affect our financial results.
Our recycling operations generate scrap metal and precious metals (such as platinum, palladium, and rhodium) as well as other metals that we sell. After we dismantle a salvage vehicle for wholesale parts and after vehicles have been processed in our self service retail business, the remaining vehicle hulks are sold to scrap processors and other remaining metals are sold to processors and brokers of metals. In addition, we receive "crush only" vehicles or vehicles to be further processed from other
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companies, including OEMs, which we dismantle and which generate scrap metal and other metals, in accordance with the guidelines of our agreements with the providing company. The prices of scrap and other metals have historically fluctuated, sometimes significantly, due to market factors. In addition, buyers may stop purchasing metals entirely due to excess supply. To the extent that the prices of metals decrease materially or buyers stop purchasing metals, our revenue from such sales will suffer and a write-down of our inventory value could be required. For example, in 2018 China imposed stringent purity restrictions on the importation of various types of solid waste allegedly in an effort to reduce environmental pollution.
The cost of our wholesale recycled and our self service retail inventory purchases will change as a result of fluctuating scrap metal and other metals prices. In a period of falling metal prices, there can be no assurance that our inventory purchasing cost will decrease the same amount or at the same rate as the scrap metal and other metals prices decline, and there may be a delay between the scrap metal and other metals price reductions and any inventory cost reductions. The prices of steel, aluminum, and plastics are components of the cost to manufacture products for our aftermarket business. If the prices of commodities rise and result in higher costs to us for products we sell, we may not be able to pass these higher costs on to our customers.
An adverse change in our relationships with our suppliers, disruption to our supply of inventory, or the misconduct, performance failures or negligence of our third party vendors or service providers could increase our expenses, impede our ability to serve our customers, or expose us to liability.
Our North American business is dependent on a relatively small number of suppliers of aftermarket products, a large portion of which are sourced from Taiwan. Our European business also acquires product from Asian sources. We incur substantial freight costs to import parts from our suppliers, many of which are located in Asia. If the cost of freight rose, we might not be able to pass the cost increases on to our customers. Furthermore, although alternative suppliers exist for substantially all aftermarket products distributed by us, the loss of any one supplier could have a material adverse effect on us until alternative suppliers are located and have commenced manufacturing and providing the relevant products. In addition, we are subject to disruptions from work stoppages and other labor disputes at port facilities through which we import our inventory. We also face the risk that our suppliers could attempt to circumvent us and sell their product directly to our customers; consolidation of our suppliers could enhance their ability to distribute products through additional sales channels and thus decrease their reliance on wholesale distributors like us.
Moreover, our operations are subject to the customary risks of doing business abroad, including, among other things, natural disasters, transportation costs and delays, political instability, currency fluctuations and the imposition of tariffs, import and export controls and other non-tariff barriers (including changes in the allocation of quotas), as well as the uncertainty regarding future relations between China, Japan and Taiwan. For example, U.S. Customs and Border Protection have used claims of intellectual property infringement to seize certain of our aftermarket parts as we attempted to import them into the U.S.
Because a substantial volume of our sales involves products manufactured from sheet metal, we can be adversely impacted if sheet metal becomes unavailable or is only available at higher prices, which we may not be able to pass on to our customers. Additionally, as OEMs convert to raw materials other than steel, it may be more difficult or expensive to source aftermarket parts made with such materials, and it may be more difficult for repair shops to work with such materials in the repair process.
Most of our salvage and a portion of our self service inventory is obtained from vehicles offered at salvage auctions operated by several companies that own auction facilities in numerous locations across the U.S. We do not typically have contracts with the auction companies. According to industry analysts, a small number of companies control a large percentage of the salvage auction market in the U.S. If an auction company prohibited us from participating in its auctions, began competing with us, or significantly raised its fees, our business could be adversely affected through higher costs or the resulting potential inability to service our customers. Moreover, we face competition in the purchase of vehicles from direct competitors, rebuilders, exporters and other bidders. To the extent that the number of bidders increases, it may have the effect of increasing our cost of goods sold for wholesale recycled products. Some states regulate bidders to help ensure that salvage vehicles are purchased for legal purposes by qualified buyers. Auction companies have been actively seeking to reduce, circumvent or eliminate these regulations, which would further increase the number of bidders.
In addition, there is a limited supply of salvage vehicles in the U.S., and thus the costs to us of these vehicles could increase over time. In some states, when a vehicle is deemed a total loss, a salvage title is issued. Whether states issue salvage titles is important to the supply of inventory for the vehicle recycling industry because an increase in vehicles that qualify as salvage vehicles provides greater availability and typically lowers the price of such vehicles. Currently, these titling issues are a matter of state law. In 1992, the U.S. Congress commissioned an advisory committee to study problems relating to vehicle titling, registration, and salvage. Since then, legislation has been introduced seeking to establish national uniform requirements in this area, including a uniform definition of a salvage vehicle. The vehicle recycling industry will generally favor a uniform definition, since it will avoid inconsistencies across state lines, and will generally favor a definition that expands the number of
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damaged vehicles that qualify as salvage. However, certain interest groups, including repair shops and some insurance associations, may oppose this type of legislation. National legislation has not yet been enacted in this area, and there can be no assurance that such legislation will be enacted in the future.
We also acquire inventory directly from insurance companies, OEMs, and others. To the extent that these suppliers decide to discontinue these arrangements, our business could be adversely affected through higher costs or the resulting potential inability to service our customers.
In Europe, we acquire products from a wide variety of suppliers. As vehicle technology changes, some parts will become more complex and the design or technology of those parts may be covered by patents or other rights that make it difficult for aftermarket suppliers to produce for sale to companies such as ours. The complexity of the parts may include software or other technical aspects that make it difficult to identify what is wrong with the vehicle. More complex parts may be difficult to repair and may require expensive or difficult to obtain software updates, limiting our ability to compete with the OEMs.
We rely on third parties to provide products and services that are integral to our operations. If we fail to adequately assess, monitor and regulate the performance of our third party vendors and service providers, we could be subject to additional risk caused by the misconduct, performance failures or negligence of these third parties. For example, these could include violations of, or noncompliance with, laws and/or regulations governing our business (including, but not limited to, bribery, cybersecurity or privacy laws), which could lead to sanctions and/or fines from governmental agencies. Our arrangements with third party vendors and service providers may cause us financial and reputational harm if those third parties fail to satisfy their obligations to us, including their obligations to maintain and protect the security and confidentiality of our information and data or the information and data relating to our customers. Further, noncompliance with contract terms by our third party vendors or service providers could expose us to liability to other third parties or our employees.
If we determine that our goodwill or other intangible assets have become impaired, we may incur significant charges to our pre-tax income.
Goodwill represents the excess of cost over the fair market value of net assets acquired in business combinations. In the future, our goodwill and intangible assets may increase as a result of acquisitions. Goodwill is reviewed at least annually for impairment. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in the performance of acquired businesses, deterioration of expected future cash flows or performance, increases in our cost of capital, adverse market conditions, and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations, including modifications that restrict the activities of the acquired business. As of December 31, 2020, our total goodwill subject to future impairment testing was $4.6 billion. For further discussion of our annual impairment test, see "Goodwill Impairment" in the Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates section of Item 7 in this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Except for indefinite-lived intangibles, we amortize other intangible assets over the assigned useful lives, each of which is based upon the expected period to be benefited. We review indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or sooner if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. We review finite-lived intangible assets for possible impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. In the event conditions change that affect our ability to realize the underlying cash flows associated with our intangible assets, we may record an impairment charge. As of December 31, 2020, the value of our other intangible assets, net of accumulated amortization, was $814 million.
We could be subject to product liability claims and involved in product recalls.
If customers of repair shops that purchase our products are injured or suffer property damage, we could be subject to product liability claims by such customers. The successful assertion of this type of claim could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.  In addition, we may become involved in the recall of a product that is determined to be defective. More generally, a recall involving alternative parts, even if we did not sell the recalled products, could adversely affect the perceived quality of alternative parts, leading to decreased usage of alternative parts. The expenses of a recall and the damage to our reputation, or the reputation of alternative parts generally, could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations or financial condition.
We have agreed to defend and indemnify in certain circumstances insurance companies and customers against claims and damages relating to product liability and product recalls. The existence of claims or damages for which we must defend and indemnify these parties could also negatively impact our business, results of operations or financial condition.



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We may not be able to successfully acquire new businesses or integrate acquisitions, and we may not be able to successfully divest certain businesses.
We may not be able to successfully complete potential strategic acquisitions if we cannot reach agreement on acceptable terms, if we do not obtain required antitrust or other regulatory approvals, or for other reasons. Moreover, we may not be able to identify acquisition candidates at reasonable prices and/or be able to successfully integrate acquisitions.
If we buy a company or a division of a company, we may experience difficulty integrating that company's or division's personnel and operations, which could negatively affect our operating results. In addition:
the key personnel of the acquired company may decide not to work for us;
customers of the acquired company may decide not to purchase products from us;
suppliers of the acquired company may decide not to sell products to us;
we may experience business disruptions as a result of information technology systems conversions;
we may experience additional financial and accounting challenges and complexities in areas such as tax planning, treasury management, and financial reporting;
we may be held liable for environmental, tax or other risks and liabilities as a result of our acquisitions, some of which we may not have discovered during our due diligence;
we may intentionally assume the liabilities of the companies we acquire, which could result in material adverse effects on our business;
our existing business may be disrupted or receive insufficient management attention;
we may not be able to realize the cost savings or other financial benefits we anticipated, either in the amount or in the time frame that we expect; and
we may incur debt or issue equity securities to pay for any future acquisition, the issuance of which could involve the imposition of restrictive covenants or be dilutive to our existing stockholders.
For example, we have undertaken the 1 LKQ Europe program to create structural centralization and standardization of key functions to facilitate the operation of the Europe segment as a single business; this program will present a number of execution challenges. The COVID-19 pandemic has also impacted certain 1 LKQ Europe initiatives resulting in minor delays of certain initiatives.
In addition to acquisitions, we have divested, and will continue to divest, certain businesses that do not meet our performance standards. As a result of a divestment, we may not recover the carrying value of our investment in the divested business; in addition, such divestment transactions require significant management time and attention.
Risks Relating to Our Financial Structure
We have a substantial amount of indebtedness, which could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and our ability to obtain financing in the future and to react to changes in our business.
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $967 million aggregate principal amount of secured debt outstanding and approximately $2.4 billion of availability under our credit agreement ($2.5 billion of availability reduced by $71 million of amounts outstanding under letters of credit). In addition, we had approximately $1.8 billion aggregate principal amount of unsecured debt outstanding comprised of €500 million ($611 million) aggregate principal amount of 3.875% senior notes due April 1, 2024 (the "Euro Notes (2024)"), and €1.0 billion ($1.2 billion) aggregate principal amount consisting of €750 million of 3.625% senior notes due 2026 (the "Euro Notes (2026)") and €250 million of 4.125% senior notes due 2028 (the "Euro Notes (2028)," together with the 2026 notes, the "Euro Notes (2026/28)," and together with the Euro Notes (2024), and Euro Notes (2026), the "senior notes"). Borrowings under the credit agreement mature in January 2024.
Our significant amount of debt and our debt service obligations could limit our ability to satisfy our obligations, limit our ability to operate our business and impair our competitive position.
 For example, our debt and our debt service obligations could:
increase our vulnerability to adverse economic and general industry conditions, including interest rate fluctuations, because a portion of our borrowings are and will continue to be at variable rates of interest;
require us to dedicate a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to payments on our debt, which would reduce the availability of our cash flow from operations to fund working capital, capital expenditures or other general corporate purposes;
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limit our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry;
place us at a disadvantage compared to competitors that may have proportionately less debt;
limit our ability to obtain additional debt or equity financing due to applicable financial and restrictive covenants in our debt agreements; and
increase our cost of borrowing.
In addition, if we or our subsidiaries incur additional debt, the risks associated with our substantial leverage and the ability to service such debt would increase.
Our senior notes do not impose any limitations on our ability to incur additional debt or protect against certain other types of transactions.
Although we are subject to our credit agreement for so long as it remains in effect, the indentures governing the senior notes do not restrict the future incurrence of unsecured indebtedness, guarantees or other obligations. The indentures contain certain limitations on our ability to incur liens on assets and engage in sale and leaseback transactions. However, these limitations are subject to important exceptions. In addition, the indentures do not contain many other restrictions, including certain restrictions contained in our credit agreement, including, without limitation, making investments, prepaying subordinated indebtedness or engaging in transactions with our affiliates.
Our credit agreement will permit, subject to specified conditions and limitations, the incurrence of a significant amount of additional indebtedness under the existing agreement. As of December 31, 2020, we would have been able to incur an additional $2.4 billion of indebtedness under our credit agreement ($2.5 billion of availability reduced by $71 million of amounts outstanding under letters of credit). If we or our subsidiaries incur additional debt, the risks associated with our substantial leverage and the need to service such debt would increase.
Our credit agreement imposes operating and financial restrictions on us and our subsidiaries, which may prevent us from capitalizing on business opportunities.
Our credit agreement imposes operating and financial restrictions on us. These restrictions may limit our ability, among other things, to:
incur, assume or permit to exist additional indebtedness (including guarantees thereof) outside of our credit agreement;
pay dividends or make certain other distributions on our capital stock or repurchase our capital stock or prepay subordinated indebtedness;
incur liens on assets;
make certain investments or other restricted payments;
engage in transactions with affiliates;
sell certain assets or merge or consolidate with or into other companies;
guarantee indebtedness; and
alter the business we conduct.
As a result of these covenants and restrictions, we may be limited in how we conduct our business and we may be unable to raise additional debt or equity financing to compete effectively or to take advantage of new business opportunities. The terms of any future indebtedness we may incur could include more restrictive covenants. We cannot assure you that we will be able to maintain compliance with these covenants in the future and, if we fail to do so, that we will be able to obtain waivers from the lenders and/or amend the covenants. The failure to comply with any of these covenants would cause a default under the credit agreement. A default, if not waived, could result in acceleration of our debt, in which case the debt would become immediately due and payable. If this occurs, we may not be able to repay our debt or borrow sufficient funds to refinance it. Even if new financing were available, it may be on terms that are less attractive to us than our existing credit facilities or it may be on terms that are not acceptable to us.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash to service all of our indebtedness, and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under our indebtedness, which may not be successful.
Our ability to make scheduled payments on or to refinance our debt obligations depends on our financial condition and operating performance, which are subject to prevailing economic and competitive conditions and to certain financial, business and other factors beyond our control. We cannot assure you that we will maintain a level of cash flows from operating activities sufficient to permit us to pay the principal, premium, if any, and interest on our indebtedness. If our cash flows and capital resources are insufficient to fund our debt service obligations, we may be forced to reduce or delay investments and
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capital expenditures, or to sell assets, seek additional capital or restructure or refinance our indebtedness. These alternative measures may not be successful and may not permit us to meet our scheduled debt service obligations. If our operating results and available cash are insufficient to meet our debt service obligations, we could face substantial liquidity problems and might be required to dispose of material assets or operations to meet our debt service and other obligations. We may not be able to consummate those dispositions or to obtain the proceeds that we hope to realize from them, and these proceeds may not be adequate to meet any debt service obligations then due. Any future refinancing of our indebtedness could be at higher interest rates and may require us to comply with more onerous covenants which could further restrict our business operations. Additionally, our credit agreement and the indentures that govern our senior notes limit the use of the proceeds from certain dispositions of our assets; as a result, our credit agreement and our senior notes may prevent us from using the proceeds from such dispositions to satisfy all of our debt service obligations.
Our future capital needs may require that we seek to refinance our debt or obtain additional debt or equity financing, events that could have a negative effect on our business.
We may need to raise additional funds in the future to, among other things, refinance existing debt, fund our existing operations, improve or expand our operations, respond to competitive pressures, or make acquisitions. From time to time, we may raise additional funds through public or private financing, strategic alliances, or other arrangements. Funds may not be available or available on terms acceptable to us as a result of different factors, including but not limited to turmoil in the credit markets that results in the tightening of credit conditions and current or future regulations applicable to the financial institutions from which we seek financing. If adequate funds are not available on acceptable terms, we may be unable to meet our business or strategic objectives or compete effectively. If we raise additional funds by issuing equity securities, stockholders may experience dilution of their ownership interests, and the newly issued securities may have rights superior to those of our common stock. If we raise additional funds by issuing debt, we may be subject to higher borrowing costs and further limitations on our operations. If we refinance or restructure our debt, we may incur charges to write off the unamortized portion of deferred debt issuance costs from a previous financing, or we may incur charges related to hedge ineffectiveness from our interest rate swap obligations. There are restrictions in the indenture that governs the Euro Notes (2024), Euro Notes (2026) and Euro Notes (2028) on our ability to refinance such notes prior to January 1, 2024, April 1, 2021, and April 1, 2023, respectively. We could refinance the notes through open market purchases, subject to a limitation in our credit agreement on the amount of such purchases. If we fail to raise capital when needed, our business may be negatively affected.
Our variable rate indebtedness subjects us to interest rate risk, which could cause our indebtedness service obligations to increase significantly and could affect the value of our senior notes.
Certain borrowings under our credit agreement and the borrowing under our accounts receivable securitization facility are at variable rates of interest and expose us to interest rate risk. If interest rates increase, our debt service obligations on the variable rate indebtedness would increase even though the amount borrowed remained the same, and our net income and cash flows, including cash available for servicing our indebtedness, would correspondingly decrease. Moreover, changes in market interest rates could affect the trading value of the senior notes. Certain of our variable rate debt, including our revolving credit facility, currently uses the London Interbank Offered Rate ("LIBOR") as a benchmark for establishing the interest rate. LIBOR is the subject of proposals for reform. These reforms and other pressures may cause LIBOR to disappear entirely, potentially as soon as the end of 2021, or to perform differently than in the past. The consequences of these developments with respect to LIBOR cannot be entirely predicted but could result in an increase in the cost of our variable rate debt.
Repayment of our indebtedness, including our senior notes, is dependent on cash flow generated by our subsidiaries.
We are a holding company and repayment of our senior notes will be dependent upon cash flow generated by our subsidiaries and their ability to make such cash available to us, by dividend, debt repayment or otherwise. Unless they are borrowers or guarantors of the indebtedness, our subsidiaries do not have any obligation to pay amounts due on the indebtedness or to make funds available for that purpose. Our subsidiaries may not be able to, or be permitted to, make distributions to enable us to make payments in respect of our indebtedness, including the senior notes. Each of our subsidiaries is a distinct legal entity and, under certain circumstances, legal and contractual restrictions may limit our ability to obtain cash from our subsidiaries and, under certain circumstances, distributions from our subsidiaries may be subject to taxes that reduce the amount of such distributions available to us. While the indentures governing the senior notes limit the ability of our subsidiaries to restrict the payment of dividends or to restrict other intercompany payments to us, these limitations are subject to certain qualifications and exceptions. In the event that we do not receive distributions from our subsidiaries, we may be unable to make required principal and interest payments on our indebtedness, including the senior notes.
A downgrade in our credit rating would impact our cost of capital and could impact the market value of our senior notes.
Credit ratings have an important effect on our cost of capital. Credit rating agencies rate our debt securities on factors that include, among other items, our results of operations, business decisions that we make, their view of the general outlook for our industry, and their view of the general outlook for the economy. Actions taken by the rating agencies can include maintaining, upgrading, or downgrading the current rating or placing us on a watch list for possible future downgrading. We
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believe our current credit ratings enhance our ability to borrow funds at favorable rates.  A downgrade in our current credit rating from a rating agency could adversely affect our cost of capital by causing us to pay a higher interest rate on borrowed funds under our credit facilities. A downgrade could also adversely affect the market price and/or liquidity of our senior notes, preventing a holder from selling the senior notes at a favorable price, as well as adversely affecting our ability to issue new notes in the future or incur other indebtedness upon favorable terms.  
The right to receive payments on the senior notes is effectively junior to those lenders who have a security interest in our assets.
Our obligations under our senior notes and our guarantors’ obligations under their guarantees of the senior notes are unsecured, but our and each co-borrower’s obligations under our credit agreement and each guarantor’s obligations under their respective guarantees of the credit agreement are secured by a security interest in substantially all of our domestic tangible and intangible assets, including the stock of most of our wholly-owned United States subsidiaries and the stock of certain of our non-United States subsidiaries. If we are declared bankrupt or insolvent, or if we default under our credit agreement, the lenders could declare all of the funds borrowed thereunder, together with accrued interest, immediately due and payable. If we were unable to repay such indebtedness, the lenders could foreclose on the pledged assets to the exclusion of holders of our senior notes, even if an event of default exists under the applicable indenture governing the senior notes. Furthermore, if the lenders foreclose and sell the pledged equity interests in any subsidiary guarantor under our senior notes, then that guarantor will be released from its guarantee of the senior notes automatically and immediately upon such sale. In any such event, because the senior notes are not secured by any of our assets or the equity interests in subsidiary guarantors, it is possible that there would be no assets remaining from which claims by holders of the senior notes could be satisfied or, if any assets remained, they might be insufficient to satisfy claims fully. As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $967 million aggregate principal amount of secured debt outstanding and approximately $2.4 billion of availability under our credit agreement ($2.5 billion of availability reduced by $71 million of amounts outstanding under letters of credit).
United States federal and state statutes allow courts, under specific circumstances, to void the senior notes and the guarantees, subordinate claims in respect of the senior notes and the guarantees, and require holders of the senior notes to return payments received from us or the guarantors.
Our direct and indirect domestic subsidiaries that are obligors under the credit agreement guarantee the obligations under our senior notes. In addition, certain subsidiaries of the issuer of the Euro Notes (2024) guarantee the obligations under the Euro Notes (2024). The issuance of our senior notes and the issuance of the guarantees by the guarantors may be subject to review under state and federal laws if a bankruptcy, liquidation or reorganization case or a lawsuit, including in circumstances in which bankruptcy is not involved, were commenced at some future date by, or on behalf of, our unpaid creditors or the unpaid creditors of a guarantor. Under the federal bankruptcy laws of the United States and comparable provisions of state fraudulent transfer laws, a court may avoid or otherwise decline to enforce the senior notes, or a guarantor’s guarantee, or may subordinate the senior notes, or such guarantee, to our or the applicable guarantor’s existing and future indebtedness. While the relevant laws may vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction, a court might do so if it found that when indebtedness under the senior notes was issued, or when the applicable guarantor entered into its guarantee, or, in some jurisdictions, when payments became due under the senior notes, or such guarantee, the issuer or the applicable guarantor received less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration and:
was insolvent or rendered insolvent by reason of such incurrence;
was engaged in a business or transaction for which its remaining assets constituted unreasonably small capital; or
intended to incur, or believed that it would incur, debts beyond its ability to pay such debts as they mature.
A court would likely find that we or a guarantor did not receive reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration for the senior notes or such guarantee if we or such guarantor did not substantially benefit directly or indirectly from the issuance of the senior notes. Thus, if the guarantees were legally challenged, any guarantee could be subject to the claim that, since the guarantee was incurred for our benefit, and only indirectly for the benefit of the guarantor, the obligations of the applicable guarantor were incurred for less than reasonably equivalent value or fair consideration. If a court were to void the issuance of the senior notes or any guarantee, a holder of the senior notes would no longer have any claim against us or the applicable guarantor. In the event of a finding that a fraudulent transfer or conveyance occurred, a holder of the senior notes may not receive any repayment on the senior notes. Further, the avoidance of the senior notes could result in an event of default with respect to our and our subsidiaries’ other debt, which could result in acceleration of that debt. The measures of insolvency for purposes of these fraudulent transfer laws vary depending upon the law applied in any proceeding to determine whether a fraudulent transfer has occurred. Generally, however, an issuer or a guarantor, as applicable, would be considered insolvent if:
the sum of its debts, including contingent liabilities, was greater than the fair value of its assets;
the present fair saleable value of its assets was less than the amount that would be required to pay its probable liability on its existing debts, including contingent liabilities, as they become absolute and mature; or
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it could not pay its debts as they become due.
A court might also void the senior notes, or a guarantee, without regard to the above factors, if the court found that the senior notes were incurred or issued or the applicable guarantor entered into its guarantee with actual intent to hinder, delay or defraud its creditors. We cannot give any assurance as to what standard a court would apply in determining whether we or the guarantors were solvent at the relevant time or that a court would agree with our conclusions in this regard, or, regardless of the standard that a court uses, that it would not determine that we or a guarantor were indeed insolvent on that date; that any payments to the holders of the senior notes (including under the guarantees) did not constitute preferences, fraudulent transfers or conveyances on other grounds; or that the issuance of the senior notes and the guarantees would not be subordinated to our or any guarantor’s other debt. In addition, any payment by us or a guarantor pursuant to the senior notes, or its guarantee, could be avoided and required to be returned to us or such guarantor or to a fund for the benefit of our or such guarantor’s creditors, and accordingly the court might direct holders of the senior notes to repay any amounts already received from us or such guarantor. Among other things, under U.S. bankruptcy law, any payment by us pursuant to the senior notes or by a guarantor under a guarantee made at a time we or such guarantor were found to be insolvent could be voided and required to be returned to us or such guarantor or to a fund for the benefit of our or such guarantor’s creditors if such payment is made to an insider within a one-year period prior to a bankruptcy filing or within 90 days for any outside party and such payment would give such insider or outsider party more than such party would have received in a distribution under the Bankruptcy Code in a hypothetical Chapter 7 case. Although each guarantee contains a “savings clause” intended to limit the subsidiary guarantor’s liability to the maximum amount that it could incur without causing the incurrence of obligations under its subsidiary guarantee to be a fraudulent transfer, this provision may not be effective as a legal matter to protect any subsidiary guarantees from being avoided under fraudulent transfer law. In that regard, in Official Committee of Unsecured Creditors of TOUSA, Inc. v Citicorp North America, Inc., the United States Bankruptcy Court in the Southern District of Florida held that a savings clause similar to the savings clause included in our indentures was unenforceable. As a result, the subsidiary guarantees were found to be fraudulent conveyances. The United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit subsequently affirmed the liability findings of the Bankruptcy Court without ruling directly on the enforceability of savings clauses generally. If the decision of the bankruptcy court in TOUSA were followed by other courts, the risk that the guarantees would be deemed fraudulent conveyances would be significantly increased.
To the extent a court avoids the senior notes or any of the guarantees as fraudulent transfers or holds the senior notes or any of the guarantees unenforceable for any other reason, the holders of the senior notes would cease to have any direct claim against us or the applicable guarantor. If a court were to take this action, our or the applicable guarantor’s assets would be applied first to satisfy our or the applicable guarantor’s other liabilities, if any, and might not be applied to the payment of the senior notes. Sufficient funds to repay the senior notes may not be available from other sources, including the remaining guarantors, if any. In addition, the Euro Notes (2024) and the related guarantees may be subject to avoidance under the laws of foreign jurisdictions, including Italy and Czech Republic, to the extent that we, the issuer of the Euro Notes (2024), or any of the guarantors (as applicable) were to be the subject of an insolvency or related proceeding in such jurisdiction(s).
Not all of our subsidiaries have guaranteed our credit agreement or our senior notes, and the assets of our non-guarantor subsidiaries may not be available to make payments on such obligations.
Not all of our subsidiaries have guaranteed the credit agreement, Euro Notes (2024), Euro Notes (2026), and Euro Notes (2028). In the event that any non-guarantor subsidiary becomes insolvent, liquidates, reorganizes, dissolves or otherwise winds up, holders of its indebtedness and its trade creditors generally will be entitled to payment on their claims from the assets of that subsidiary before any of those assets are made available to the lenders under the credit agreement or the holders of the senior notes. Consequently, claims in respect of the credit agreement and the senior notes are structurally subordinated to all of the liabilities of our subsidiaries that are not guarantors of such instruments, including trade payables, and any claims of third party holders of preferred equity interests, if any, in our non-guarantor subsidiaries. As of the most recent practicable date, our subsidiaries that are not borrowers under or do not guarantee the credit agreement represented approximately 50% and 24% of our total revenue and operating income, respectively. In addition, these non-guarantor subsidiaries represented approximately 55% and 60% of our total assets and total liabilities, respectively (excluding, in each case, intercompany amounts). As of the most recent practicable date, our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the credit agreement had approximately $1.9 billion of outstanding indebtedness. The group of subsidiaries that does not guarantee the Euro Notes (2024) is substantially similar to the group that does not guarantee the Euro Notes (2026) and Euro Notes (2028), except that, in addition to the issuer of the Euro Notes (2024), there are four subsidiaries in the group that do not guarantee the Euro Notes (2026) and Euro Notes (2028) that guarantee the Euro Notes (2024).
We may not be able to repurchase the senior notes upon a change of control or pursuant to an asset sale offer.
Upon a change of control, as defined in the indentures governing the senior notes, the holders of the senior notes will have the right to require us to offer to purchase all of the senior notes then outstanding at a price equal to 101% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest. Such a change of control would also be an event of default under our credit agreement. In order to obtain sufficient funds to pay amounts due under the credit agreement and the purchase price of the
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outstanding senior notes, we expect that we would have to refinance our indebtedness. We cannot assure you that we would be able to refinance our indebtedness on reasonable terms, if at all. Our failure to offer to purchase all outstanding senior notes or to purchase all validly tendered senior notes would be an event of default under the indenture. Such an event of default may cause the acceleration of our other debt. Our other debt also may contain restrictions or repayment requirements with respect to specified events or transactions that constitute a change of control under the indenture.
The definition of change of control in the indentures governing the senior notes includes a phrase relating to the sale of “all or substantially all” of our assets. There is no precise established definition of the phrase “substantially all” under applicable law. Accordingly, the ability of a holder of senior notes to require us to repurchase its senior notes as a result of a sale of less than all our assets to another person may be uncertain.
In addition, in certain circumstances as specified in the indentures governing the senior notes, if we sell certain assets, we will be required to either prepay secured debt of the issuer or guarantors of the senior notes, prepay debt of non-guarantor wholly-owned subsidiaries, reinvest the sale proceeds in other assets or commence an asset sale offer, as defined in the indentures governing the senior notes, pursuant to which we will be obligated to purchase certain senior notes at a price equal to 100% of their principal amount plus accrued and unpaid interest with the proceeds we receive from such asset sales. Our other debt may contain restrictions that would limit or prohibit us from completing any such asset sale offer. In particular, our credit agreement contains provisions that require us, upon the sale of certain assets, to either apply all of the proceeds from such asset sale to the prepayment of the term loan amounts due under the credit agreement or to reinvest such proceeds in real estate, equipment or tangible assets. If we chose to prepay the term loan obligations instead of reinvesting in assets, the mandatory prepayment obligations under the credit agreement will be effectively senior to our obligations to make an asset sale offer with respect to the senior notes under the terms of the indentures governing the senior notes.
Key terms of the senior notes will be suspended if the notes achieve investment grade ratings and no default or event of default has occurred and is continuing.
Many of the covenants in the indentures governing the senior notes will be suspended if the senior notes are rated investment grade by Standard & Poor’s and Moody’s provided at such time no default or event of default has occurred and is continuing, including those covenants that restrict, among other things, our ability to pay dividends, incur liens and to enter into certain other transactions. There can be no assurance that the senior notes will ever be rated investment grade. However, suspension of these covenants would allow us to engage in certain transactions that would not be permitted while these covenants were in force (although provisions under our other debt, like the credit agreement, may continue to restrict us from engaging in these transactions), and the effects of any such transactions will be permitted to remain in place even if the senior notes are subsequently downgraded below investment grade.
The liquidity and market value of the senior notes may change due to a variety of factors.
The liquidity of any trading market in the senior notes, and the market price quoted for the senior notes, may be adversely affected by changes in the overall market for these types of securities, changes in interest rates, changes in our ratings, and changes in our financial performance or prospects or in the prospects for companies in our industries generally.
Legal and Regulatory Risks
Existing or new laws and regulations, or changes to enforcement or interpretation of existing laws or regulations, may prohibit, restrict or burden the sale of aftermarket, recycled, refurbished or remanufactured products.
Many states have introduced or passed laws that limit the use of aftermarket products in collision repair. These laws include requirements relating to consumer disclosure, vehicle owner’s consent regarding the use of aftermarket products in the repair process, and the requirement to have aftermarket products certified by an independent testing organization. Additional legislation of this kind may be introduced in the future. If additional laws prohibiting or restricting the use of aftermarket products are passed, it could have an adverse impact on our aftermarket products business.
Certain organizations test the quality and safety of vehicle replacement products. If these organizations decide not to test a particular vehicle product, or in the event that such organizations decide that a particular vehicle product does not meet applicable quality or safety standards, we may decide to discontinue sales of such product or insurance companies may decide to discontinue authorization of repairs using such product. Such events could adversely affect our business.
Some jurisdictions have enacted laws prohibiting or severely restricting the sale of certain recycled products that we provide, such as airbags. In addition, laws relating to the regulation of parts affecting vehicle emissions, such as California’s Proposition 65, may impact the ability of our Specialty segment to sell certain accessory products. These and other jurisdictions could enact similar laws or could prohibit or severely restrict the sale of additional recycled products. The passage of legislation with prohibitions or restrictions that are more severe than current laws could have a material adverse impact on our business. Additionally, Congress could enact federal legislation restricting the use of aftermarket or recycled automotive products used in the course of vehicle repairs.
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The Federal Trade Commission has issued guides that regulate the use of certain terms such as “rebuilt” or “remanufactured” in connection with the sale of automotive parts. Restrictions on the products we are able to sell and on the marketing of such products could decrease our revenue and have an adverse effect on our business and operations.
We are subject to environmental regulations and incur costs relating to environmental matters.
We are subject to various environmental protection and health and safety laws and regulations governing, among other things: the emission and discharge of hazardous materials into the ground, air, or water; exposure to hazardous materials; and the generation, handling, storage, use, treatment, identification, transportation, and disposal of industrial by-products, waste water, storm water, and mercury and other hazardous materials. We are also required to obtain environmental permits from governmental authorities for certain of our operations. If we violate or fail to obtain or comply with these laws, regulations, or permits, we could be fined or otherwise sanctioned by regulators or lose our operating permits. We could also become liable if employees or other parties are improperly exposed to hazardous materials. We have an environmental management process designed to facilitate and support our compliance with these requirements; we cannot assure you, however, that we will at all times be in complete compliance with such requirements. 
We have made and will continue to make capital and other expenditures relating to environmental matters. Although we presently do not expect to incur any capital or other expenditures relating to environmental controls or other environmental matters in amounts that would be material to us, we may be required to make such expenditures in the future.
Under certain environmental laws, we could be held responsible for all of the costs relating to any contamination at, or migration to or from, our or our predecessors' past or present facilities and at independent waste disposal sites. These laws often impose liability even if the owner or operator did not know of, or was not responsible for, the release of such hazardous substances. Many of our facilities are located on or near properties with a history of industrial use that may have involved hazardous materials. As a result, some of our properties may be contaminated. Some environmental laws hold current or previous owners or operators of real property liable for the costs of cleaning up contamination. These environmental laws also impose liability on any person who disposes of, treats, or arranges for the disposal or treatment of hazardous substances, regardless of whether the affected site is owned or operated by such person, and at times can impose liability on companies deemed under law to be a successor to such person. Third parties may also make claims against owners or operators of properties, or successors to such owners or operators, for personal injuries and property damage associated with releases of hazardous or toxic substances.
Contamination resulting from vehicle recycling processes can include soil and ground water contamination from the release, storage, transportation, or disposal of gasoline, motor oil, antifreeze, transmission fluid, chlorofluorocarbons ("CFCs") from air conditioners, other hazardous materials, or metals such as aluminum, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Contamination from the refurbishment of chrome plated bumpers can occur from the release of the plating material. Contamination can migrate on-site or off-site, which can increase the risk, and the amount, of any potential liability.
When we identify a potential material environmental issue during our acquisition due diligence process, we analyze the risks, and, when appropriate, perform further environmental assessment to verify and quantify the extent of the potential contamination. Furthermore, where appropriate, we have established financial reserves for certain environmental matters. In the event we discover new information or if laws change, we may incur significant liabilities, which may exceed our reserves.
Environmental laws are complex, change frequently, and have tended to become more stringent over time. Our costs of complying with current and future environmental and health and safety laws, and our liabilities arising from past or future releases of, or exposure to, hazardous substances, may adversely affect our business, results of operations, or financial condition.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that the courts in the State of Delaware are the exclusive forums for substantially all disputes between us and our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or employees.
Our amended and restated bylaws provide that the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware (or if the Court of Chancery does not have jurisdiction, another court of the State of Delaware, or if no court of the State of Delaware has jurisdiction, the federal district court for the District of Delaware) shall be the exclusive forum for the following types of actions or proceedings:

any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf;
any action asserting a breach of fiduciary duty;
any action asserting a claim against us arising under the Delaware General Corporation Law, our certificate of incorporation, or our bylaws;
any action asserting a claim governed by the internal-affairs doctrine; and
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any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws.

The choice of forum provision in our bylaws does not apply to claims brought to enforce any duty or liability created by the Exchange Act or the Securities Act or any claim with respect to which the federal courts have exclusive jurisdiction.

Although we believe this provision benefits us by providing increased consistency in the application of Delaware law in the types of lawsuits to which it applies, the provision may have the effect of discouraging lawsuits against our directors and officers due to, among other possible factors, increased costs of such lawsuits and limitations on the ability to bring claims in a judicial forum that the plaintiffs may consider more favorable. Alternatively, if a court were to find the choice of forum provision contained in our bylaws to be inapplicable or unenforceable in an action, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such action in other jurisdictions, which could materially adversely affect our business, financial condition and operating results.
Our effective tax rate could materially increase as a consequence of various factors, including interpretations and administrative guidance in regard to the Tax Act (defined below), U.S. and/or international tax legislation, mix of earnings by jurisdiction, and U.S. and foreign jurisdictional audits.
We are a U.S. based multinational company subject to income taxes in the U.S. and a number of foreign jurisdictions. Therefore, we are subject to changes in tax laws in each of these jurisdictions, including as a result of changes proposed by the new U.S. administration, and such changes could have a material adverse effect on our effective tax rate and cash flows.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. enacted legislation commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the "Tax Act"). Among other things, the Tax Act reduced the U.S. statutory corporate tax rate from 35% to 21% for tax years beginning after December 31, 2017. Additionally, beginning in 2018, the Tax Act imposed a regime of taxation on foreign subsidiary earnings (Global Intangible Low-Taxed Income, “GILTI”) and on certain related party payments (Base Erosion Anti-abuse Tax, “BEAT”). Other important changes potentially material to our operations included the full expensing of certain assets placed into service after September 27, 2017, the repeal of the domestic manufacturing deduction, and additional limitations on the deductibility of executive compensation. Finally, as part of the transition of U.S. international taxation from a worldwide tax system to a territorial tax system, the Tax Act imposed a one-time transition tax on the deemed repatriation of historical earnings of foreign subsidiaries as of December 31, 2017.
Many non-U.S. jurisdictions are implementing tax legislation based upon recommendations made by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development in connection with its Base Erosion and Profit Shifting study, as well as certain anti-tax-avoidance initiatives advanced by the European Commission. The outcome of these legislative developments could have a material adverse effect on our effective tax rate and cash flows.
The tax rates applicable in the jurisdictions within which we operate vary widely. Therefore, our effective tax rate may be adversely affected by changes in the mix of our earnings by jurisdiction.
We are also subject to ongoing audits of our income tax returns in various jurisdictions both in the U.S. and internationally. While we believe that our tax positions will be sustained, the outcomes of such audits could result in the assessment of additional taxes, which could adversely impact our cash flows and financial results.
If significant tariffs or other restrictions are placed on products or materials we import or any related counter-measures are taken by countries to which we export products, our revenue and results of operations may be materially harmed.
The U.S. has imposed tariffs on certain materials imported into the U.S. from China and announced additional tariffs on other goods from China and other countries. Moreover, counter-measures have been taken by other countries in retaliation for the U.S.-imposed tariffs. The tariffs cover products and materials that we import, and the counter-measures may affect products we export. The effects currently are not material; however, depending on the breadth of products and materials ultimately affected by, and the duration of, the tariffs and countermeasures, our financial results may be materially harmed. In addition, countries may impose other restrictions on the importation of products. For example, in 2018 China imposed stringent purity restrictions on the importation of various types of solid waste allegedly in an effort to reduce environmental pollution.
Governmental agencies may refuse to grant or renew our operating licenses and permits
Our operating subsidiaries in our salvage, self service, and refurbishing operations must obtain licenses and permits from state and local governments to conduct their operations. When we develop or acquire a new facility, we must seek the approval of state and local units of government. Governmental agencies may resist the establishment of a vehicle recycling or refurbishing facility in their communities. There can be no assurance that future approvals or transfers will be granted. In addition, there can be no assurance that we will be able to maintain and renew the licenses and permits our operating subsidiaries currently hold.
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General Risks
Our key management personnel are important to successfully manage our business and achieve our objectives.
Our future success depends in large part upon the leadership and performance of our executive management team and key employees at the operating level. If we lose the services of one or more of our executive officers or key employees, or if one or more of them decides to join a competitor or otherwise compete directly or indirectly with us, we may not be able to successfully manage our business or achieve our business objectives. If we lose the services of any of our key employees at the operating or regional level, we may not be able to replace them with similarly qualified personnel, which could harm our business. In addition, to the extent wage inflation occurs in jurisdictions in which we operate, we may not be able to retain key employees or we may experience increased costs.
We operate in foreign jurisdictions, which exposes us to foreign exchange and other risks.
We have operations in North America, Europe and Taiwan, and we may expand our operations in the countries in which we do business and into other countries. Our foreign operations expose us to additional risks associated with international business, which could have an adverse effect on our business, results of operations and/or financial condition, including import and export requirements and compliance with anti-corruption laws, such as the U.K. Bribery Act 2010 and the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. We also incur costs in currencies other than our functional currencies in some of the countries in which we operate. We are thus subject to foreign exchange exposure to the extent that we operate in different currencies, as well as exposure to foreign tax and other foreign and domestic laws. In addition, certain countries in which we operate have a higher level of political instability and criminal activity than the U.S. that could affect our operations and the ability to maintain our supply of products.
Our business may be adversely affected by union activities and labor and employment laws.
Certain of our employees are represented by labor unions and other employee representative bodies and work under collective bargaining or similar agreements, which are subject to periodic renegotiation. From time to time, there have been efforts to organize additional portions of our workforce and those efforts can be expected to continue. In addition, legislators and government agencies could adopt new regulations, or interpret existing regulations in a manner, that could make it significantly easier for unionization efforts to be successful. Also, we may in the future be subject to strikes or work stoppages, union and works council campaigns, and other labor disruptions and disputes. Additional unionization efforts, new collective bargaining or similar agreements, and work stoppages could materially increase our costs and reduce revenue and could limit our flexibility in terms of work schedules, reductions in force and other operational matters.
We also are subject to laws and regulations that govern such matters as minimum wage, overtime and other working conditions. Some of these laws are technical in nature and could be subject to interpretation by government agencies and courts different than our interpretations. Efforts to comply with existing laws, changes to such laws and newly-enacted laws may increase our labor costs and limit our flexibility. If we were found not to be in compliance with such laws, we could be subject to fines, penalties and liabilities to our employees or government agencies. In addition, efforts to better protect local markets from foreign workers and decisions of countries to withdraw from treaties and joint economic areas may lead to increased restrictions on the free movement of people and labor and may limit our ability to place key personnel where they could best serve our needs.
We rely on information technology and communication systems in critical areas of our operations and a disruption relating to such technology could harm our business.
In the ordinary course of business, we rely upon information technology networks and systems, some of which are provided by or leased from third parties, to process, transmit and store electronic information and to manage and support a variety of business processes and activities. The secure operation of these information technology networks and the processing and maintenance of this information is critical to our business operations and strategy. Despite security measures and business continuity plans, these information technology networks and infrastructure may be vulnerable to damage, disruptions or shutdowns due to attacks by cyber criminals, breaches due to employee error or malfeasance, disruptions during the process of upgrading or replacing computer software or hardware, terminations of business relationships by third party service providers, power outages, computer viruses, telecommunication or utility failures, terrorist acts, natural disasters or other catastrophic events. The occurrence of any of these events involving us or involving the third parties with whom we do business could compromise our or the third parties' networks, and the information stored there could be accessed, publicly disclosed, lost or stolen. Any such access, disclosure or loss of information could result in legal claims or proceedings, disruption to our operations and damage to our reputation, any of which could adversely affect our business. In addition, as security threats continue to evolve, we will likely need to invest additional resources to protect the security of our systems.
In the event that we decide to switch providers or to implement upgrades or replacements to our own systems, we may be unsuccessful in the development of our own systems or we may underestimate the costs and expenses of switching providers or developing and implementing our own systems. Also, our revenue may be hampered during the period of implementing an
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alternative system, which period could extend longer than we anticipated. We are in the midst of a systems conversion project for our European businesses, which will be subject to all of these risks.
The costs of complying with the requirements of laws pertaining to the privacy and security of personal information and the potential liability associated with the failure to comply with such laws could materially adversely affect our business and results of operations.
We collect personally identifiable information ("PII") and other data as part of our business processes and operations. The legislative and regulatory framework relating to privacy and data protection is rapidly evolving worldwide and is likely to remain uncertain for the foreseeable future. This data is subject to a variety of U.S. and international laws and regulations. Many foreign countries and governmental bodies, including the European Union, Canada and other jurisdictions where we conduct business, have laws and regulations concerning the collection and use of PII and other data obtained from their residents or by businesses operating within their jurisdictions that are more restrictive than those in the U.S. Additionally, the European Union adopted the General Data Protection Regulation ("GDPR") that will impose more stringent data protection requirements for processors and controllers of personal data, including expanded disclosures about how PII is to be used, limitations on retention of PII, mandatory data breach notification requirements, and higher standards for data controllers to demonstrate that they have obtained valid consent for certain data processing activities. The GDPR became effective in May 2018, and there can be no assurance that we have timely implemented all processes required for full compliance with the regulation. The GDPR provides severe penalties for noncompliance. In addition, stricter laws in this area are being enacted in certain states in the U.S. and in other countries, and more jurisdictions are likely to follow this trend.
Any inability, or perceived inability, to adequately address privacy and data protection issues, even if unfounded, or comply with applicable laws, regulations, policies, industry standards, contractual obligations or other legal obligations (including at newly-acquired companies) could result in additional cost and liability to us, result in governmental investigations and enforcement actions, give rise to civil litigation, result in damage to our reputation (including the loss of trust by our customers and employees), inhibit sales, and otherwise adversely affect our business. We also may be subject to these adverse effects if other parties with whom we do business, including lenders, suppliers, consultants and advisors, violate applicable laws or contractual obligations or suffer a security breach.
Business interruptions in our distribution centers or other facilities may affect our operations, the function of our computer systems, and/or the availability and distribution of merchandise, which may affect our business.
Weather, terrorist activities, war or other disasters, or the threat of any of them, may result in the closure of our distribution centers or other facilities or may adversely affect our ability to deliver inventory through our system on a timely basis.  This may affect our ability to serve our customers, resulting in lost sales or a potential loss of customer loyalty.  Some of our merchandise is imported from other countries and these goods could become difficult or impossible to bring into the U.S. or into the other countries in which we operate, and we may not be able to obtain such merchandise from other sources at similar prices.  Such a disruption in revenue could potentially have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition. 
If we experience problems with our fleet of trucks and other vehicles, our business could be harmed.
We use a fleet of trucks and other vehicles to deliver the majority of the products we sell. We are subject to the risks associated with providing delivery services, including inclement weather, disruptions in the transportation infrastructure, governmental regulation, availability and price of fuel, liabilities arising from accidents to the extent we are not covered by insurance, and insurance premium increases. In addition, our failure to deliver products in a timely and accurate manner could harm our reputation and brand, which could have a material adverse effect on our business.
We may lose the right to operate at key locations.
We lease most of the properties at which we conduct our businesses. At the end of a lease term, we must negotiate a renewal, exercise a purchase option (to the extent we have that right), or find a new location. There can be no assurance that we will be able to negotiate renewals on terms acceptable to us or that we will find a suitable alternative location, especially with respect to our salvage operations (which have characteristics that are often not attractive to landlords, local governments, or neighbors). In such cases, we may lose the right to operate at key locations.
Activist investors could cause us to incur substantial costs, divert management’s attention, and have an adverse effect on our business.
We have in the past received, and we may in the future be subject to, proposals by activist investors urging us to take certain corporate actions. Activist investor activities could cause our business to be adversely affected because responding to proxy contests and other demands by activist investors can be costly and time-consuming, disrupt our operations, and divert the attention of management and our employees. For example, we have retained, and may in the future be required to retain, the services of various professionals to advise us on activist investor matters, including legal, financial and communications
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advisors, the costs of which may negatively impact our future financial results. Campaigns by activist investors to effect changes at publicly-traded companies are sometimes led by investors seeking to increase short term investor value through actions such as financial restructuring, increased debt, special dividends, stock repurchases, or sales of assets or the entire company. Perceived uncertainties as to our future direction, strategy or leadership that arise as a consequence of activist investor initiatives may result in the loss of potential business opportunities, harm our ability to attract new investors, employees and business partners, and cause our stock price to experience periods of volatility or stagnation.

ITEM 1B.     UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.

ITEM 2.     PROPERTIES
Our properties are described in Item 1 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, and such description is incorporated by reference into this Item 2. Our properties are sufficient to meet our present needs, and we do not anticipate any difficulty in securing additional space to conduct operations or additional office space, as needed, on terms acceptable to us.

ITEM 3.     LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
On May 10, 2018, our Specialty segment received a Notice of Violation from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency ("EPA") alleging that certain performance-related parts that we sold in 2015, 2016 and 2017 violated the provisions of the Clean Air Act that prohibit the sale of parts that alter or defeat the emission control system of a motor vehicle. The parties have been attempting to negotiate a settlement of this matter without success. On January 29, 2021, the EPA initiated a civil administrative proceeding against us in this matter seeking a monetary penalty for parts sold between January 1, 2015 and August 28, 2017. Any penalty that is likely to be imposed is not expected to have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
On June 2, 2020, we received a notice from the EPA regarding alleged violations associated with our NPDES stormwater permit at certain of our facilities in Massachusetts. In December 2020, we reached an agreement to settle the matters relating to three of the facilities for an aggregate fine of approximately $0.3 million. Since receiving the notice of violations in June 2020, the EPA has requested information from us relating to our NPDES stormwater permit compliance in additional locations throughout the U.S. We have responded or are in the process of responding to the requests for information. At this time, we do not expect that any penalty that could be imposed would have a material effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
In addition, we are from time to time subject to various claims and lawsuits incidental to our business. In the opinion of management, currently outstanding claims and suits will not, individually or in the aggregate, have a material adverse effect on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

ITEM 4.     MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.

PART II
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ITEM 5.     MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Global Select Market ("NASDAQ") under the symbol "LKQ." At December 31, 2020, there were 16 record holders of our common stock.
We have not paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to continue to retain our earnings to finance our growth, repay our debt, repurchase stock through our stock repurchase program, and for general corporate purposes. While we have no current plans to pay any cash dividends on our common stock, we may consider paying cash dividends in the future as we determine the best uses of our cash flows. Our senior secured credit agreement and our senior notes indentures contain limitations on payment of cash dividends or other distributions of assets. Delaware law also imposes restrictions on dividend payments. Based on limitations in effect under our senior secured credit agreement, senior notes indentures and Delaware law, the maximum amount of dividends we could have paid as of December 31, 2020 was approximately $2.3 billion. The limit on the payment of dividends is calculated using historical financial information and will change from period to period.
Stock Performance Graph and Cumulative Total Return
The following graph compares the percentage change in the cumulative total returns on our common stock, the Standard & Poor's 500 Stock Index ("S&P 500 Index") and the following group of peer companies (the "Peer Group"): Copart, Inc.; O'Reilly Automotive, Inc.; Genuine Parts Company; and Fastenal Co., for the period beginning on December 31, 2015 and ending on December 31, 2020 (which was the last day of our 2020 fiscal year). The stock price performance in the graph is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance. The graph assumes that the value of an investment in each of the Company's common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the Peer Group was $100 on December 31, 2015 and that all dividends, where applicable, were reinvested.
Comparison of Cumulative Return
Among LKQ Corporation, the S&P 500 Index and the Peer Group

lkq-20201231_g1.jpg
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12/31/201512/31/201612/31/201712/31/201812/31/201912/31/2020
LKQ Corporation$100 $103 $137 $80 $120 $119 
S&P 500 Index$100 $112 $136 $130 $171 $203 
Peer Group$100 $113 $109 $139 $183 $200 
This stock performance information is "furnished" and shall not be deemed to be "soliciting material" or subject to Rule 14A, shall not be deemed "filed" for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 or otherwise subject to the liabilities of that section, and shall not be deemed incorporated by reference in any filing under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date of this report and irrespective of any general incorporation by reference language in any such filing, except to the extent that it specifically incorporates the information by reference.
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
On October 25, 2018, our Board of Directors authorized a stock repurchase program under which we may purchase up to $500 million of our common stock from time to time through October 25, 2021. On October 25, 2019, our Board of Directors authorized an increase to our existing stock repurchase program under which the Company may purchase up to an additional $500 million of our common stock from time to time through October 25, 2022; this extended date also applies to the original repurchase program. With the increase, the Board of Directors has authorized a total of $1.0 billion of common stock repurchases. Repurchases under the program may be made in the open market or in privately negotiated transactions, with the amount and timing of repurchases depending on market conditions and corporate needs. The repurchase program does not obligate us to acquire any specific number of shares and may be suspended or discontinued at any time. Delaware law imposes restrictions on stock repurchases.
During the three months ended and year ended December 31, 2020, we repurchased 0.8 million and 4.1 million shares of common stock for an aggregate price of $29 million and $117 million, respectively. As of December 31, 2020, there was a total of $531 million of remaining capacity under our repurchase program. During the three months ended December 31, 2019, no shares of common stock were repurchased.
The following table summarizes our stock repurchases for the three months ended December 31, 2020 (in thousands, except per share data):
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per ShareTotal Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or ProgramsApproximate Dollar Value of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs
October 1, 2020 - October 31, 2020— $— — $560,181 
November 1, 2020 - November 30, 2020406 $35.27 406$545,876 
December 1, 2020 - December 31, 2020413 $36.26 413$530,895 
Total819 819 
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
Information about our common stock that may be issued under our equity compensation plans as of December 31, 2020 included in Part III, Item 12 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K is incorporated herein by reference.

ITEM 6.     SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following selected consolidated financial data should be read together with "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and our consolidated financial statements and related notes included in Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
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Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands, except per share data)20202019201820172016
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Statements of Income Data:
Revenue$11,628,830 $12,506,109 $11,876,674 $9,736,909 $8,584,031 
Cost of goods sold7,035,559 7,654,315 7,301,817 5,937,286 5,232,328 
Gross margin4,593,271 4,851,794 4,574,857 3,799,623 3,351,703 
Operating income (6)
985,577 896,643 882,241 844,998 763,398 
Other expense (income):
Interest expense103,784 138,504 146,377 101,640 88,263 
Loss (gain) on debt extinguishment (7)
12,751 (128)1,350 456 26,650 
Interest income and other income, net
(15,953)(32,755)(8,917)(23,725)(28,796)
Income from continuing operations before provision for income taxes
884,995 791,022 743,431 766,627 677,281 
Provision for income taxes249,498 215,330 191,395 235,560 220,566 
Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated subsidiaries (8)
5,012 (32,277)(64,471)5,907 (592)
Income from continuing operations640,509 543,415 487,565 536,974 456,123 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations (9)
(95)1,619 (4,397)(6,746)7,852 
Net income
640,414 545,034 483,168 530,228 463,975 
Less: net income (loss) attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest
1,888 2,800 3,050 (3,516)— 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest
103 974 — — — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders
$638,423 $541,260 $480,118 $533,744 $463,975 
Basic earnings per share: (10)
Income from continuing operations
$2.10 $1.75 $1.55 $1.74 $1.49 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(0.00)0.01 (0.01)(0.02)0.03 
Net income
2.10 1.76 1.54 1.72 1.51 
Less: net income (loss) attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.01 0.01 0.01 (0.01)— 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest
0.00 0.00 — — — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders
$2.10 $1.75 $1.53 $1.73 $1.51 
Diluted earnings per share: (10)
Income from continuing operations
$2.10 $1.75 $1.54 $1.73 $1.47 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(0.00)0.01 (0.01)(0.02)0.03 
Net income
2.10 1.75 1.53 1.71 1.50 
Less: net income (loss) attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest
0.01 0.01 0.01 (0.01)— 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest
0.00 0.00 — — — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders
$2.09 $1.74 $1.52 $1.72 $1.50 
Weighted average shares outstanding-basic
304,640 310,155 314,428 308,607 306,897 
Weighted average shares outstanding-diluted
305,006 310,969 315,849 310,649 309,784 
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Year Ended December 31,
(in thousands)20202019201820172016
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)
Other Financial Data:
Net cash provided by operating activities
$1,443,870 $1,064,033 $710,739 $518,900 $635,014 
Net cash used in investing activities(165,887)(264,853)(1,458,939)(384,595)(1,709,928)
Net cash (used in) provided by financing activities
(1,512,551)(600,669)882,995 (112,567)1,225,737 
Capital expenditures(172,695)(265,730)(250,027)(179,090)(207,074)
Cash paid for acquisitions, net of cash and restricted cash acquired
(7,363)(27,296)(1,214,995)(513,088)(1,349,339)
Depreciation and amortization299,497 314,406 294,077 230,203 206,086 
Balance Sheet Data:
Total assets $12,360,533 $12,779,956 $11,393,402 $9,366,872 $8,303,199 
Working capital (11)
2,045,541 2,491,505 2,830,601 2,499,410 2,045,273 
Long-term obligations, including current portion
2,871,138 4,041,756 4,310,500 3,403,980 3,341,771 
Total Company stockholders' equity5,655,718 5,008,876 4,782,298 4,198,169 3,442,949 
(1) Includes the results of operations of two businesses from their respective acquisition dates in 2020, and three businesses up to the respective dates they were divested.
(2) Includes the results of operations of seven businesses from their respective acquisition dates in 2019, and two businesses up to the respective dates they were divested.
(3) Includes the results of operations of Stahlgruber, from its acquisition effective May 30, 2018, and 13 other businesses from their respective acquisition dates in 2018, and one business up to the date it was divested.
(4) Includes the results of operations of 26 businesses from their respective acquisition dates in 2017, and one business up to the date it was divested.
(5) Includes the results of operations of: (i) Rhiag, from its acquisition effective March 18, 2016; (ii) the aftermarket automotive glass distribution business of PGW ("PGW autoglass"), from its acquisition effective April 21, 2016; and (iii) 13 other businesses from their respective acquisition dates in 2016.
(6) Reflects $47 million of impairment charges on net assets held for sale for the year ended December 31, 2019 and a $33 million impairment charge on the Aviation reporting unit for the year ended December 31, 2018. See "Net Assets Held for Sale" and "Intangible Asset" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," for further information.
(7) Reflects a loss on debt extinguishment of $13 million recorded in the first quarter in 2020 related to the early-redemption premium and the write-off of the unamortized debt issuance costs. See "U.S. Notes (2023)" in Note 10, "Long-Term Obligations," for further information. The year ended December 31, 2016 includes a loss on debt extinguishment of $24 million related to early payment of Rhiag debt assumed as part of the acquisition.
(8) Reflects impairment charges in 2019 and 2018 of $40 million and $71 million, respectively, related to the Mekonomen equity investment. See "Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," for further information.
(9) Discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 primarily relate to the Stahlgruber Czech Republic wholesale business. Discontinued operations for the years ended December 31, 2018, 2017 and 2016 relate to the PGW autoglass glass manufacturing business. See Note 3, "Discontinued Operations," for further information.
(10) The sum of the individual earnings per share amounts may not equal the total due to rounding.
(11) Working capital amounts represent current assets less current liabilities, excluding assets and liabilities of discontinued operations.



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ITEM 7.     MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion of our financial condition and results of operations should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements and notes thereto included in Part II, Item 8, "Financial Statements and Supplementary Data," of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Discussion of 2018 items and the year-over-year comparison of changes in our financial condition and the results of operations as of and for the years ended December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 can be found in Part II, Item 7, "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," of our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019 filed with the SEC on February 27, 2020.
Overview
We are a global distributor of vehicle products, including replacement parts, components and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles, and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles.
Buyers of vehicle replacement products have the option to purchase from primarily five sources: new products produced by OEMs; new products produced by companies other than the OEMs, which are referred to as aftermarket products; recycled products obtained from salvage and total loss vehicles; recycled products that have been refurbished; and recycled products that have been remanufactured. We distribute a variety of products to collision and mechanical repair shops, including aftermarket collision and mechanical products; recycled collision and mechanical products; refurbished collision products such as wheels, bumper covers and lights; and remanufactured engines and transmissions. Collectively, we refer to the four sources that are not new OEM products as alternative parts.
We are a leading provider of alternative vehicle collision replacement products and alternative vehicle mechanical replacement products, with our sales, processing, and distribution facilities reaching most major markets in the United States and Canada. We are also a leading provider of alternative vehicle replacement and maintenance products in Germany, the United Kingdom, the Benelux region (Belgium, Netherlands, and Luxembourg), Italy, Czech Republic, Austria, Slovakia, Poland, and various other European countries. In addition to our wholesale operations, we operate self service retail facilities across the U.S. that sell recycled automotive products from end-of-life-vehicles. We are also a leading distributor of specialty vehicle aftermarket equipment and accessories reaching most major markets in the U.S. and Canada.
We are organized into four operating segments: Wholesale – North America; Europe; Specialty and Self Service. We aggregate our Wholesale – North America and Self Service operating segments into one reportable segment, North America, resulting in three reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty.
Our operating results have fluctuated on a quarterly and annual basis in the past and can be expected to continue to fluctuate in the future as a result of a number of factors, some of which are beyond our control. Please refer to the factors referred to in Forward-Looking Statements and Risk Factors above. Due to these factors and others, which may be unknown to us at this time, our operating results in future periods can be expected to fluctuate. Accordingly, our historical results of operations may not be indicative of future performance.
Acquisitions and Investments
Since our inception in 1998, we have pursued a growth strategy through both organic growth and acquisitions. Through 2018, our acquisition strategy was focused on consolidation to build scale in fragmented markets across North America and Europe. We targeted companies that were market leaders, expanded our geographic presence and enhanced our ability to provide a wide array of vehicle products through our distribution network. In the last few years, we have shifted our focus from larger transactions to tuck-in acquisitions that target high synergies and/or add critical capabilities. Additionally, we have made investments in various businesses to advance our strategic objectives.
On May 30, 2018, we acquired Stahlgruber, a leading European wholesale distributor of aftermarket spare parts for passenger cars, tools, capital equipment and accessories with operations in Germany, Austria, Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia with further sales to Switzerland. This acquisition expanded LKQ's geographic presence in continental Europe and serves as an additional strategic hub for our European operations. In addition, this acquisition should allow for continued improvement in procurement, logistics and infrastructure optimization.
In addition to the acquisition mentioned above, during the years ended December 31, 2020, 2019 and 2018, we acquired various smaller businesses across our North America, Europe, and Specialty segments.
See Note 2, "Business Combinations" and "Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies," to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our acquisitions and investments.
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Sources of Revenue
We report our revenue in two categories: (i) parts and services and (ii) other. Our parts revenue is generated from the sale of vehicle products, including replacement parts, components and systems used in the repair and maintenance of vehicles, and specialty products and accessories to improve the performance, functionality and appearance of vehicles. Our service revenue is generated primarily from the sale of service-type warranties, fees for admission to our self service yards, and diagnostic and repair services. During the year ended December 31, 2020, parts and services revenue represented approximately 94% of our consolidated revenue. Revenue from other sources includes scrap and other metals sales, bulk sales to mechanical manufacturers (including cores) and sales of aluminum ingots and sows from our furnace operations. Other revenue will vary from period to period based on fluctuations in commodity prices and the volume of materials sold. See Note 5, "Revenue Recognition" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information related to our sources of revenue.
Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates
The discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based upon our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates, assumptions and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenue and expenses, and related disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities. On an ongoing basis, we evaluate our estimates, assumptions, and judgments, including those related to revenue recognition, inventory valuation, lease accounting, business combinations and goodwill impairment. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe are reasonable under the circumstances. The results of these estimates form the basis for our judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities and our recognition of revenue. Actual results may differ from these estimates.
Revenue Recognition
For information regarding our critical accounting policies related to revenue, refer to Note 5, "Revenue Recognition," to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Inventory Accounting
For all inventory, carrying value is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Net realizable value can be influenced by current anticipated demand. If actual demand differs from our estimates, additional reductions to inventory carrying value would be necessary in the period such determination is made.

For our aftermarket products, excluding our aftermarket automotive glass products, cost is established based on the average price we pay for parts; for our aftermarket automotive glass products inventory, cost is established using the first-in first-out method. Inventory cost for our aftermarket products includes expenses incurred for freight in and overhead costs; for items purchased from foreign companies, import fees and duties and transportation insurance are also included. Refurbished inventory cost is based upon the average price we pay for cores. The cost of our refurbished inventory also includes expenses incurred for freight in, labor and other overhead costs. Our salvage inventory cost is established based upon the price we pay for a vehicle, including auction, towing and storage fees, as well as expenditures for buying and dismantling vehicles. Inventory carrying value is determined using the average cost to sales percentage at each of our facilities and applying that percentage to the facility's inventory at expected selling prices, the assessment of which incorporates the sales probability based on a part's days in stock and historical demand. The average cost to sales percentage is derived from each facility's historical profitability for salvage vehicles. Remanufactured inventory cost is based upon the price paid for cores, and also includes expenses incurred for freight, direct manufacturing costs and overhead related to our remanufacturing operations. The cost of manufactured product inventory is established using the first-in first-out method.
Lease Accounting
For information regarding our critical accounting policies related to leases, refer to Note 13, "Leases," to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K.
Business Combinations
We record our acquisitions using the purchase method of accounting, under which the acquisition purchase price is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based upon their respective fair values. We utilize management estimates and, in some instances, independent third party valuation firms to assist in determining the fair values of assets acquired, liabilities assumed and contingent consideration granted. There are inherent assumptions and estimates used in developing the future cash flows and fair values of tangible and intangible assets, such as projecting revenues and profits, discount rates, income tax rates, royalty rates, customer attrition rates and other various valuation assumptions. We use various valuation
37


methods to value property, plant and equipment. When valuing real property, we typically use the sales comparison approach for land and the income approach for buildings and building improvements. When valuing personal property, we typically use either the income or cost approach. We used the relief-from-royalty method to value trade names, trademarks, software and other technology assets, and we used the multi-period excess earnings method to value customer relationships. The relief-from-royalty method assumes that the intangible asset has value to the extent that its owner is relieved of the obligation to pay royalties for the benefits received from the intangible asset. The multi-period excess earnings method is based on the present value of the incremental after-tax cash flows attributable only to the customer relationship after deducting contributory asset charges.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangibles Impairment
We are required to test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment at least annually and between annual tests whenever events indicate that an impairment may exist. When testing goodwill for impairment, we are required to evaluate events and circumstances that may affect the performance of the reporting unit and the extent to which the events and circumstances may impact the future cash flows of the reporting unit to determine whether the fair value of the assets exceeds the carrying value. Developing the estimated future cash flows and fair value of the reporting unit requires management's judgment in projecting revenues and profits, allocation of shared corporate costs, tax rates, capital expenditures, working capital requirements, discount rates and market multiples. Many of the factors used in assessing fair value are outside the control of management, and it is reasonably likely that assumptions and estimates can change in future periods. If these assumptions or estimates change in the future, we may be required to record impairment charges for these assets. In response to changes in industry and market conditions, we may be required to strategically realign our resources and consider restructuring, disposing of, or otherwise exiting businesses, which could result in an impairment of goodwill.
We perform goodwill impairment tests annually in the fourth quarter and between annual tests whenever events indicate that an impairment may exist. LKQ’s market capitalization declined by approximately 40% between February 20, 2020, when the Company released its 2019 financial results, and March 31, 2020. While we believed that the decrease was driven by market reaction to COVID-19, the magnitude of the market capitalization decrease was deemed to be a triggering event requiring an interim test of goodwill impairment in the first quarter, which did not result in a goodwill impairment. We did not perform an impairment test in the second or third quarters of 2020.
Our goodwill impairment assessment is performed at the reporting unit level. A reporting unit is an operating segment, or a business one level below an operating segment (the "component" level), for which discrete financial information is prepared and regularly reviewed by segment management. However, components are aggregated as a single reporting unit if they have similar economic characteristics. For the purpose of aggregating our components into reporting units, we review the long-term performance of Segment EBITDA. Additionally, we review qualitative factors such as type or class of customers, nature of products, distribution methods, inventory procurement methods, level of integration, and interdependency of processes across components. Our assessment of the aggregation includes both qualitative and quantitative factors and is based on the facts and circumstances specific to the components.
We have four operating segments: Wholesale – North America, Europe, Specialty and Self Service. Each of these operating segments consists of multiple components that have discrete financial information available that is reviewed by segment management on a regular basis. We have evaluated these components and concluded that the components that compose each of the Wholesale – North America, Europe, Specialty, and Self Service operating segments are economically similar and thus were aggregated into those four separate reporting units for our interim goodwill impairment test in the first quarter of 2020 and annual goodwill impairment test.
Our goodwill would be considered impaired if the carrying value of a reporting unit exceeded its estimated fair value. The fair value estimates are established using weightings of the results of a discounted cash flow methodology and a comparative market multiples approach. We believe that using two methods to determine fair value limits the chances of an unrepresentative valuation. Discount rates, growth rates and cash flow projections are the assumptions that are most sensitive and susceptible to change as they require significant management judgment. Impairment may result from, among other things, deterioration in the performance of our reporting units' businesses, increases in our cost of capital, adverse market conditions, and adverse changes in applicable laws or regulations, including modifications that restrict the activities of our reporting units' businesses. To assess the reasonableness of the fair value estimates, we compare the sum of the reporting units’ fair values to the Company’s market capitalization and calculate an implied control premium, which is then evaluated against recent market transactions in our industry, or in the case of our interim test, against transactions during the 2008-2009 financial crisis. If we were required to recognize goodwill impairments, we would report those impairment losses as part of our operating results.
We determined no impairments existed on any of our four reporting units when we performed our interim goodwill impairment testing in the first quarter of 2020, as each of those reporting units had a fair value estimate that exceeded the carrying value by at least 12%, the level at which our Europe reporting unit exceeded its carrying value. We did not identify a triggering event in the second or third quarter that necessitated an interim test of goodwill impairment.
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We determined no impairments existed when we performed our annual goodwill impairment testing in the fourth quarter of 2020 on all four reporting units as each of those reporting units had a fair value estimate that exceeded the carrying value by at least 30%. As of December 31, 2020, we had a total of $4.6 billion in goodwill subject to future impairment tests.
We review indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment annually or on an interim basis if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. In the first quarter of 2020, we determined that the effect of the uncertainty relating to the COVID-19 pandemic on our forecasted results represented a change in circumstances indicating that the carrying value of the Warn trademark, which is our only indefinite-lived intangible asset, might not be recoverable. As a result, we performed a quantitative impairment test as of March 31, 2020 using the relief-from-royalty method and determined no impairment existed, as the trademark had a fair value estimate which exceeded the carrying value by approximately 9%. We did not identify a triggering event in the second or third quarter that necessitated an interim test of impairment. We performed a quantitative impairment test in the fourth quarter as of October 31, 2020, using the relief-from-royalty method to value the Warn trademark; we determined no impairment existed at that time as the trademark had a fair value estimate which exceeded the carrying value by approximately 13%.
Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements
See "Recent Accounting Pronouncements" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information related to new accounting standards.
Financial Information by Geographic Area
See Note 16, "Segment and Geographic Information" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information related to our revenue and long-lived assets by geographic region.
1 LKQ Europe Program
We have undertaken the 1 LKQ Europe program to create structural centralization and standardization of key functions to facilitate the operation of the Europe segment as a single business. Under this multi-year program, we expect to recognize the following:

Restructuring expenses — Non-recurring costs resulting directly from the implementation of the 1 LKQ Europe program from which the business will derive no ongoing benefit. See Note 6, “Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses” to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further details.
Transformation expenses — Period costs incurred to execute the 1 LKQ Europe program that are expected to contribute to ongoing benefits to the business (e.g. non-capitalizable implementation costs related to a common ERP system). These expenses are recorded in Selling, general and administrative expenses.
Transformation capital expenditures — Capitalizable costs for long-lived assets, such as software and facilities, that directly relate to the execution of the 1 LKQ Europe program.
Costs related to the 1 LKQ Europe program incurred to date are reflected in Selling, general and administrative expenses and Purchases of property, plant and equipment in our consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Beginning in the second half of March 2020, management delayed certain projects under the 1 LKQ Europe program to reduce expenses and preserve capital in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Based on our expectations in the second quarter of 2020 that the impacts on our business from COVID-19 had stabilized, we restarted the program in July 2020 with substantially the same initiatives and projects as prior to the pandemic. While certain projects were delayed as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as our procurement initiatives and the new headquarters in Switzerland, we also accelerated certain projects, such as the integration of previously acquired networks and sharing resources across LKQ Europe. We have continued the project on schedule during the second wave of COVID-19. We are targeting to complete the organizational design and implementation projects by the middle of 2021, with the remaining projects scheduled to be completed by 2024. During the year ended December 31, 2020, we incurred $38 million in costs across all three categories noted above. We expect that costs of the program, reflecting all three categories noted above, will range between $60 million and $80 million in 2021 with an additional $80 million to $100 million between 2022 and the projected program completion date in 2024. In the future, we may also identify additional initiatives and projects under the 1 LKQ Europe program that may result in additional expenditures, although we are currently unable to estimate the range of charges for such potential future initiatives and projects. We expect the transformation and restructuring expenses will be entirely funded by the improved trade working capital initiatives across our Europe segment.


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COVID-19 Impact on Our Operations
In late February 2020, the Italian government began placing restrictions on activity as a result of the COVID-19 outbreak. Sales volumes fell as fewer cars were on the road and less maintenance activity was performed. While our Italian operation is an important part of our European business, it represented approximately 10% of the segment’s revenue in 2019, and thus the disruption did not have a material impact on the Company. By mid-March, the COVID-19 impact began spreading across the rest of the geographies where we operate at a very rapid pace. Governments adopted aggressive restrictions on the operation of non-essential businesses and personal movement, which reduced miles driven and collisions. While our businesses have been deemed essential in most jurisdictions in which we operate, the change in behavior driven by the COVID-19 restrictions negatively impacted our sales volume. Our organic parts and services revenue declined by 16.8%, 4.5%, and 5.2% in the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020, respectively, relative to the comparable prior periods. We showed improvement in the third quarter of 2020 as governments gradually lifted restrictions for non-essential businesses and personal movement, however, in the fourth quarter of 2020 revenue declined as certain jurisdictions put restrictions back into place. As anticipated, April experienced the most negative revenue impact, with organic parts and services revenue (on a per day basis) down 30.3% compared to the prior year period. As movement restrictions lessened in May and June, we experienced organic parts and services revenue declines (on a per day basis) of 13.2% and 7.3%, respectively, compared to the prior year periods. However, the pace of improvement flattened into the third quarter as the increasing level of COVID-19 cases, especially in the United States, slowed the recovery. During the third quarter, organic parts and services revenue declined by 4.5% compared to the prior year period, a small improvement from the June decline of 7.3% (on a per day basis). During the fourth quarter, organic parts and services revenue declined by 6.1% (on a per day basis) and gradually worsened during the quarter with a decline of 7.2% (on a per day basis) in December. In the first quarter of 2021, we expect revenue to remain lower on a year over year basis as COVID-19 continues to impact economic activity in the U.S. and Europe, as the pandemic did not begin meaningfully impacting our results until March 2020. The level of the year over year decrease in revenue will depend on the extent of lockdown measures taken in response to an increase in the prevalence of the virus outbreak and the timing and effectiveness of the vaccination efforts. We expect revenue to increase in the second quarter of 2021 off of a low base and a gradual recovery in the second half of 2021.
Recognizing the demand changes in the first quarter of 2020, we took action in all of our business units to reduce our cost structure. These actions included, but were not limited to, employee furloughs and reductions in force, decreases in hours and overtime, lowering compensation for salaried employees, a hiring freeze, elimination of temporary labor, route consolidation, deferral of projects, and temporary branch closures. In the second quarter, these cost actions contributed to a reduction of approximately 18% in quarterly selling, general and administrative expenses compared to our first quarter 2020 run rate. We estimate that the cost actions generated a $10 million benefit in cost of goods sold compared to our second quarter of 2019. Some of the savings from the cost actions were delayed as we paid out vacation balances in April and covered medical benefits for employees in the United States during their furlough period. During the third quarter and fourth quarters, we were able to sustain a portion of the cost benefits, with quarterly selling, general and administrative costs down approximately 10% for both periods compared to the first quarter 2020 run rate. We estimate that the cost actions generated an approximately $15 million benefit in cost of goods sold for the second half of 2020 compared to the same period of 2019. If revenue increases during 2021, we expect that some of the costs that were reduced as a result of COVID-19 will remain at a lower level; the management team has been implementing productivity initiatives to create lower cost structures going forward as seen in the third and fourth quarter results.
We pursued certain financial assistance and relief programs that were available to us from governments in Europe and Canada, primarily in the form of grants to offset personnel expenses; through December 31, 2020, we qualified for $52 million of assistance, although that figure was heavily weighted to the second quarter. We currently do not anticipate qualifying for significant additional assistance in 2021, but we still will receive some government assistance in England. This view may change in the future based on developments with the resurgence of the virus outbreak.
These cost actions lagged the revenue impact in the first and second quarters, which meant there was a negative timing impact of COVID-19 on our profitability in those periods in addition to the negative effect from reduced revenue. By the third quarter, the cost actions were aligned with the revenue changes, and we generated higher Segment EBITDA dollars and margins than in the third quarter of 2019. In the fourth quarter, selling, general and administrative ("SG&A") costs remained consistent with the third quarter and profitability remained higher than the prior year.
We also emphasized the preservation of capital with a deferral of growth driven capital projects, reductions in inventory orders, more active monitoring of customer receivables and terms, income and value added tax payment deferrals (the majority of which were paid during the third quarter), and suspension of our share buyback program (which was reinstated during the fourth quarter). This focus was successful as we improved our liquidity position at year-end by approximately $1.0 billion relative to March 31, 2020 while managing through the disruption caused by the pandemic.
In each quarter of 2020, we prepared forecasts of future revenues, profits and cash flows to use in multiple analyses, including the interim and annual goodwill impairment test, other impairment tests of long-lived assets, assessments of the
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recoverability of inventory, determination of customer and supplier rebate balances, calculation of the annual effective tax rate and evaluations of the realizability of deferred tax assets. Actual results have exceeded our initial forecast prepared in the first quarter of 2020 with a full year organic parts and service revenue decline of 8.2% on a per day basis, diluted earnings per share attributable to LKQ stockholders of $2.09 and operating cash flow of $1.4 billion. We expect to face continued pressure on revenue with COVID-19 infection rates remaining at heightened levels in a number of our geographies, but we believe that consolidated profit margins in 2021 will remain above those realized during 2020 due to margin and overhead cost initiatives implemented in 2019 and 2020. As the economic impact of the pandemic is dependent on variables that are difficult to project and in many cases are outside of our control, it is possible that the estimates underlying our analyses may change. This is particularly the case as it appears that the prevalence of the virus outbreak fluctuates depending on various factors, including the level of economic and social activity in a region and progress in vaccination efforts.
One of our top priorities is the health and safety of our employees, customers and the communities in which we operate. We are using all reasonable efforts to follow governmental instructions and safety guidelines with respect to the operations of our facilities. We have implemented protocols across our business units to help ensure the health and safety of our employees, customers and communities including, but not limited to: restricting access to and enhancing cleaning and disinfecting protocols at our facilities; use of personal protective equipment; adhering to social distancing guidelines; instituting remote work arrangements for many of our employees; and restricting travel.
See the Results of Operations and Liquidity sections for further detail on our year over year trends.
Key Performance Indicators
We believe that organic revenue growth, Segment EBITDA and free cash flow are key performance indicators for our business. Segment EBITDA is our key measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by our chief operating decision maker.  Free cash flow is a financial measure that is not prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“non-GAAP”).
Organic revenue growth - We define organic revenue growth as total revenue growth from continuing operations excluding the effects of acquisitions and divestitures (i.e., revenue generated from the date of acquisition to the first anniversary of that acquisition, net of reduced revenue due to the disposal of businesses) and foreign currency movements (i.e., impact of translating revenue at prior period exchange rates). Organic revenue growth includes incremental sales from both existing and new (i.e., opened within the last twelve months) locations and is derived from expanding business with existing customers, securing new customers and offering additional products and services. We believe that organic revenue growth is a key performance indicator as this statistic measures our ability to serve and grow our customer base successfully.
Segment EBITDA - Refer to Note 16, "Segment and Geographic Information,” in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K for a description of the calculation of Segment EBITDA. We believe that Segment EBITDA provides useful information to evaluate our segment profitability by focusing on the indicators of ongoing operational results.
Free Cash Flow - We calculate free cash flow as net cash provided by operating activities, less purchases of property, plant and equipment. Free cash flow provides insight into our liquidity and provides useful information to management and investors concerning cash flow available to meet our future debt service obligations and working capital requirements, to make strategic acquisitions and to repurchase our stock.
These three key performance indicators are used as targets in determining incentive compensation at various levels of the organization, including senior management.  By using these performance measures, we attempt to motivate a balanced approach to the business that rewards growth, profitability and cash flow generation in a manner that enhances our long-term prospects.


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Results of Operations—Consolidated
The following table sets forth statements of income data as a percentage of total revenue for the periods indicated:
Year Ended December 31,
 20202019
Revenue100.0 %100.0 %
Cost of goods sold60.5 %61.2 %
Gross margin39.5 %38.8 %
Selling, general and administrative expenses28.1 %28.6 %
Restructuring and acquisition related expenses0.6 %0.3 %
Loss on disposal of businesses and impairment of net assets held for sale
0.0 %0.4 %
Depreciation and amortization2.3 %2.3 %
Operating income8.5 %7.2 %
Total other expense, net0.9 %0.8 %
Income from continuing operations before provision for income taxes7.6 %6.3 %
Provision for income taxes2.1 %1.7 %
Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated subsidiaries0.0 %(0.3)%
Income from continuing operations5.5 %4.3 %
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(0.0)%0.0 %
Net income5.5 %4.4 %
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.0 %0.0 %
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest0.0 %0.0 %
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders5.5 %4.3 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.

Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in revenue by category (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
20202019OrganicAcquisition and DivestitureForeign ExchangeTotal Change
Parts & services revenue$10,963,713 $11,877,846 (7.6)%(0.5)%0.5 %(7.7)%
Other revenue665,117 628,263 5.5 %0.4 %0.0 %5.9 %
Total revenue$11,628,830 $12,506,109 (7.0)%(0.5)%0.4 %(7.0)%
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
The decline in parts and services revenue of 7.7% represented decreases in segment revenue of 13.3% in North America and 6.0% in Europe, partially offset by an increase of 3.1% in Specialty segment revenue. Organic parts and services revenue declined by 7.6%, which included a 0.6% positive effect from approximately two additional selling days in the year ended December 31, 2020, resulting in a per day organic decline of 8.2%. The decline in 2020 is primarily related to the impact of COVID-19 from March 2020 through December 2020 (refer to the "COVID-19 Impact on Our Operations" section above for further details). The increase in other revenue of 5.9% was primarily driven by a $34 million organic increase, largely attributable to our North America segment. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the change in revenue by segment during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.
Cost of Goods Sold. Cost of goods sold decreased to 60.5% of revenue in the year ended December 31, 2020 from 61.2% of revenue in the year ended December 31, 2019. Cost of goods sold decreased 0.6% and 0.5% in our North America and Europe segments, respectively, partially offset by a 0.3% increase in cost of goods sold attributable to mix. The mix impact was a result of the decreased volumes in our North America segment primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as the higher margin North America segment made up a smaller percentage of the consolidated results, causing an unfavorable effect on the gross margin percentage. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded inventory write downs related to restructuring plans of $5 million and $3 million in our North America and Europe segments, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2019, we recorded inventory write downs of $21 million, principally due to our Europe segment related to U.K. branch consolidation and brand rationalization initiated as part of our restructuring plans. The lower inventory write downs in the year
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ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period resulted in a favorable impact on cost of goods sold of 0.1%. Our restructuring plans are described in Note 6, "Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the changes in cost of goods sold as a percentage of revenue by segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses. Our SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue decreased to 28.1% in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to 28.6% in the year ended December 31, 2019. SG&A expenses decreased over the prior year period as a result of (i) a decrease of 0.5% in our North America segment and (ii) a 0.2% decrease in SG&A expenses attributable to mix, partially offset by (iii) an increase of 0.3% in our Europe segment. The mix impact was a result of the decreased volumes in our North America segment primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as the higher SG&A expense percentage for the North America segment made up a smaller percentage of the consolidated results, which had a favorable effect on the SG&A expense percentage. Refer to the discussion of our segment results of operations for factors contributing to the changes in SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue by segment for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019.
Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses. The following table summarizes restructuring and acquisition related expenses for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019Change
Restructuring expenses$58,204 
(1)
$34,832 
(2)
$23,372 
Acquisition related expenses7,959 
(3)
2,147 
(4)
5,812 
Total restructuring and acquisition related expenses$66,163 $36,979 $29,184 
(1)Restructuring expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020 consisted of (i) $42 million related to our 2020 global restructuring program, (ii) $9 million related to integration costs from acquisitions, and (iii) $7 million related to our 2019 global restructuring program.
(2)    Restructuring expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily consisted of $20 million related to our 2019 global restructuring program and $14 million related to integration costs from acquisitions.
(3)    Acquisition related expenses for the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily consisted of an $8 million adjustment for the resolution of a purchase price matter related to the Stahlgruber transaction for an amount above our prior estimate.
(4)    Acquisition related expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019 included costs primarily related to the acquisition of an immaterial wholesale business in Europe.
    See Note 6, "Restructuring and Acquisition Related Expenses" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on our restructuring and integration plans.
Loss on Disposal of Businesses and Impairment of Net Assets Held for Sale. For the year ended December 31, 2020, we recorded a net loss on the disposal of businesses and impairment charges on net assets held for sale totaling $3 million, compared to $47 million of net impairment charges on net assets held for sale for the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily attributable to our North America segment. See "Net Assets Held for Sale" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on the net loss on disposals and impairment charges.
Depreciation and Amortization. The following table summarizes depreciation and amortization for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019Change
Depreciation$153,027 $150,649 $2,378 
(1)
Amortization119,265 140,121 (20,856)
(2)
Total depreciation and amortization$272,292 $290,770 $(18,478)
(1)Depreciation expense increased by $2 million, primarily due to capital expenditures in our North America segment.
(2)The decrease in amortization expense primarily reflected decreases of $17 million and $6 million related to the customer relationship intangible assets recorded upon our acquisitions of Stahlgruber and Rhiag, respectively, as the
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accelerated amortization of the customer relationship intangible assets resulted in lower amortization expense during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period.
Other Expense, Net. The following table summarizes the components of the change in other expense, net (in thousands):
Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2019$105,621 
(Decrease) increase due to:
Interest expense(34,720)
(1)
Loss/gain on debt extinguishment12,879 
(2)
Interest income and other expense (income), net16,802 
(3)
Net decrease(5,039)
Other expense, net for the year ended December 31, 2020$100,582 
(1)The decrease in interest is primarily related to (i) a $32 million decrease resulting from lower outstanding debt during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period, and (ii) a $4 million decrease from lower interest rates on borrowings under our senior secured credit agreement compared to the prior year period, partially offset by (iii) a $2 million increase from foreign currency translation, primarily related to an increase in the euro exchange rate during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period.
(2)In January 2020, we recorded a loss on debt extinguishment of $13 million related to the redemption of the U.S. Notes (2023) due to the early-redemption premium and the write-off of the unamortized debt issuance costs.
(3)The decrease in interest income and other expense (income), net primarily consisted of (i) a $12 million non-recurring gain related to resolution of an acquisition related matter in the fourth quarter of 2019, (ii) pension settlement losses of $6 million related to our primary defined benefit plan in the U.S. (the "U.S. Plan") in 2020, and (iii) several individually immaterial factors that decreased interest income and other expense (income), net by $4 million in the aggregate in 2020, partially offset by (iv) a $6 million increase in insurance settlement proceeds compared to the prior year period, primarily due to our North America segment.
Provision for Income Taxes. Our effective income tax rate for the year ended December 31, 2020 was 28.2%, compared to 27.2% for the comparable prior year period. Primary factors in the increase include valuation allowances on the tax benefit of net operating losses in certain jurisdictions where realization is uncertain and shifts in the geographic blend of international earnings. Net discrete items in both years were immaterial to the effective tax rate. See Note 15, "Income Taxes" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
Equity in Earnings (Losses) of Unconsolidated Subsidiaries. Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated subsidiaries for the year ended December 31, 2020 primarily related to our investment in Mekonomen. During the first quarter of 2019, we recorded a $40 million other-than-temporary impairment related to our investment in Mekonomen. There were no impairment charges for Mekonomen in 2020. See "Investments in Unconsolidated Subsidiaries" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on the impairment charge.
Foreign Currency Impact. We translate our statements of income at the average exchange rates in effect for the period. Relative to the rates used during the year ended December 31, 2019, the euro and pound sterling rates used to translate the 2020 statements of income increased by 2.0% and 0.6%, respectively, and the year to date average rates for the Canadian dollar and Czech koruna decreased by 1.0% and 0.9%, respectively. The unfavorable impact of realized and unrealized currency gains and losses for the year ended December 31, 2020 resulted in a $0.01 negative effect on diluted earnings per share relative to the prior year.
Net Income Attributable to Continuing and Discontinued Noncontrolling Interest. Net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest for the year ended December 31, 2020 decreased $1 million compared to the year ended December 31, 2019 primarily due to the noncontrolling interest of subsidiaries acquired in connection with the Stahlgruber acquisition. Net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest was immaterial and $1 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively, and related to the Stahlgruber Czech Republic wholesale business. See Note 3, "Discontinued Operations" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on this business.
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Results of Operations—Segment Reporting
We have four operating segments: Wholesale – North America, Europe, Specialty and Self Service. Our Wholesale – North America and Self Service operating segments are aggregated into one reportable segment, North America, because they possess similar economic characteristics and have common products and services, customers, and methods of distribution. Therefore, we present three reportable segments: North America, Europe and Specialty.
We have presented the growth of our revenue and profitability in our operations on both an as reported and a constant currency basis. The constant currency presentation, which is a non-GAAP measure, excludes the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates. We believe providing constant currency information provides valuable supplemental information regarding our growth and profitability, consistent with how we evaluate our performance, as this statistic removes the translation impact of exchange rate fluctuations, which are outside of our control and do not reflect our operational performance. Constant currency revenue and Segment EBITDA results are calculated by translating prior year revenue and Segment EBITDA in local currency using the current year's currency conversion rate. This non-GAAP financial measure has important limitations as an analytical tool and should not be considered in isolation or as a substitute for an analysis of our results as reported under GAAP. Our use of this term may vary from the use of similarly-titled measures by other issuers due to potential inconsistencies in the method of calculation and differences due to items subject to interpretation. In addition, not all companies that report revenue or profitability on a constant currency basis calculate such measures in the same manner as we do, and accordingly, our calculations are not necessarily comparable to similarly-named measures of other companies and may not be appropriate measures for performance relative to other companies.
The following table presents our financial performance, including third party revenue, total revenue and Segment EBITDA, by reportable segment for the periods indicated (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
 2020% of Total Segment Revenue2019% of Total Segment Revenue
Third Party Revenue
North America$4,631,306 $5,208,589 
Europe5,492,184 5,838,124 
Specialty1,505,340 1,459,396 
Total third party revenue$11,628,830 $12,506,109 
Total Revenue
North America$4,632,339 $5,209,294 
Europe5,492,184 5,838,124 
Specialty1,508,995 1,464,042 
Eliminations(4,688)(5,351)
Total revenue$11,628,830 $12,506,109 
Segment EBITDA
North America$778,504 16.8 %$712,957 13.7 %
Europe427,582 7.8 %454,220 7.8 %
Specialty162,673 10.8 %161,184 11.0 %
The key measure of segment profit or loss reviewed by our chief operating decision maker, our Chief Executive Officer, is Segment EBITDA. We use Segment EBITDA to compare profitability among our segments and evaluate business strategies. Segment EBITDA includes revenue and expenses that are controllable by the segment. Corporate general and administrative expenses are allocated to the segments based on usage, with shared expenses apportioned based on the segment's percentage of consolidated revenue. We calculate Segment EBITDA as EBITDA excluding restructuring and acquisition related expenses (which includes restructuring expenses recorded in Cost of goods sold); change in fair value of contingent consideration liabilities; other gains and losses related to acquisitions, equity method investments, or divestitures; equity in losses and earnings of unconsolidated subsidiaries; and impairment charges. EBITDA, which is the basis for Segment EBITDA, is calculated as net income attributable to LKQ stockholders excluding discontinued operations and discontinued noncontrolling interest, depreciation, amortization, interest (which includes gains and losses on debt extinguishment) and income tax expense. See Note 16, "Segment and Geographic Information" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for a reconciliation of total Segment EBITDA to net income.
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Year Ended December 31, 2020 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2019
North America
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our North America segment (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
North America20202019Organic
Acquisition and Divestiture (3)
Foreign Exchange Total Change
Parts & services revenue$3,988,214 $4,600,903 (12.9)%
(1)
(0.3)%(0.1)%(13.3)%
Other revenue643,092 607,686 5.5 %
(2)
0.4 %(0.0)%5.8 %
Total third party revenue$4,631,306 $5,208,589 (10.8)%(0.2)%(0.1)%(11.1)%
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)Parts and services organic revenue declined despite one additional selling day in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period. On a per day basis, organic revenue declined 13.3%. The organic decline was impacted by collision and liability repairable auto claims, which, according to data from CCC, were 26.0% lower for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period. This decrease in claims activity was primarily due to the COVID-19 pandemic and had an adverse impact on sales volumes in our wholesale operations. The volume decline in collision parts was partially offset by an outperformance of the claims trend attributable to share gains, mechanical part sales and self service parts sales and admissions. Prior to the pandemic, parts and services organic revenue in North America was slightly less than the same period in the prior year, declining 1.1% through February 2020, principally due to (i) the termination in the fourth quarter of 2019 of an agreement signed in December 2017 for the distribution of batteries which had an unfavorable impact of 0.8% through February 2020 compared to the prior year period, and, (ii) to a lesser extent, milder winter weather conditions compared to the prior year period. During the period of March 2020 through December 2020, parts and services organic revenue declined 15.6% on a per day basis compared to the prior year period primarily due to volume effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic (collision and liability repairable auto claims were down approximately 41.7%, 24.4%, and 27.2% in the second, third, and fourth quarters of 2020, respectively, according to data from CCC). Going into the first quarter of 2021, we anticipate downward pressures on aftermarket fill rates due to continued ocean freight delays, which in turn may adversely impact sales.
(2)The $33 million year over year organic increase in other revenue is primarily related to a $106 million increase in revenue from precious metals (platinum, palladium and rhodium) primarily due to higher prices compared to the prior year, partially offset by (i) a $46 million decrease in revenue from other scrap metals (e.g. aluminum) and fluids due to lower volumes, (ii) an $18 million decrease in revenue from scrap steel due to lower prices and volumes, and (iii) a decrease in core revenue of $9 million due to lower volumes. The volume declines in other revenue were due to lower purchase volumes and throughput in our salvage and self service operations as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.
(3)Acquisition related growth for the year ended December 31, 2020 reflected revenue from our acquisition of three wholesale businesses and one self service business since the beginning of 2019 through the one-year anniversary of the acquisitions. Reduced revenue as a result of the disposal of our aviation business in the third quarter of 2019 more than offset the acquisition growth during this period.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA increased $66 million, or 9.2%, in the year ended December 31, 2020, including the impact of one additional selling day compared to the prior year period. The adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sales volumes in our wholesale operations had a significant unfavorable impact on Segment EBITDA. This adverse impact was more than offset in part due to operational efficiency and rightsizing actions and higher revenue from precious metals. Net sequential increases in scrap steel prices in our salvage and self service operations had a $16 million favorable impact on North America Segment EBITDA during the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to a $23 million unfavorable impact during the year ended December 31, 2019 resulting from net sequential decreases in scrap steel prices. This favorable impact for the year ended December 31, 2020 resulted from the increase in scrap steel prices between the date we purchased a vehicle, which influences the price we pay for a vehicle, and the date we scrapped a vehicle, which influences the price we receive for scrapping a vehicle.


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The following table summarizes the changes in Segment EBITDA as a percentage of revenue in our North America segment:
North AmericaPercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 201913.7 %
Increase due to:
Change in gross margin1.7 %(1)
Change in segment operating expenses1.3 %(2)
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 202016.8 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)    The increase in gross margin primarily reflected favorable impacts of 1.2% from our wholesale operations and 0.4% from our self service operations. Despite the adverse impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on sales volumes in our wholesale operations, wholesale gross margin was favorable primarily due to the positive impact of cost reductions from operational efficiency and rightsizing actions, higher prices of precious metals and scrap steel, and improved return rates compared to the prior year period. The increase in self service gross margin was primarily attributable to higher prices of precious metals as well as sequential increases in scrap steel prices. We expect downward pressure on our salvage and self service margins going into 2021 as purchase costs increased in the second half of 2020 due to the reduced availability of cars for purchase reflecting the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. We plan to continue to address this downward pressure through price adjustments and further operational efficiencies. We expect commodity prices to have a favorable impact on margin, at least in the short-term, as precious metals and scrap prices hold or improve from recent levels.
(2)    The decrease in segment operating expense as a percentage of revenue, despite the deleveraging impact of the organic revenue parts and services revenue decline of 13.3% compared to the prior year, on a per day basis, reflects (i) a favorable impact of 1.6% from personnel expenses related to permanent and temporary headcount reductions, reduced hours, limitations on travel and government grants in Canada and (ii) a 0.2% favorable impact from vehicle and fuel expenses due to fuel usage and prices. The impact was partially offset by a negative leverage effect of 0.5% from facility expenses, which are largely fixed. As the market recovers and volumes increase, we expect to bring back necessary resources to support our operations; however, we expect that permanent actions taken this year will provide a long-term favorable impact for the segment.

Europe
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our Europe segment (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
Europe20202019
Organic (1)
Acquisition and Divestiture(2)
Foreign Exchange (3)
Total Change
Parts & services revenue$5,470,159 $5,817,547 (6.1)%(0.9)%1.1 %(6.0)%
Other revenue22,025 20,577 5.4 %(0.0)%1.6 %7.0 %
Total third party revenue$5,492,184 $5,838,124 (6.0)%(0.9)%1.1 %(5.9)%
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)The parts and services organic revenue decrease for the year ended December 31, 2020 was partially offset by having two additional selling days in 2020 compared to the year ended December 31, 2019. On a per day basis, organic parts and services revenue decreased 6.9%, mainly driven by the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions in all of our European operations. Prior to the pandemic, organic revenue in Europe had increased 0.3% through February, principally driven by the Central and Eastern European region, and to a lesser extent, Germany. During the period of March 2020 through December 2020, organic revenue declined 8.3% on a per day basis compared to the prior year period primarily due to volume effects caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Germany and the Netherlands have been recovering at a faster rate, with the recovery in Italy and the U.K. lagging behind.
(2)Acquisition related growth for the year ended December 31, 2020 reflected revenue from our acquisition of three immaterial wholesale businesses since the beginning of 2019 through the one-year anniversary of the acquisitions. Reduced revenue as a result of the disposals of a non-core telecommunications operation in Germany in the second
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quarter of 2020 and two smaller disposals during 2020 and a wholesale business in Bulgaria in the third quarter of 2019 more than offset the acquisition growth.
(3)Compared to the prior year, exchange rates increased our revenue growth by $62 million, or 1.1%, primarily due to the weaker U.S. dollar against the euro and pound sterling during the year ended December 31, 2020 relative to the prior year period.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA decreased $27 million, or 5.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period. Our Europe Segment EBITDA included a positive year over year impact of $6 million related to the translation of local currency results into U.S. dollars at higher exchange rates than those experienced during the year ended December 31, 2019. On a constant currency basis (i.e., excluding the translation impact), Segment EBITDA decreased by $32 million, or 7.1%, compared to the prior year. Refer to the Foreign Currency Impact discussion within the Results of Operations–Consolidated section above for further detail regarding foreign currency impact on our results for the year ended December 31, 2020.
EuropePercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 20197.8 %
Increase (decrease) due to:
Change in gross margin0.5 %(1)
Change in segment operating expenses(0.5)%(2)
Change in other expense, net and net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest
0.1 %
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 20207.8 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)    The increase in gross margin was primarily attributable to favorable impacts of (i) 0.2% across almost all our operations principally as a result of margin improvement initiatives supporting the pursuit of profitable revenue growth and (ii) 0.2% from the disposal of a non-core telecommunications operation in Germany in the second quarter of 2020.
(2)    The increase in segment operating expenses as a percentage of revenue reflects unfavorable impacts of (i) 0.2% from bad debt expense due to the downturn in economic conditions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, (ii) 0.2% in transformation expenses related to the 1 LKQ Europe program, and (iii) several individually immaterial factors that had an unfavorable impact of 0.4% in the aggregate. These negative impacts were partially mitigated by actions to reduce personnel expense which generated a favorable impact of 0.3%. Despite the deleveraging impact from the third party parts and services organic revenue decline of 6.9% on a per day basis, management was able to utilize government assistance, permanent and temporary headcount reductions, and limited travel expenses to achieve this 0.3% reduction as a percentage of revenue. As the markets recovered from the second quarter low point, volumes increased and government programs ceased, we brought back necessary resources to support our operations; however, we expect that permanent actions taken this year will provide a long-term favorable impact for the segment.
Specialty
Third Party Revenue. The following table summarizes the changes in third party revenue by category in our Specialty segment (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,Percentage Change in Revenue
Specialty20202019
Organic (1)
Acquisition and DivestitureForeign ExchangeTotal Change
Parts & services revenue$1,505,340 $1,459,396 3.0 %0.3 %(0.1)%3.1 %
Other revenue— — — %— %— %— %
Total third party revenue$1,505,340 $1,459,396 3.0 %0.3 %(0.1)%3.1 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)Parts and services organic revenue increased 3.0% for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year. On a per day basis, organic revenue increased 2.6%. The organic increase was primarily due to strong demand for recreational vehicle products and high drop ship fulfillment. We believe that organic growth was constrained by the
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impact of availability issues at certain suppliers that were not able to meet our demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Segment EBITDA. Segment EBITDA increased $1 million, or 0.9%, for the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year.
The following table summarizes the changes in Segment EBITDA as a percentage of revenue in our Specialty segment:
SpecialtyPercentage of Total Segment Revenue
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 201911.0 %
(Decrease) increase due to:
Change in gross margin(0.6)%(1)
Change in segment operating expenses0.5 %(2)
Segment EBITDA for the year ended December 31, 202010.8 %
Note: In the table above, the sum of the individual percentages may not equal the total due to rounding.
(1)    The decrease in gross margin primarily reflects unfavorable impacts of (i) 0.7% due to unfavorable product and channel mix for the year ended December 31, 2020 and (ii) 0.4% driven by higher product cost due to lower supplier discounts received in the current year compared to the prior year, partially offset by a favorable impact of (iii) 0.5% due to freight income, reflecting higher shipping and handling fees tied to increased usage of third party carriers (the offsetting delivery cost is a component of freight expense as mentioned below in the operating expenses discussion).
(2)    The decrease in segment operating expenses reflects a favorable impact of (i) 1.2% in personnel costs due to reduced headcount and reduced hours, partially offset by (ii) a 0.5% unfavorable impact in freight, vehicle and fuel expenses due to an increased use of third party freight, and (iii) several individually immaterial factors that had an unfavorable impact of 0.2% in the aggregate.

Liquidity and Capital Resources
The following table summarizes liquidity data as of the dates indicated (in thousands):
December 31, 2020December 31, 2019
Cash and cash equivalents$312,154 $523,020 
Total debt (1)
2,896,676 4,072,026 
Current maturities (2)
58,810 326,648 
Capacity under credit facilities (3)
3,260,000 3,260,000 
Availability under credit facilities (3)
2,546,081 1,922,671 
Total liquidity (cash and cash equivalents plus availability under credit facilities)
2,858,235 2,445,691 
(1)     Debt amounts reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of $26 million and $30 million as of December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively).
(2)     Debt amounts reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of immaterial amounts as of both December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019).
(3)    Capacity under credit facilities includes our revolving credit facilities and our receivables securitization facility. Availability under credit facilities is reduced by our outstanding letters of credit.
We assess our liquidity in terms of our ability to fund our operations and provide for expansion through both internal development and acquisitions. Our primary sources of liquidity are cash flows from operations and our credit facilities. We utilize our cash flows from operations to fund working capital and capital expenditures, with the excess amounts going towards funding acquisitions, paying down outstanding debt or repurchasing our common stock. As we have pursued acquisitions as part of our historical growth strategy, our cash flows from operations have not always been sufficient to cover our investing activities. To fund our acquisitions, we have accessed various forms of debt financing, including revolving credit facilities, senior notes and a receivables securitization facility.
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As of December 31, 2020, we had debt outstanding and additional available sources of financing as follows:
Senior secured credit facilities maturing in January 2024, composed of term loans totaling $350 million ($324 million outstanding at December 31, 2020) and $3.15 billion in revolving credit ($643 million outstanding at December 31, 2020), bearing interest at variable rates (although a portion of the outstanding debt is hedged through interest rate swap contracts), with availability reduced by $71 million of amounts outstanding under letters of credit
Euro Notes (2024) totaling $611 million (€500 million), maturing in April 2024 and bearing interest at a 3.875% fixed rate
Euro Notes (2026/28) totaling $1.2 billion (€1.0 billion), consisting of (i) €750 million maturing in April 2026 and bearing interest at a 3.625% fixed rate, and (ii) €250 million maturing in April 2028 and bearing interest at a 4.125% fixed rate
Receivables securitization facility with availability up to $110 million (no outstanding balance as of December 31, 2020), maturing in November 2021 and bearing interest at variable commercial paper rates
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately $2.5 billion available under our credit facilities. Combined with $312 million of cash and cash equivalents at December 31, 2020, we had approximately $2.9 billion in available liquidity, an increase of $413 million from our available liquidity as of December 31, 2019.
We believe that our current liquidity and cash expected to be generated by operating activities in future periods will be sufficient to meet our current operating and capital requirements. To support our liquidity position during the COVID-19 pandemic, we focused on preserving cash during the expected period of reduced demand. Our action plan to strengthen our liquidity position included a deferral of growth driven capital projects, reductions in inventory orders, more active monitoring of customer receivables and terms, income and value added tax deferrals, and suspension of our share buyback program, in addition to the cost saving measures discussed in the "COVID-19 Impact on Our Operations" section above. Given our success in strengthening our liquidity position as of September 30, 2020, we recommenced our share buyback program during the fourth quarter of 2020. However, due to the rapidly evolving global situation, it is not possible to predict whether unanticipated consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic are reasonably likely to materially affect our liquidity and capital resources negatively in the future.
With $2.9 billion of total liquidity as of December 31, 2020 and $59 million of current maturities, we have access to funds to meet our near term commitments even if the pandemic effect extends longer than our current expectations. We have a surplus of current assets over current liabilities, which further reduces the risk of short term cash shortfalls.
Our capital preservation plans delivered the desired results as we repaid approximately $327 million in borrowings from free cash flows generated in the fourth quarter as well as cash on hand and overall in 2020 repaid approximately $1.4 billion in borrowings. Our total liquidity has increased by $997 million since March 31, 2020, which we believe puts us in position to manage through the pandemic.
Our total liquidity includes availability under our senior secured credit facility, which includes the two financial maintenance covenants presented below (our required debt covenants and our actual ratios with respect to those covenants as calculated per the credit agreement as of December 31, 2020):
Covenant LevelRatio Achieved as of December 31, 2020
Maximum net leverage ratio5.00:1.001.9
Minimum interest coverage ratio3.00:1.0014.6
The terms net leverage ratio and minimum interest coverage ratio used in the credit agreement are specifically calculated per the credit agreement and differ in specified ways from comparable GAAP or common usage terms.
We amended our senior secured credit facility in June 2020 to increase the maximum net leverage ratio effective with our compliance certificate filed with respect to the second quarter of 2020; refer to "Senior Secured Credit Agreement" in Note 10, "Long-Term Obligations" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information on the June 2020 amendment. We entered into the amendment out of an abundance of caution to reduce the risk of breaching the net leverage covenant if the pandemic had a severe and extended effect on profitability. Our internal models from the first quarter of 2020 suggested that we would be able to meet our payment obligations during the pandemic, but there was a risk that we might exceed the maximum 4.0x net leverage ratio in the event a severe downside scenario developed. With the amendment and the better than forecasted performance since the pandemic began, we believe that we have significantly reduced
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the risk of a covenant breach, including by reducing our net leverage ratio further in the third and fourth quarters of 2020 relative to the second quarter.
The indentures relating to our Euro Notes do not include financial maintenance covenants, and the indentures will not restrict our ability to draw funds on the credit facility. The indentures do not prohibit amendments to the financial covenants under the credit facility as needed.
In the long term, while we believe that we have adequate capacity under our existing credit facilities, from time to time we may need to raise additional funds through public or private financing, strategic relationships or other arrangements. There can be no assurance that additional funding, or refinancing of our credit facilities, if needed, will be available on terms attractive to us, or at all. Furthermore, any additional equity financing may be dilutive to stockholders, and debt financing, if available, may involve restrictive covenants or higher interest costs. Our failure to raise capital if and when needed could have a material adverse impact on our business, operating results, and financial condition.
From time to time, we may undertake financing transactions to increase our available liquidity, such as (i) our November 2018 amendment to our senior secured credit facility and (ii) the issuance of the Euro Notes (2026/28) in April 2018 related to the Stahlgruber acquisition. Given the long-term nature of our investment in Stahlgruber, combined with favorable interest rates, we decided to fund the acquisition primarily through long-term, fixed rate notes. We believe this approach provides financial flexibility to execute our long-term growth strategy while maintaining availability under our revolver. If we see an attractive acquisition opportunity, we have the ability to use our revolver to move quickly and have certainty of funding up to the amount of our then-available liquidity. In January 2020, we redeemed our U.S. Notes (2023) to eliminate higher cost debt with lower interest rate borrowings on our credit facilities and cash on hand.
Beginning in 2019, a number of our European suppliers began participating in a supply chain financing initiative in select countries under which they may sell their accounts receivable to the participating financial institutions, allowing us to extend payment terms which in turn improves our operating cash flows. The initiative allows our suppliers to monetize the receivables prior to their payment date, subject to payment of a discount. We expect more suppliers will begin participating in our European supply chain financing initiative in 2021. Financial institutions participate in the supply chain financing initiative on an uncommitted basis and can cease purchasing receivables from our suppliers at any time. The initiative is at the sole discretion of both the supplier and the financial institution on terms that are negotiated between them. In the future, if the financial institutions did not continue to purchase receivables from our suppliers under the initiative, the participating vendors may have a need to renegotiate their payment terms with us, which in turn could cause our borrowings under our revolving credit facility to increase. All outstanding payments owed under the initiative to the participating financial institutions are recorded within Accounts payable in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Borrowings under the credit agreement accrue interest at variable rates which are tied to LIBOR or the Canadian Dollar Offered Rate ("CDOR"), depending on the currency and the duration of the borrowing, plus an applicable margin rate that is subject to change quarterly based on our reported leverage ratio. We hold interest rate swaps to hedge the variable rates on a portion of our credit agreement borrowings, with the effect of fixing the interest rates on the respective notional amounts. In addition, we hold currency swaps that contain an interest rate swap component and a foreign currency forward contract component that, when combined with related intercompany financing arrangements, effectively convert variable rate U.S. dollar-denominated borrowings into fixed rate euro-denominated borrowings. These derivative transactions are described in Note 11, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. After giving effect to these contracts, the weighted average interest rate on borrowings outstanding under our credit agreement at December 31, 2020 was 1.7%. Including our senior notes, our overall weighted average interest rate on borrowings was 3.1% at December 31, 2020.
After 2021, it is unclear whether banks will continue to provide LIBOR submissions to the administrator of LIBOR. At this time, no consensus exists as to which reference rate or rates may become accepted alternatives to LIBOR, although the Alternative Reference Rates Committee, a group of market participants convened by the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, has identified the Secured Overnight Financing Rate (“SOFR”) as the recommended alternative to LIBOR. On November 30, 2020, ICE Benchmark Administration, the administrator of LIBOR, with the support of the United States Federal Reserve and the United Kingdom’s Financial Conduct Authority, announced plans to consult on ceasing publication of USD LIBOR on December 31, 2021 for the one week and two month USD LIBOR tenors, and on June 30, 2023 for all other USD LIBOR tenors. While this announcement extends the transition period to June 2023, the United States Federal Reserve concurrently issued a statement advising banks to stop new USD LIBOR issuances by the end of 2021. We cannot currently predict the effect of the discontinuation of, or other changes to, LIBOR or any establishment of alternative reference rates in the United States, the European Union or elsewhere on the global capital markets. Outstanding debt under our Credit Agreement, which constitutes the most significant of our LIBOR-based debt obligations, contains provisions that address the potential discontinuation of LIBOR and facilitate the adoption of an alternative rate of interest. We do not believe that the discontinuation of LIBOR, or its replacement with an alternative reference rate or rates, such as the SOFR, will have a material impact on our results of operations, financial position or liquidity.
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Cash interest payments were $107 million for the year ended December 31, 2020, including $64 million in semi-annual interest payments on our Euro Notes (2024) and Euro Notes (2026/2028). Interest payments on our Euro Notes (2024) and Euro Notes (2026/2028) are made in April and October.
We had outstanding credit agreement borrowings of $967 million and $1.6 billion at December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Of these amounts, $18 million was classified as current maturities at December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
The scheduled maturities of long-term obligations outstanding at December 31, 2020 are as follows (in thousands):
Years ending December 31:
2021 (1)
$58,810 
2022 32,757 
202325,737 
20241,532,638 
2025 7,104 
Thereafter1,239,630 
Total debt (2)
$2,896,676 
(1)     Maturities of long-term obligations due by December 31, 2021 includes $24 million of short-term debt that may be extended beyond the current due date.
(2)     The total debt amounts presented above reflect the gross values to be repaid (excluding debt issuance costs of $26 million as of December 31, 2020).
Our credit agreement contains customary covenants that impose limitations and conditions on our ability to enter into certain transactions. The credit agreement also contains financial and affirmative covenants, including limitations on our net leverage ratio and a minimum interest coverage ratio. We were in compliance with all restrictive covenants under our credit agreement as of December 31, 2020.
As of December 31, 2020, the Company had cash and cash equivalents of $312 million, of which $275 million was held by foreign subsidiaries. In general, it is our practice and intention to permanently reinvest the undistributed earnings of our foreign subsidiaries, and that position has not changed following the enactment of the Tax Act and the related imposition of the transition tax. Distributions of dividends from our foreign subsidiaries, if any, would be generally exempt from further U.S. taxation, either as a result of the 100% participation exemption under the Tax Act, or due to the previous taxation of foreign earnings under the transition tax and the GILTI regime. We believe that we have sufficient cash flow and liquidity to meet our financial obligations in the U.S. without repatriating our foreign earnings. We may, from time to time, choose to selectively repatriate foreign earnings if doing so supports our financing or liquidity objectives.
The procurement of inventory is the largest operating use of our funds. We normally pay for aftermarket product purchases on standard payment terms or at the time of shipment, depending on the manufacturer and the negotiated payment terms. We normally pay for salvage vehicles acquired at salvage auctions and under direct procurement arrangements at the time that we take possession of the vehicles.
The following table sets forth a summary of our aftermarket and manufactured inventory procurement for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019
Change (1)
North America$1,033,500 $1,372,600 $(339,100)
Europe3,503,300 3,966,000 (462,700)
(2)
Specialty1,056,200 1,107,200 (51,000)
Total$5,593,000 $6,445,800 $(852,800)
(1)Inventory purchases across all segments have decreased due to a slowdown in procurement beginning in March 2020 as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic.
(2)The decrease in inventory purchases in our Europe segment was partially offset by an increase of $71 million attributable to the increase in the value of the euro, and to a lesser extent, the pound sterling, in the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to the prior year period.
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The following table sets forth a summary of our global wholesale salvage and self service procurement of vehicles for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019 (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
20202019% Change
North America wholesale salvage cars and trucks230 309 (25.6)%
Europe wholesale salvage cars and trucks24 25 (4.0)%
Self service and "crush only" cars574 591 (2.9)%
Salvage purchases decreased relative to the prior year as we reduced buying to reflect lower demand during the COVID-19 pandemic. Purchasing began to increase as the second quarter progressed and revenue increased and continued to increase through the fourth quarter. Self service vehicle purchases declined due to supply constraints as certain outlets, such as city impound lots, were unavailable for a portion of the year and individuals held onto vehicles longer during the lockdown measures. Purchases increased towards the end of June 2020 and continued to increase through the end of the fourth quarter.
We expect to continue to increase inventory purchases in the first quarter of 2021 to support the service and fill rate requirements of our businesses based on the revenue trend and expectations for 2021, including normal seasonality as we continue into winter. However, we expect to be able to operate effectively at a lower inventory balance than at the end of 2019.
The following table summarizes the components of the year-over-year increase in cash provided by operating activities (in millions):
Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2019$1,064 
Increase (decrease) due to:
Operating income89 
(1)
Non-cash depreciation and amortization expense
(15)
Loss/gain on disposal of businesses and impairment of net assets held for sale(44)
(2)
Cash paid for taxes
(67)
(3)
Cash paid for interest
36 
Working capital accounts: (4)
Receivables, net67 
Inventories418 
Accounts payable
(68)
Other operating activities(36)
(5)
Net cash provided by operating activities for the year ended December 31, 2020$1,444 
(1)    Refer to the Results of Operations – Consolidated section for further information on the increase in operating income.
(2)    Refer to "Net Assets Held for Sale" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for information on the net impairment activity recorded for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
(3)    Cash payments related to income taxes increased for U.S. federal and state income taxes due to (i) $94 million increase in income from continuing operations before income taxes, (ii) tax payment benefits from the loss on disposal of our aviation business in 2019, and (iii) 2018 overpayment credits carried forward into 2019.
(4)    Cash flows related to our primary working capital accounts can be volatile as the purchases, payments and collections can be timed differently from period to period.
    Receivables, net was a $67 million greater inflow in 2020 primarily due to greater cash conversion of accounts receivable balances in the year 2020 in the Europe segment (of $60 million) and the North America segment (of $38 million) and the lower revenues due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The inflows in North America and Europe were partially offset by outflows for the Specialty segment (of $31 million) as a result of increased revenues in the fourth quarter of 2020.    
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    Inventories represented $418 million in incremental cash inflows in the year 2020 as a result of inventory decreases in the (i) Europe segment of $167 million, (ii) North America segment of $141 million, and (iii) Specialty segment of $110 million, due to a slowdown in inventory purchases starting in March 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic as we aligned our inventory balances to the projected demand.
    Accounts payable produced $68 million in higher cash outflows primarily due to lower accounts payable balances in the North America segment (of $259 million) and the Specialty segment (of $8 million) compared to the prior year period, as a result of a slowdown in inventory purchases due to the COVID-19 pandemic, partially offset by cash inflows for the Europe segment (of $199 million) primarily due to benefits from both improved payment terms and our supply chain financing initiative.
(5)    Cash flows from other operating activities decreased $18 million as a result of the timing of value added tax payables payments compared to the prior year. The remaining amount reflects a number of individually insignificant fluctuations in cash paid for other operating activities.
Net cash used in investing activities totaled $166 million and $265 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. Property, plant and equipment purchases were $173 million in 2020 compared to $266 million in the prior year. The period over period decrease in cash outflows for purchases of property, plant and equipment was due to decreased capital spending across our businesses as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. We invested $7 million of cash, net of cash acquired, in business acquisitions during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $27 million during the year ended December 31, 2019. We received $22 million of net proceeds from divestitures of businesses held for sale and property, plant and equipment during the year ended December 31, 2020 compared to $35 million in the prior year period.
The following table reconciles Net Cash Provided by Operating Activities to Free Cash Flow (in thousands):
Year Ended December 31,
 20202019
Net cash provided by operating activities$1,443,870 $1,064,033 
Less: purchases of property, plant and equipment
172,695 265,730 
Free cash flow$1,271,175 $798,303 
Net cash used in financing activities totaled $1.5 billion and $601 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. During the year ended December 31, 2020, net repayments of our borrowings totaled $1.4 billion compared to $301 million during the year ended December 31, 2019. The period over period increase in net repayments of our borrowings includes the $600 million repayment of our U.S. Notes (2023) in January 2020. We repurchased $117 million of our common stock in the year ended December 31, 2020, compared to $292 million in the year ended December 31, 2019.
Although our efforts are currently scaled back due to the COVID-19 pandemic, we intend to continue to evaluate markets for potential growth through the internal development of distribution centers, processing and sales facilities, and warehouses, through further integration of our facilities, and through selected business acquisitions. Our future liquidity and capital requirements will depend upon numerous factors, including the costs and timing of our internal development efforts and the success of those efforts, the costs and timing of expansion of our sales and marketing activities, and the costs and timing of future business acquisitions.

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements and Future Commitments
Except as described below, we do not have any off-balance sheet arrangements or undisclosed borrowings or debt that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 303 of Regulation S-K under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. Additionally, we do not have any synthetic leases.
As of December 31, 2020, there were letters of credit outstanding in the aggregate amount of $71 million.
We guarantee the residual values for the majority of our leased vehicles. Had we terminated all of our operating leases subject to these guarantees at December 31, 2020, our portion of the guaranteed residual value would have totaled approximately $63 million. See Note 13, "Leases" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information on leases.
In December 2019, we modified the shares of a noncontrolling interest of a subsidiary acquired in connection with the Stahlgruber acquisition and issued new redeemable shares to the minority shareholder. The new redeemable shares contain a put option for all noncontrolling interest shares at a fixed price of $24 million (€21 million) for the minority shareholder exercisable in the fourth quarter of 2023. The put option is outside the control of the Company to exercise. See "Stockholders'
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Equity–Noncontrolling Interest" in Note 4, "Summary of Significant Accounting Policies" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information.
The following table represents our future commitments under contractual obligations as of December 31, 2020 (in millions):
TotalLess than
1 Year
1-3 Years3-5 YearsMore than
5 Years
Contractual obligations
Long-term debt (1)
$3,275.6 $140.5 $225.8 $1,628.5 $1,280.8 
Finance lease obligations (2)
69.0 13.1 19.3 12.2 24.4 
Operating leases (3)
1,877.5 298.1 473.4 328.8 777.2 
Purchase obligations (4)
831.8 831.8 — — — 
Other long-term obligations (5)
258.2 128.5 94.7 30.0 5.0 
Total$6,312.1 $1,412.0 $813.2 $1,999.5 $2,087.4 
(1)     Our long-term debt under contractual obligations above includes interest of $436 million on the balances outstanding as of December 31, 2020. The long-term debt balance excludes debt issuance costs, as these expenses have already been paid. Interest on our senior notes, notes payable, and other long-term debt is calculated based on the respective stated rates. Interest on our variable rate credit facilities is calculated based on the weighted average rates, including the impact of interest rate swaps through their respective expiration dates, in effect for each tranche of borrowings as of December 31, 2020. Future estimated interest expense for the next year, one to three years, and three to five years is $94 million, $185 million and $100 million, respectively. Estimated interest expense beyond five years is $57 million.
(2)     Interest on finance lease obligations of $12 million is included based on incremental borrowing or implied rates. Future estimated interest expense for the next year, one to three years, and three to five years is $1 million, $1 million and $1 million, respectively. Estimated interest expense beyond five years is $9 million.
(3)     The operating lease payments above do not include certain tax, insurance and maintenance costs, which are also required contractual obligations under our operating leases but are generally not fixed and can fluctuate from year to year. Also, we have excluded future minimum lease payments for leases that have been signed but have not commenced as of December 31, 2020.
(4)    Our purchase obligations include open purchase orders for aftermarket inventory.
(5)    Our other long-term obligations consist of (i) estimated payments for our self-insurance reserves of $98 million, (ii) outstanding estimated payments of $32 million on the repatriation of earnings as a result of the Tax Act, (iii) $30 million of social security tax deferrals related to COVID-19 relief, (iv) a total of $5 million of guaranteed dividend payments to be made in quarterly installments through January 2024 to the minority shareholder of a subsidiary acquired in connection with the Stahlgruber acquisition, and (v) $93 million representing primarily other asset purchase commitments and payments for deferred compensation plans.
The table above excludes amounts related to our defined benefit pension plans. As of December 31, 2020, the projected benefit obligation for our defined benefit pension plans was $212 million, and the fair value of the related plan assets was $59 million. Total expected contributions to our pension plans, including amounts that we expect to pay in benefits directly to participants, are $4 million for the year ended December 31, 2021. Benefit payments for our funded plans will be made from plan assets, whereas benefit payments for our unfunded plans are made from cash flows from operating activities. See Note 14, "Employee Benefit Plans" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for further information related to our pension plans, including information related to expected benefit payments for the next 10 years and the plan assets available to satisfy those benefit payments.

ITEM 7A.    QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
We are exposed to market risks arising from adverse changes in:
foreign exchange rates;
interest rates; and
commodity prices.

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Foreign Exchange Rates
Foreign currency fluctuations may impact the financial results we report for the portions of our business that operate in functional currencies other than the U.S. dollar. Our operations outside of the U.S. represented 50.5% and 50.3% of our revenue during the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019, respectively. An increase or decrease in the strength of the U.S. dollar against these currencies by 10% would result in a 5.1% change in our consolidated revenue and a 2.6% change in our operating income for the year ended December 31, 2020. See our Results of Operations discussion in Part II, Item 7 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information regarding the impact of fluctuations in exchange rates on our year over year results.
Additionally, we are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations with respect to the purchase of aftermarket products from foreign countries, primarily in Europe and Asia. To the extent that our inventory purchases are not denominated in the functional currency of the purchasing location, we are exposed to exchange rate fluctuations. In several of our operations, we purchase inventory from manufacturers in Taiwan in U.S. dollars, which exposes us to fluctuations in the relationship between the local functional currency and the U.S. dollar, as well as fluctuations between the U.S. dollar and the Taiwan dollar. We hedge our exposure to foreign currency fluctuations related to a portion of inventory purchases in our Europe operations, but the notional amount and fair value of these foreign currency forward contracts at December 31, 2020 were immaterial. We do not currently attempt to hedge foreign currency exposure related to our foreign currency denominated inventory purchases in our North America operations, and we may not be able to pass on any resulting price increases to our customers.
To the extent that we are exposed to foreign currency fluctuations related to non-functional currency denominated financing transactions, we may hedge the exposure through the use of foreign currency forward contracts. As of December 31, 2020, we held short term foreign currency forward contracts with notional amounts of €142 million, £75 million and SEK 227 million. Only the SEK denominated foreign currency forward contract was designated as a cash flow hedge; the fair value was a liability of $1 million as of December 31, 2020. In February 2021, we entered into a short term foreign currency forward contract for $250 million to mitigate our exposure to non-functional currency borrowings in our European operations. We currently expect to enter into a similar instrument when this one matures in the first quarter of 2021. The values of these contracts are subject to changes in foreign currency exchange rates.
Other than with respect to a portion of our foreign currency denominated inventory purchases and certain financing transactions, we do not hold derivative contracts to hedge foreign currency risk. Our net investment in foreign operations is partially hedged by the foreign currency denominated borrowings we use to fund foreign acquisitions; however, our ability to use foreign currency denominated borrowings to finance our foreign operations may be limited based on local tax laws. We have elected not to hedge the foreign currency risk related to the interest payments on foreign third party borrowings as we generate cash flows in the local currencies that can be used to fund debt payments. As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding borrowings of €500 million under our Euro Notes (2024) and €1.0 billion under our Euro Notes (2026/28); we had no foreign borrowings under our revolving credit facilities. As of December 31, 2019, we had outstanding borrowings of €500 million under our Euro Notes (2024), €1.0 billion under our Euro Notes (2026/28), and £208 million, €229 million, CAD $130 million, and SEK 270 million under our revolving credit facilities.
Interest Rates
Our results of operations are exposed to changes in interest rates primarily with respect to borrowings under our credit facilities, where interest rates are tied to the prime rate, LIBOR or CDOR. Therefore, we implemented a policy to manage our exposure to variable interest rates on a portion of our outstanding variable rate debt instruments through the use of interest rate swap contracts. These contracts convert a portion of our variable rate debt to fixed rate debt, matching the currency, effective dates and maturity dates to specific debt instruments. We designate our interest rate swap contracts as cash flow hedges, and net interest payments or receipts from interest rate swap contracts are included as adjustments to interest expense.
As of December 31, 2020, we held interest rate swap contracts with a total notional amount of $480 million, maturing in January 2021 and June 2021 ($150 million remains outstanding as of the filing date of this Annual Report on Form 10-K). All of our interest rate swap contracts have been executed with banks that we believe are creditworthy (Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.; Bank of America, N.A.; Citizens, N.A.; HSBC Bank USA, N.A.; and Banco Bilbao Vizcaya Argentaria, S.A.). As of December 31, 2020, the fair value of the interest rate swap contracts was a liability of $1 million. The values of such contracts are subject to changes in interest rates.
In addition to these interest rate swaps, as of December 31, 2020, we held cross currency swap agreements for a total notional amount of  €340 million with maturity dates in January 2021. These cross currency swaps contain an interest rate swap component and a foreign currency forward contract component that, combined with related intercompany financing arrangements, effectively convert variable rate U.S. dollar-denominated borrowings into fixed rate euro-denominated borrowings. The swaps are intended to reduce uncertainty in cash flows in U.S. dollars and euros in connection with intercompany financing arrangements. The cross currency swaps were also executed with banks we believe are creditworthy (Wells Fargo Bank, N.A.; Bank of America, N.A.; and MUFG Bank, Ltd. ("MUFG")). As of December 31, 2020,
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the fair value of our cross currency swaps was a liability of $56 million. The values of these contracts are subject to changes in interest rates and foreign currency exchange rates.
In total, we had 87% (16% excluding the cash flow hedges that matured in January 2021) of our variable rate debt under our credit facilities at fixed rates at December 31, 2020 compared to 59% at December 31, 2019. See Note 10, "Long-Term Obligations" and Note 11, "Derivative Instruments and Hedging Activities" to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Annual Report on Form 10-K for additional information.
At December 31, 2020, we had approximately $128 million of variable rate debt that was not hedged. Using sensitivity analysis, a 100 basis point movement in interest rates would change interest expense by $1 million over the next twelve months.
Commodity Prices
We are exposed to market risk related to price fluctuations in scrap metal and other metals (including precious metals such as platinum, palladium and rhodium). Market prices of these metals affect the amount that we pay for our inventory and the revenue that we generate from sales of these metals. As both our revenue and costs are affected by the price fluctuations, we have a natural hedge against the changes. However, there is typically a lag between the effect on our revenue from metal price fluctuations and inventory cost changes, and there is no guarantee that the vehicle costs will decrease or increase at the same rate as the metals prices. Therefore, we can experience positive or negative gross margin effects in periods of rising or falling metals prices, particularly when such prices move rapidly. Additionally, if market prices were to change at a greater rate than our vehicle acquisition costs, we could experience a positive or negative effect on our operating margin. The average of scrap metal prices for 2020 was relatively flat compared to the average for 2019.
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ITEM 8.     FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA

*****
INDEX TO FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of LKQ Corporation:
Opinion on the Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying consolidated balance sheets of LKQ Corporation and subsidiaries (the "Company") as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, the related consolidated statements of income, comprehensive income, cash flows, and stockholders' equity for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, and the related notes and the financial statement schedule listed in the Index at Item 15 (collectively referred to as the "financial statements"). In our opinion, the financial statements present fairly, in all material respects, the financial position of the Company as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, and the results of its operations and its cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2020, in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the Company's internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission and our report dated February 25, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on the Company's internal control over financial reporting.
Change in Accounting Principle
As discussed in Note 13 to the financial statements, the Company changed its method of accounting for leases in 2019 due to adoption of ASC 842, Leases.
Basis for Opinion
These financial statements are the responsibility of the Company's management. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company's financial statements based on our audits. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audits in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements are free of material misstatement, whether due to error or fraud. Our audits included performing procedures to assess the risks of material misstatement of the financial statements, whether due to error or fraud, and performing procedures that respond to those risks. Such procedures included examining, on a test basis, evidence regarding the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. Our audits also included evaluating the accounting principles used and significant estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the financial statements. We believe that our audits provide a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Critical Audit Matter
The critical audit matter communicated below is a matter arising from the current-period audit of the financial statements that was communicated or required to be communicated to the audit committee and that (1) relates to accounts or disclosures that are material to the financial statements and (2) involved our especially challenging, subjective, or complex judgments. The communication of critical audit matters does not alter in any way our opinion on the financial statements, taken as a whole, and we are not, by communicating the critical audit matter below, providing a separate opinion on the critical audit matter or on the accounts or disclosures to which it relates.
Goodwill Impairment Assessment – Refer to Note 4 to the financial statements.
Critical Audit Matter Description
The Company’s interim and annual evaluations of goodwill for impairment involve the comparison of the fair value of each reporting unit to its carrying value. The Company determines the fair value of its reporting units using a discounted cash flow model and the market approach, which require management to make significant estimates and assumptions.  The goodwill balance subject to the impairment assessments was $4.6 billion as of December 31, 2020, and is allocated to four reporting units.
Auditing the estimates and assumptions that impacted the valuation of certain reporting units involved especially subjective judgment; specifically, the forecasts of future revenue and profit margins (“forecasts”), the determination of market multiples, and the selection of discount rates.
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How the Critical Audit Matter Was Addressed in the Audit
Our audit procedures related to the forecasts, determination of market multiples, and the selection of discount rates included the following, among others:
· We tested the effectiveness of controls over the goodwill impairment assessments, including those over the forecasts and the selection of the discount rates and market multiples.
· We evaluated management’s ability to accurately forecast by comparing actual results to management’s historical forecasts.
· We evaluated the reasonableness of management’s forecasts by comparing the forecasts to (1) historical results, (2) internal communications to management and the Board of Directors, (3) analyst and industry reports of the Company and companies in its peer group, and (4) forecasts used in the preceding impairment assessments.
· With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the discount rates, including (1) testing the underlying source information and the mathematical accuracy of the calculations, (2) developing a range of independent estimates and comparing those to the discount rates used by management, and (3) comparing the discount rates used by management to those used in the preceding impairment assessments.
· With the assistance of our fair value specialists, we evaluated the market multiples, including testing the underlying source information and mathematical accuracy of the calculations, and comparing the multiples selected by management to its guideline public companies and the multiples used in the preceding impairment assessments.
/s/    DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Chicago, Illinois
February 25, 2021

We have served as the Company's auditor since 1998.

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REPORT OF INDEPENDENT REGISTERED PUBLIC ACCOUNTING FIRM
To the Board of Directors and Stockholders of LKQ Corporation:
Opinion on Internal Control over Financial Reporting
We have audited the internal control over financial reporting of LKQ Corporation and subsidiaries (the “Company”) as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by the Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO). In our opinion, the Company maintained, in all material respects, effective internal control over financial reporting as of December 31, 2020, based on criteria established in Internal Control – Integrated Framework (2013) issued by COSO.
We have also audited, in accordance with the standards of the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (PCAOB), the consolidated financial statements as of and for the year ended December 31, 2020, of the Company and our report dated February 25, 2021, expressed an unqualified opinion on those consolidated financial statements.
Basis for Opinion
The Company’s management is responsible for maintaining effective internal control over financial reporting and for its assessment of the effectiveness of internal control over financial reporting, included in the accompanying Report of Management on Internal Control over Financial Reporting. Our responsibility is to express an opinion on the Company’s internal control over financial reporting based on our audit. We are a public accounting firm registered with the PCAOB and are required to be independent with respect to the Company in accordance with the U.S. federal securities laws and the applicable rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission and the PCAOB.
We conducted our audit in accordance with the standards of the PCAOB. Those standards require that we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether effective internal control over financial reporting was maintained in all material respects. Our audit included obtaining an understanding of internal control over financial reporting, assessing the risk that a material weakness exists, testing and evaluating the design and operating effectiveness of internal control based on the assessed risk, and performing such other procedures as we considered necessary in the circumstances. We believe that our audit provides a reasonable basis for our opinion.
Definition and Limitations of Internal Control over Financial Reporting
A company’s internal control over financial reporting is a process designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("generally accepted accounting principles"). A company’s internal control over financial reporting includes those policies and procedures that (1) pertain to the maintenance of records that, in reasonable detail, accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the company; (2) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and that receipts and expenditures of the company are being made only in accordance with authorizations of management and directors of the company; and (3) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use, or disposition of the company’s assets that could have a material effect on the financial statements.
Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate.
/s/    DELOITTE & TOUCHE LLP
Chicago, Illinois
February 25, 2021

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LKQ CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES

Consolidated Statements of Income
(In thousands, except per share data)
Year Ended December 31,
 202020192018
Revenue$11,628,830 $12,506,109 $11,876,674 
Cost of goods sold7,035,559 7,654,315 7,301,817 
Gross margin4,593,271 4,851,794 4,574,857 
Selling, general and administrative expenses3,266,065 3,580,300 3,352,731 
Restructuring and acquisition related expenses66,163 36,979 32,428 
Loss on disposal of businesses and impairment of net assets held for sale and goodwill3,174 47,102 33,244 
Depreciation and amortization272,292 290,770 274,213 
Operating income985,577 896,643 882,241 
Other expense (income):
Interest expense103,784 138,504 146,377 
Loss (gain) on debt extinguishment12,751 (128)1,350 
Interest income and other income, net(15,953)(32,755)(8,917)
Total other expense, net100,582 105,621 138,810 
Income from continuing operations before provision for income taxes884,995 791,022 743,431 
Provision for income taxes249,498 215,330 191,395 
Equity in earnings (losses) of unconsolidated subsidiaries5,012 (32,277)(64,471)
Income from continuing operations640,509 543,415 487,565 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(95)1,619 (4,397)
Net income640,414 545,034 483,168 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest1,888 2,800 3,050 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest103 974 — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$638,423 $541,260 $480,118 
Basic earnings per share: (1)
Income from continuing operations$2.10 $1.75 $1.55 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(0.00)0.01 (0.01)
Net income2.10 1.76 1.54 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.01 0.01 0.01 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest0.00 0.00 — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$2.10 $1.75 $1.53 
Diluted earnings per share: (1)
Income from continuing operations$2.10 $1.75 $1.54 
Net (loss) income from discontinued operations(0.00)0.01 (0.01)
Net income2.10 1.75 1.53 
Less: net income attributable to continuing noncontrolling interest0.01 0.01 0.01 
Less: net income attributable to discontinued noncontrolling interest0.00 0.00 — 
Net income attributable to LKQ stockholders$2.09