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Cna Financial Corp (CNA) SEC Filing 10-K Annual report for the fiscal year ending Thursday, December 31, 2020

Cna Financial Corp

CIK: 21175 Ticker: CNA

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FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE

CNA FINANCIAL ANNOUNCES
Q4 2020 NET INCOME OF $1.42 PER SHARE AND CORE INCOME OF $1.23 PER SHARE
FULL YEAR 2020 NET INCOME OF $2.53 PER SHARE AND CORE INCOME OF $2.70 PER SHARE
Fourth Quarter
Net income was $387 million versus $273 million in the prior year quarter; core income was a record $335 million versus $265 million in the prior year quarter.
The P&C combined ratio was 93.5% compared with 95.6% in the prior year quarter, including 0.8 points of catastrophe loss impact compared with 2.9 points in the prior year quarter. No change to COVID-19 catastrophe loss estimate.
The underlying combined ratio was 92.7% compared with 94.9% in the prior year quarter. The underlying loss ratio was 60.5% compared with 60.9% in the prior year quarter and the expense ratio was 32.0% compared with 33.7% in the prior year quarter.
P&C segments, excluding third party captives, generated gross written premium growth of 15% and net written premium growth of 12% from strong rate of +12% and new business growth of 17%.
Net investment income of $555 million pretax includes $114 million of income from LPs and common stock compared with $545 million of pretax net investment income which included $69 million of income from LPs and common stock in the prior year quarter.
Full Year
Net income was $690 million versus $1 billion in the prior year; core income was $735 million versus $979 million in the prior year.
The P&C combined ratio was 100.9% compared with 96.7% in the prior year, including 7.7 points of catastrophe loss impact compared with 2.6 points in the prior year.
The underlying combined ratio was 93.1% compared with 94.8% in the prior year. The underlying loss ratio was 60.2% compared with 61.0% in the prior year and the expense ratio was 32.6% compared with 33.5% in the prior year.
P&C segments, excluding third party captives, generated gross written premium growth of 9% and net written premium growth of 6% from strong rate of +11% and new business growth of 6%.
Net investment income of $1,935 million pretax includes $144 million of income from LPs and common stock compared with $2,118 million of pretax net investment income which included $226 million of income from LPs and common stock in the prior year.
Shareholders' Equity
Book value per share of $46.82; book value per share excluding AOCI of $43.86, a 6% increase from year-end 2019 adjusting for $3.48 of dividends per share.
Increased quarterly dividend 3% to $0.38 per share; special dividend of $0.75 per share.
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The following information was filed by Cna Financial Corp (CNA) on Monday, February 8, 2021 as an 8K 2.02 statement, which is an earnings press release pertaining to results of operations and financial condition. It may be helpful to assess the quality of management by comparing the information in the press release to the information in the accompanying 10-K Annual Report statement of earnings and operation as management may choose to highlight particular information in the press release.


UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
OR
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from _____ to _____
Commission File Number 1-5823
CNA FINANCIAL CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware36-6169860
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
151 N. Franklin 60606
Chicago,Illinois(Zip Code)
(Address of principal executive offices)
(312) 822-5000
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, Par value $2.50"CNA"New York Stock Exchange
Chicago Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:
None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files). Yes No
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act). Yes No
As of February 5, 2021, 271,391,603 shares of common stock were outstanding. The aggregate market value of the common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $889 million based on the closing price of $32.15 per share of the common stock on the New York Stock Exchange on June 30, 2020.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the CNA Financial Corporation Proxy Statement prepared for the 2021 annual meeting of shareholders, pursuant to Regulation 14A, are incorporated by reference into Part III of this report.



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PART II
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PART III
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PART IV
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PART I
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
CNA Financial Corporation (CNAF) was incorporated in 1967 and is an insurance holding company. References to “CNA,” “the Company,” “we,” “our,” “us” or like terms refer to the business of CNAF and its subsidiaries. CNA's property and casualty and remaining life and group insurance operations are primarily conducted by Continental Casualty Company (CCC), The Continental Insurance Company, Western Surety Company, CNA Insurance Company Limited, Hardy Underwriting Bermuda Limited and its subsidiaries (Hardy), and CNA Insurance Company (Europe) S.A. Loews Corporation (Loews) owned approximately 89.6% of our outstanding common stock as of December 31, 2020.
Our insurance products primarily include commercial property and casualty coverages, including surety. Our services include warranty, risk management information services and claims administration. Our products and services are primarily marketed through independent agents, brokers and managing general underwriters to a wide variety of customers, including small, medium and large businesses, insurance companies, associations, professionals and other groups. The property and casualty insurance industry is highly competitive, both as it relates to rate and service. We compete with a large number of stock and mutual insurance companies, as well as other entities, for both distributors and customers.
Our commercial property and casualty underwriting operations presence in the United States of America (U.S.) consists of field underwriting locations and centralized processing operations which handle policy processing, billing and collection activities and also act as call centers to optimize service. Our claim operations in the U.S. consists of primary locations where we handle multiple claim types and key business functions, as well as regional claim offices which are aligned with our underwriting field structure. We have property and casualty underwriting operations in Canada, the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Continental Europe, as well as access to business placed at Lloyd's of London through Syndicate 382.
Our commercial property and casualty insurance operations are managed and reported in three business segments: Specialty, Commercial and International, which we refer to collectively as Property & Casualty Operations. Our operations outside of Property & Casualty Operations are managed and reported in two business segments: Life & Group and Corporate & Other. Each segment is managed separately due to differences in their markets and product mix. Discussion of each segment, including the products offered, customers served and distribution channels used, is set forth in the Management's Discussion and Analysis (MD&A) included under Item 7 and in Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Current Regulation
The insurance industry is subject to comprehensive and detailed regulation and supervision. Regulatory oversight by applicable agencies is exercised through review of submitted filings and information, examinations (both financial and market conduct), direct inquiries and interviews. Each domestic and foreign jurisdiction has established supervisory agencies with broad administrative powers relative to licensing insurers and agents, approving policy forms, establishing reserve requirements, prescribing the form and content of statutory financial reports and regulating capital adequacy and the type, quality and amount of investments permitted. Such regulatory powers also extend to premium rate regulations requiring rates not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory. In addition to regulation of dividends by insurance subsidiaries, intercompany transfers of assets or payments may be subject to prior notice or approval by insurance regulators, depending on the size of such transfers and payments in relation to the financial position of the insurance subsidiaries making the transfer or payments.
As our insurance operations are conducted in both domestic and foreign jurisdictions, we are subject to a number of regulatory agency requirements applicable to a portion, or all, of our operations. These include but are not limited to, the State of Illinois Department of Insurance (which is our global group-wide supervisor), the U.K. Prudential Regulatory Authority and Financial Conduct Authority, the Office of Superintendent of Financial Institutions in Canada, the Luxembourg insurance regulator Commissariat aux Assurances (the CAA) and the Bermuda Monetary Authority.
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The U.S. and foreign regulatory environment in which we operate is evolving on an ongoing basis and impacts aspects of corporate governance, risk management practices, public disclosures and cyber security. We continue to invest in the security of our systems and network on an enterprise-wide basis.
Domestic insurers are also required by state insurance regulators to provide coverage to certain insureds who would not otherwise be considered eligible by the insurers. Each state dictates the types of insurance and the level of coverage that must be provided to such involuntary risks. Our share of these involuntary risks is mandatory and generally a function of our respective share of the voluntary market by line of insurance in each state.
Further, domestic insurance companies are subject to state guaranty fund and other insurance-related assessments. Guaranty funds are governed by state insurance guaranty associations which levy assessments to meet the funding needs of insolvent insurer estates. Other insurance-related assessments are generally levied by state agencies to fund various organizations, including disaster relief funds, rating bureaus, insurance departments and workers' compensation second injury funds, and by industry organizations that assist in the statistical analysis and ratemaking process, and we have the ability to recoup certain of these assessments from policyholders.
Although the U.S. federal government does not currently directly regulate the business of insurance, federal legislative and regulatory initiatives can affect the insurance industry. These initiatives and legislation include proposals relating to terrorism and natural catastrophe exposures, cybersecurity risk management, federal financial services reforms and certain tax reforms.
The Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019 (TRIPRA) provides for a federal government backstop for insured terrorism risks through the end of 2027. The mitigating effect of such law is part of the analysis of our overall risk posture for terrorism and, accordingly, our risk positioning may change if such law was modified.
Hardy, a specialized Lloyd's of London (Lloyd's) underwriter, is also supervised by the Council of Lloyd's, which is the franchisor for all Lloyd's operations. The Council of Lloyd's has wide discretionary powers to regulate Lloyd's underwriting, such as establishing the capital requirements for syndicate participation. In addition, the annual business plan of each syndicate is subject to the review and approval of the Lloyd's Franchise Board, which is responsible for business planning and monitoring for all syndicates.
The transition period for the U.K.’s exit from the European Union (E.U.), commonly referred to as “Brexit,” ended on December 31, 2020. To ensure the Company’s ability to operate effectively throughout the E.U. following the departure of the U.K. from the trading bloc, effective January 1, 2019, our E.U. business is no longer written by the U.K.-domiciled subsidiary Hardy, but through a European subsidiary established in Luxembourg. As a result, the complexity and cost of regulatory compliance of our European business has increased and will likely continue to result in elevated expenses.
Capital adequacy and risk management regulations, referred to as Solvency II, apply to our European operations and are enacted by the European Commission, the executive body of the E.U. Additionally, the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) continues to develop capital requirements as more fully discussed below.
Regulation Outlook
The IAIS has adopted a Common Framework (ComFrame) for the Supervision of Internationally Active Insurance Groups (IAIGs) which is focused on the effective group-wide supervision of internationally active insurance groups, such as CNA. As part of ComFrame, the IAIS is developing a global insurance capital standard for insurance groups. While the general parameters of ComFrame have been finalized, many critical areas of the global insurance capital standard are still under consideration. Certain jurisdictional regulatory regimes are subject to revision in response to these global developments.
The National Association of Insurance Commissioners (NAIC) has developed an approach to group capital regulation and solvency-monitoring activities using the Group Capital Calculation (GCC). While the current U.S. regulatory regime is based on legal entity regulation, the GCC will quantify risk across the insurance group and also provide additional financial information to regulators to assess the financial condition of non-insurance
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entities. The GCC was recently adopted by the NAIC along with model legislative language designed to enable the framework once implemented by state legislatures. Alongside the GCC, the NAIC is also working with other interested jurisdictions, both domestic and international, to develop an Aggregation Method (AM) approach to assessing group capital. The AM is influenced by the GCC and calculated in a similar manner. By 2024, the IAIS will be assessing whether the AM provides comparable outcomes to the consolidated group insurance capital standard (ICS) being developed for use with IAIGs.
There have also been definitive developments with respect to prudential insurance supervision unrelated to the IAIS activities. On September 22, 2017, the U.S. Treasury Department, the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the E.U. announced they had formally signed a covered agreement on Prudential Measures Regarding Insurance and Reinsurance (U.S.-E.U. Covered Agreement). The U.S.-E.U. Covered Agreement requires U.S. states to prospectively eliminate the requirement that domestic insurance companies must obtain collateral from E.U. reinsurance companies that are not licensed in their state (alien reinsurers) in order to obtain reserve credit under statutory accounting. In exchange, the E.U. will not impose local presence requirements on U.S. firms operating in the E.U., and effectively must defer to U.S. group capital regulation for these firms. On December 18, 2018, the U.S. Treasury Department, the USTR, and the U.K. announced they formally signed the Bilateral Agreement on Prudential Measures Regarding Insurance and Reinsurance (U.S.-U.K. Covered Agreement). This Agreement has similar terms as the U.S.-E.U. Covered Agreement. Because these covered agreements are not self-executing, U.S. state laws will need to be revised to change reinsurance collateral requirements to conform to the provisions within each of the agreements.
Both the reinsurance collateral requirement change and adoption of group capital regulation must be effected by the states within five years from the signing of the covered agreements, or states risk federal preemption. We will monitor the modification of state laws and regulations in order to comply with the provisions of the covered agreements and assess potential effects on our operations and prospects.
Human Capital
As of December 31, 2020, we had approximately 5,800 employees. We believe we are able to attract and retain top talent by creating a culture that challenges and engages our employees, offering them opportunities to learn, grow and achieve their career goals. Further, our commitment to a culture of inclusion is integral to our goal of attracting and retaining the best talent and ultimately driving our business performance. Our Diversity and Inclusion strategy includes employee-led resource groups, regular training and development for all employees and partnerships with diverse colleges, universities and non-profit organizations that share in our inclusion mission. We also have an established corporate social responsibility strategy with a focus on four core areas: education, environment, inclusion and well-being. Our employees participate in a wide array of volunteer activities and we support their charitable giving by matching employee contributions to qualified nonprofit organizations.
We offer comprehensive compensation and benefits packages to our employees including a 401k Plan, healthcare and insurance benefits, health savings and flexible spending accounts, paid time off and certain family assistance programs, including paid family leave, flexible work arrangements and adoption assistance plans, amongst others. We also offer stock-based compensation to certain management personnel as a way to attract and retain key talent. See Notes I and J to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for further discussion of our benefit plans and stock-based compensation.
In response to the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, we pivoted to a remote working environment for substantially all of our employees with a commitment to the safety of our employees and the communities we serve. In the fourth quarter we began re-opening some offices on a voluntary basis to accommodate employees seeking the flexibility to work from the office, while carefully monitoring the conditions in those areas and continuing to adhere to health and safety protocols.
Available Information
We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other documents with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (Exchange Act). The SEC maintains an internet site that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding issuers, including CNA. The public can obtain any documents that we file with the SEC at www.sec.gov.
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We also make available free of charge on or through our internet website at www.cna.com our Annual Report on Form 10-K, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such material with, or furnish it to, the SEC.
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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
Our business faces many risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties could lead to events or circumstances that have a material adverse effect on our results of operations, equity, business and insurer financial strength and corporate debt ratings. We have described below material risks that we face. There may be additional risks that we do not yet know of or that we do not currently perceive to be material that may also affect our business. You should carefully consider and evaluate all of the information included in this report and any subsequent reports we may file with the SEC or make available to the public before investing in any securities we issue.
COVID-19 Risks
The COVID-19 pandemic and measures to mitigate the spread of the virus have resulted in significant risk across our enterprise, which have had, and may continue to have, material adverse impacts on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time.
The COVID-19 outbreak, and actions seeking to mitigate the spread of the virus, accelerated in both breadth and scope through early 2020, with the World Health Organization declaring it a pandemic on March 11, 2020. The situation has continued to evolve exponentially with implicated exposures increasing given sustained uncertainties across the global marketplace. Both the extensiveness of the pandemic itself, as well as the measures taken to mitigate the virus' spread globally, are unprecedented and their effects continue to be pervasive. While vaccination efforts have begun, in many geographic locations, the virus continues to spread. Accordingly, it remains the case that nearly a year past the initial identification of the threat, all of the direct and indirect consequences and implications of COVID-19 and measures to mitigate its spread are not yet known and may not emerge for some time.
Risks presented by the ongoing effects of COVID-19 that are known at this time include the following:
Broad economic impact
The economic effect of the pandemic has been broad in nature and has significantly impacted business operations across all industries, including ours. Depressed economic conditions have led to, and may continue to lead to, decreased insured exposures causing us to experience declines in premium volume, especially for lines of business that are sensitive to rates of economic growth and those that are impacted by audit premium adjustments. Significant decreases in premium volume directly and adversely impacts our underwriting expense ratio. We recorded a decrease in our estimated audit premiums during the second quarter of 2020 impacting our net earned premium and if general economic conditions do not improve, our net written premiums and net earned premiums may be depressed, which may have a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time.
While our losses incurred during 2020 related to COVID-19 and measures to mitigate its spread represent our best estimate of our ultimate insurance losses resulting from events occurring during 2020 due to the pandemic and the consequent economic crisis, given the unprecedented nature of this event, a high level of uncertainty exists as to the potential impact on insurance losses from these events or other events that might occur in the future. The scope, duration and magnitude of the direct and indirect effects could continue to evolve, and could materially impact our ultimate loss estimate, including in lines of business where losses have already been incurred, as well as the potential for impacts in other lines unknown at this time. Continued spread of the virus, as well as new or extended shelter in place restrictions and full or partial business closures, could cause us to experience additional COVID-19 related catastrophe losses in future quarters, which could be material. For further discussion of risks associated with catastrophe losses, see the Risk Factor, "We are vulnerable to material losses from natural and man-made disasters."



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Financial Markets and Investments
The COVID-19 pandemic has also significantly impacted financial markets. As investors have embarked on a flight to quality, risk free rates have decreased. In addition, liquidity concerns and overall economic uncertainties drove increased volatility in credit spreads and equity markets. While government actions to date have provided some stability to financial markets, economic prospects in the short term continue to be depressed and we remain in a historically low interest rate environment. The continued spread of the virus and the extension of efforts to mitigate the spread in numerous geographic areas will continue to cause substantial uncertainty on the timing and strength of any economic recovery and could continue to impact our investment portfolio results and valuations, and may result in additional volatility or losses in our investment portfolio, which could be material.
These significant financial market disruptions may have a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time. For further discussion of risks associated with our investments, see the Risk Factor, “We may incur significant realized and unrealized investment losses and volatility in net investment income arising from changes in the financial markets.”
Claims and related litigation
We have experienced, and are likely to continue to experience, increased claim submissions and litigation related to denial of claims based on policy coverage, in certain lines of business that are implicated by the pandemic and mitigating actions taken by our customers and governmental authorities in response to its spread. These lines include primarily healthcare professional liability, workers' compensation, commercial property-related business interruption coverage, management liability (directors and officers, employment practices, and professional liability lines) and trade credit. We have recorded significant losses in these areas during 2020 and may experience continued losses, which could be material. In addition, our surety lines may experience increased losses, particularly in construction surety, where there is significant risk that contractors will be adversely and materially impacted by a prolonged decline in economic conditions.
Increased frequency or severity in any or all of the foregoing lines, or others where the exposure has yet to emerge, may have a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time.
We have incurred and may continue to incur substantial expenses related to litigation activity in connection with COVID-related legal claims. These actions primarily relate to denial of claims submitted as a result of the pandemic and the mitigating actions under commercial property policies for business interruption coverage, including lockdowns and closing of certain businesses. The significance of such litigation, both in substance and volume, and the resultant activities we have initiated, including external counsel engagement, and the costs related thereto, may have a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time.
Regulatory impact
The regulatory environment is rapidly evolving in direct response to the pandemic and the related mitigating actions. Numerous regulatory authorities to which our business is subject have implemented or are contemplating broad and significant regulations restricting and governing insurance company operations during the pandemic crisis. Such actions include, but are not limited to, premium moratoriums, premium refunds and reductions, restrictions on policy cancellations and potential legislation-driven expansion of policy terms. To date, certain state authorities have ordered premium refunds and certain regulatory and legislative bodies have proposed requiring insurers to cover business interruption under policies that were not written to provide for such coverage under the current circumstances. In addition, certain states have directed expansion of workers’ compensation coverage through presumption of compensability of claims for a broad category of workers. This highly fluid and challenging regulatory environment, and the new regulations we are now, and may be, subject to may have a material impact on our business, results of operation and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time. For further discussion of risks associated with our regulatory environment, see the Risk Factor, “We are subject to extensive existing state, local, federal and foreign governmental regulations that restrict our ability to do business and generate revenues; additional
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regulation or significant modification to existing regulations or failure to comply with regulatory requirements may have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.”
Business operational impact
Beginning in March 2020, we instituted mandatory work from home for our employees, with the exception of employees performing certain essential operations, across the United States and globally, including Canada, the U.K. and Europe, and moved to teleconference meetings only across the enterprise. As of the date of this report, the majority of our global workforce continues to work from home. The heightened security risks presented by widespread remote access to our computer systems, may have a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time. For further discussion of risks associated with the operation of our business functions, facilities and systems and our vendors' facilities and systems, see the Risk Factor, “Any significant interruption in the operation of our business functions, facilities and systems or our vendors' facilities and systems could result in a materially adverse effect on our operations.” For further discussion of risks associated with information security, see the Risk Factor, “Any significant breach in our data security infrastructure could disrupt business, cause financial losses and damage our reputation.”
In addition, in virtually all cases, our critical vendors have also had to impose workplace restrictions or work from home mandates on their employees, which may result in interruption in service delivery or failure by vendors to properly perform required services, including delivery in a manner more susceptible to significant information security risk. Such vendor issues may result in a material impact on our business, results of operations and financial condition, the extent of which cannot be determined with any certainty at this time. For further discussion of risks associated with vendors and third party service providers, see the Risk Factors, “Inability to detect and prevent significant employee or third party service provider misconduct, inadvertent errors and omissions, or exposure relating to functions performed on our behalf could result in a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition” and “Loss of key vendor relationships and issues relating to the transitioning of vendor relationships could compromise our ability to conduct business.”
Insurance Risks
If we determine that our recorded insurance reserves are insufficient to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claim and claim adjustment expenses, we may need to increase our insurance reserves which would result in a charge to our earnings.
We maintain insurance reserves to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claim and claim adjustment expenses, including the estimated cost of the claims adjudication process, for reported and unreported claims. Insurance reserves are not an exact calculation of liability but instead are complex management estimates developed utilizing a variety of actuarial reserve estimation techniques as of a given reporting date. The reserve estimation process involves a high degree of judgment and variability and is subject to a number of factors which are highly uncertain. These variables can be affected by both changes in internal processes and external events. Key variables include frequency of claims, claim severity, mortality, morbidity, discount rates, inflation, claim handling policies and procedures, case reserving approach, underwriting and pricing policies, changes in the legal and regulatory environment and the lag time between the occurrence of an insured event and the time of its ultimate settlement. Mortality is the relative incidence of death. Morbidity is the frequency and severity of injury, illness, sickness and diseases contracted.
There is generally a higher degree of variability in estimating required reserves for long-tail coverages, such as workers' compensation, general liability and professional liability, as they require a relatively longer period of time for claims to be reported and settled. The impact of changes in inflation and medical costs are also more pronounced for long-tail coverages due to the longer settlement period. Certain risks and uncertainties associated with our insurance reserves are outlined in the Critical Accounting Estimates and the Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties sections of MD&A in Item 7.
We are subject to the uncertain effects of emerging or potential claims and coverage issues that arise as industry practices and legal, judicial, social, economic and other environmental conditions change. These issues have had, and may continue to have, a negative effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition
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by either extending coverage beyond the original underwriting intent or by increasing the number or size of claims, resulting in further increases in our reserves. The effects of unforeseen emerging claim and coverage issues are extremely difficult to predict and may be material.
In light of the many uncertainties associated with establishing the estimates and making the judgments necessary to establish reserve levels, we continually review and change our reserve estimates in a regular and ongoing process as experience develops from the actual reporting and settlement of claims and as the legal, regulatory and economic environment evolves. If our recorded reserves are insufficient for any reason, the required increase in reserves would be recorded as a charge against our earnings in the period in which reserves are determined to be insufficient. These charges could be substantial.
Our actual experience could vary from the key assumptions used to determine active life reserves for long term care policies.
Our active life reserves for long term care policies are based on our best estimate assumptions as of September 30, 2020, due to a reserve unlocking at that date. Key assumptions include morbidity, persistency (the percentage of policies remaining in force), discount rate and future premium rate increases. Estimating future experience for long term care policies is highly uncertain because the adequacy of the reserves is contingent upon actual experience and our future expectations related to these key assumptions. If actual or expected future experience differs from these assumptions, the reserves may not be adequate, requiring us to add reserves. The required increase in reserves would be recorded as a charge against our earnings in the period in which reserves are determined to be insufficient. These charges could be substantial. See the Life & Group Policyholder Reserves portion of Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties section of MD&A in Item 7 for more information.
Morbidity and persistency experience, inclusive of mortality, can be volatile and may be negatively affected by many factors including, but not limited to, policyholder behavior, judicial decisions regarding policy terms, socioeconomic factors, cost of care inflation, changes in health trends and advances in medical care.
A prolonged period during which investment returns remain at levels lower than those anticipated in our reserving would result in shortfalls in investment income on assets supporting our obligations under long term care policies, which may require changes to our reserves. This risk is more significant for our long term care products because the long potential duration of the policy obligations exceeds the duration of the supporting investment assets. Further, changes to the Internal Revenue Code may also affect the rate at which we discount our reserves. In addition, we may not receive regulatory approval for the level of premium rate increases we request. Any adverse deviation between the level of future premium rate increases approved and the level included in our reserving assumptions may require an increase to our reserves.
We are vulnerable to material losses from natural and man-made disasters.
Catastrophe losses are an inevitable part of our business. Various events can cause catastrophe losses. These events can be natural or man-made, and may include hurricanes, windstorms, earthquakes, hail, severe winter weather, fires, floods, riots, strikes, civil unrest, cyber attacks, pandemics and acts of terrorism. The frequency and severity of these catastrophe events are inherently unpredictable. In addition, longer-term natural catastrophe trends may be changing and new types of catastrophe losses may be developing due to climate change, a phenomenon that has been associated with extreme weather events linked to rising temperatures and includes effects on global weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperatures, sea levels, rain, hail and snow.
The extent of our losses from catastrophes is a function of the total amount of our insured exposures in the affected areas, the frequency and severity of the events themselves, the level of reinsurance coverage, reinsurance reinstatement premiums and state residual market assessments, if any. It can take a long time for the ultimate cost of any catastrophe losses to us to be finally determined, as a multitude of factors contribute to such costs, including evaluation of general liability and pollution exposures, infrastructure disruption, business interruption and reinsurance collectibility. Further, significant catastrophic events or a series of catastrophic events have the potential to impose financial stress on the reinsurance industry, which could impact our ability to collect amounts owed to us by reinsurers, thereby resulting in higher net incurred losses.
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Reinsurance coverage for terrorism events is provided only in limited circumstances, especially in regard to “unconventional” terrorism acts, such as nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks. Our principal reinsurance protection against these large-scale terrorist attacks is the coverage currently provided through TRIPRA through December 31, 2027. However, such coverage is subject to a mandatory deductible and other limitations. It is also possible that future legislation could change or eliminate the program, which could adversely affect our business by increasing our exposure to terrorism losses, or by lowering our business volume through efforts to avoid that exposure. For a further discussion of TRIPRA, see Part II, Item 7, MD&A - Catastrophes and Related Reinsurance.
As a result of the items discussed above, catastrophe losses are particularly difficult to estimate, could cause us to exhaust our available reinsurance limits and could adversely affect the cost and availability of reinsurance. Accordingly, catastrophic events could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations, financial condition and liquidity.
We have exposures related to asbestos and environmental pollution (A&EP) claims, which could result in material losses.
Our property and casualty insurance subsidiaries have exposures related to A&EP claims. Our experience has been that establishing claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for casualty coverages relating to A&EP claims is subject to uncertainties that are greater than those presented by other claims. Additionally, traditional actuarial methods and techniques employed to estimate the ultimate cost of claims for more traditional property and casualty exposures are less precise in estimating claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for A&EP. As a result, estimating the ultimate cost of both reported and unreported A&EP claims is subject to a higher degree of variability. On August 31, 2010, we completed a retroactive reinsurance transaction under which substantially all of our legacy A&EP liabilities were ceded to National Indemnity Company (NICO), a subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway Inc., subject to an aggregate limit of $4 billion (Loss Portfolio Transfer). The cumulative amount ceded under the Loss Portfolio Transfer as of December 31, 2020 is $3.3 billion. If the other parties to the Loss Portfolio Transfer do not fully perform their obligations, net losses incurred on A&EP claims covered by the Loss Portfolio Transfer exceed the aggregate limit of $4 billion, or we determine we have exposures to A&EP claims not covered by the Loss Portfolio Transfer, we may need to increase our recorded net reserves which would result in a charge against our earnings. These charges could be substantial. Additionally, if the A&EP claims exceed the limit of the Loss Portfolio Transfer, we will need to assess whether to purchase additional limit or to reassume claim handling responsibility for A&EP claims from an affiliate of NICO. Any additional reinsurance premium or future claim handling costs would also reduce our earnings.
We are exposed to, and may face adverse developments related to, mass tort claims that could arise from our insureds’ sale or use of potentially harmful products or substances, changes to the social and legal environment, issues related to altered interpretation of coverage and other new and emerging claim theories.
We face potential exposure to various types of new and emerging mass tort claims, including those related to exposure to potentially harmful products or substances such as glyphosate, lead paint and opioids; claims arising from changes that expand the right to sue, remove limitations on recovery, extend the statutes of limitations or otherwise repeal or weaken tort reforms, such as those related to abuse reviver statutes, including New York reviver statutes; and claims related to new and emerging theories of liability, such as those related to global warming and climate change. Evolving judicial interpretations and new legislation regarding the application of various tort theories and defenses, including application of various theories of joint and several liability, as well as the application of insurance coverage to these claims, give rise to new claimant activity. Emerging mass tort claim activity, including activity based on such changing judicial interpretations and recent and proposed legislation, could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.



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We may not be able to obtain sufficient reinsurance at a cost or on terms and conditions we deem acceptable, which could result in increased exposure to risk or a decrease in our underwriting commitments.
A primary reason we purchase reinsurance is to manage our exposure to risk. Under our ceded reinsurance arrangements, another insurer assumes a specified portion of our exposure in exchange for a specified portion of policy premiums. Market conditions determine the availability and cost of the reinsurance protection we purchase, which affects the level of our business and profitability, as well as the level and types of risk we retain. If we are unable to obtain sufficient reinsurance at a cost or on terms and conditions we deem acceptable, we may have increased exposure to risk, which could be material. Alternatively, we may be unwilling to bear the increased risk, which would reduce the level of our underwriting commitments.
Strategic Risks
We face intense competition in our industry; we may be adversely affected by the cyclical nature of the property and casualty business and the evolving landscape of our distribution network.
All aspects of the insurance industry are highly competitive and we must continuously allocate resources to refine and improve our insurance products and services to remain competitive. We compete with a large number of stock and mutual insurance companies and other entities, some of which may be larger or have greater financial or other resources than we do, for both distributors and customers. This includes agents, brokers and managing general underwriters who may increasingly compete with us to the extent that markets continue to provide them with direct access to providers of capital seeking exposure to insurance risk. Insurers compete on the basis of many factors, including products, price, services, ratings and financial strength. The competitor landscape has evolved substantially in recent years, with significant consolidation and new market entrants, such as insurtech firms, resulting in increased pressures on our ability to remain competitive, particularly in obtaining pricing that is both attractive to our customer base and risk-appropriate to us.
In addition, the property and casualty market is cyclical and has experienced periods characterized by relatively high levels of price competition, resulting in less restrictive underwriting standards and relatively low premium rates, followed by periods of relatively lower levels of competition, more selective underwriting standards and relatively high premium rates. During periods in which price competition is high, we may lose business to competitors offering competitive insurance products at lower prices. As a result, our premium levels and expense ratio could be materially adversely impacted.
We market our insurance products worldwide primarily through independent insurance agents, insurance brokers, and managing general underwriters who also promote and distribute the products of our competitors. Any change in our relationships with our distribution network agents, brokers or managing general underwriters, including as a result of consolidation and their increased promotion and distribution of our competitors' products, could adversely affect our ability to sell our products. As a result, our business volume and results of operations could be materially adversely impacted.
We may be adversely affected by technological changes or disruptions in the insurance marketplace.
Technological changes in the way insurance transactions are completed in the marketplace, and our ability to react effectively to such change, may present significant competitive risks. For example, more insurers are utilizing "big data" analytics to make underwriting and other decisions that impact product design and pricing. If such utilization is more effective than how we use similar data and information, we will be at a competitive disadvantage. There can be no assurance that we will continue to compete effectively with our industry peers due to technological changes; accordingly, this may have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
In addition, agents and brokers, technology companies, or other third parties may create alternate distribution channels for commercial business that may adversely impact product differentiation and pricing. For example, they may create a digitally enabled distribution channel that may adversely impact our competitive position. Our efforts or the efforts of agents and brokers with respect to new products or alternate distribution channels, as well as changes in the way agents and brokers utilize greater levels of data and technology, could adversely
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impact our business relationship with independent agents and brokers who currently market our products, resulting in a lower volume and/or profitability of business generated from these sources.
We face considerable competition within our industry for qualified, specialized talent and any significant inability to attract and retain talent may adversely affect the execution of our business strategies.
The successful execution of our business plan depends on our ability to attract and retain qualified talent. Due to the intense competition in our industry and from businesses outside the industry for qualified employees, especially those in key positions and those possessing highly specialized knowledge and industry experience in areas such as underwriting, data and analytics and technology, we may encounter obstacles to our ability to attract and retain such employees, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are controlled by a single stockholder which could result in potential conflicts of interest.
Loews beneficially owned approximately 89.6% of our outstanding shares of common stock as of December 31, 2020, and is in a position to control actions that require the consent of stockholders, including the election of directors, amendment of our Restated Certificate of Incorporation and any merger or sale of substantially all of our assets. In addition, five officers of Loews currently serve on our Board of Directors. We have also entered into services agreements and a registration rights agreement with Loews, and we may in the future enter into other agreements with Loews.  It is possible that potential conflicts of interest could arise in the future for our directors who are also officers of Loews with respect to a number of areas relating to the past and ongoing relationships of Loews and us, including tax and insurance matters, financial commitments and sales of common stock pursuant to registration rights or otherwise.
Financial Risks
We may incur significant realized and unrealized investment losses and volatility in net investment income arising from changes in the financial markets.
Our investment portfolio is exposed to various risks, such as interest rate, credit spread, issuer default, equity prices and foreign currency, which are unpredictable. Financial markets are highly sensitive to changes in economic conditions, monetary policies, tax policies, domestic and international geopolitical issues and many other factors. Changes in financial markets including fluctuations in interest rates, credit, equity prices and foreign currency prices and many other factors beyond our control can adversely affect the value of our investments, the realization of investment income and the rate at which we discount certain liabilities. Our investment portfolio is also subject to increased valuation uncertainties when investment markets are illiquid. The valuation of investments is more subjective when markets are illiquid, thereby increasing the risk that the estimated fair value (i.e., the carrying amount) of the portion of our investment portfolio that is carried at fair value in our financial statements is not reflective of the prices at which actual transactions could occur.
We have significant holdings in fixed maturity investments that are sensitive to changes in interest rates. A decline in interest rates may reduce the returns earned on new fixed maturity investments, thereby reducing our net investment income, while an increase in interest rates may reduce the value of our existing fixed maturity investments, which could reduce our net unrealized gains included in Accumulated other comprehensive income (AOCI). The value of our fixed maturity investments is also subject to risk that certain investments may default or become impaired due to deterioration in the financial condition of issuers of the investments we hold or in the underlying collateral of the security.
In addition, we invest a portion of our assets in limited partnerships and common stock which are subject to greater market volatility than our fixed maturity investments. Limited partnership investments generally provide a lower level of liquidity than fixed maturity or equity investments which may also limit our ability to withdraw funds from these investments. The timing and amount of income or losses on such investments is inherently variable and can contribute to volatility in reported earnings.
Further, we hold a portfolio of commercial mortgage loans. We are subject to risk related to the recoverability of loan balances, which is influenced by declines in the estimated cash flows from underlying property leases, fair value of collateral, refinancing risk and the creditworthiness of tenants of credit tenant loan properties,
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where lease payments directly service the loan. Any changes in actual or expected collections would result in a charge to earnings.
As a result of these factors, we may not earn an adequate return on our investments, may be required to write-down the value of our investments and may incur losses on the disposition of our investments all of which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Operational Risks
We use analytical models to assist our decision making in key areas such as pricing, reserving and capital modeling and may be adversely affected if actual results differ materially from the model outputs and related analyses.
We use various modeling techniques and data analytics (e.g., scenarios, predictive, stochastic and/or forecasting) to analyze and estimate exposures, loss trends and other risks associated with our assets and liabilities. This includes both proprietary and third party modeled outputs and related analyses to assist us in decision-making related to underwriting, pricing, capital allocation, reserving, investing, reinsurance and catastrophe risk, among other things. We incorporate numerous assumptions and forecasts about the future level and variability of policyholder behavior, loss frequency and severity, interest rates, equity markets, inflation, capital requirements, and currency exchange rates, among others. The modeled outputs and related analyses from both proprietary models and third parties are subject to various assumptions, uncertainties, model design errors and the inherent limitations of any statistical analysis. Further, climate change may make modeled outcomes less certain or produce new, non-modeled risks.
In addition, the effectiveness of any model can be degraded by operational risks, including the improper use of the model, input errors, data errors and human error. As a result, actual results may differ materially from our modeled results. The profitability and financial condition of the Company substantially depends on the extent to which our actual experience is consistent with assumptions we use in our models and ultimate model outputs. If, based upon these models or other factors, we misprice our products or fail to appropriately estimate the risks we are exposed to, our business, results of operations and financial condition may be materially adversely affected.
Any significant interruption in the operation of our business functions, facilities and systems or our vendors' facilities and systems could result in a materially adverse effect on our operations.
Our business is highly dependent upon our ability to perform, in an efficient and uninterrupted manner, through our employees or vendor relationships, necessary business functions (such as internet support and 24-hour call centers), processing new and renewal business and processing and paying claims and other obligations. Our or our vendors' facilities and systems could become unavailable, inoperable, or otherwise impaired from a variety of causes, including natural events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, windstorms, earthquakes, severe winter weather and fires, or other events, such as explosions, terrorist attacks, computer security breaches or cyber attacks, riots, hazardous material releases, medical epidemics or pandemics, utility outages, interruptions of our data processing and storage systems or the systems of third-party vendors, or unavailability of communications facilities. Likewise, we could experience a significant failure, interruption or corruption of one or more of our or our vendors' information technology, telecommunications, or other systems for various reasons, including significant failures or interruptions that might occur as existing systems are replaced or upgraded.
The shut-down or unavailability of one or more of our or our vendors' systems or facilities for any reason could significantly impair our ability to perform critical business functions on a timely basis. In addition, because our information technology and telecommunications systems interface with and depend on third-party systems, we could experience service denials if demand for such service exceeds capacity or a third-party system fails or experiences an interruption. If sustained or repeated, such events could result in a deterioration of our ability to write and process new and renewal business, provide customer service, pay claims in a timely manner, or perform other necessary business functions, including the ability to issue financial statements in a timely manner.
The foregoing risks could expose us to monetary and reputational damages. Potential exposures include substantially increased compliance costs and required computer system upgrades and security-related
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investments. If our business continuity plans or system security does not sufficiently address these risks, they could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Any significant breach in our data security infrastructure could disrupt business, cause financial losses and damage our reputation.
A significant breach of our data security infrastructure may result from actions by our employees, vendors, third-party administrators, or unknown third parties or through cyber attacks. Such a breach could affect our data framework or cause a failure to protect the personal information of our customers, claimants or employees, or sensitive and confidential information regarding our business and may result in operational impairments and financial losses, as well as significant harm to our reputation. The risk of a breach could increase as vendors increasingly offer cloud-based software services rather than software services which can be run within our data centers or as we choose to move additional functions to the cloud.
The breach of confidential information also could give rise to legal liability and regulatory action under data protection and privacy laws, as well as evolving regulation in this regard. Any such legal or regulatory action could have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Inability to detect and prevent significant employee or third party service provider misconduct, inadvertent errors and omissions, or exposure relating to functions performed on our behalf could result in a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We may incur losses which arise from employees or third party service providers engaging in intentional, negligent or inadvertent misconduct, fraud, errors and omissions, failure to comply with internal guidelines, including with respect to underwriting authority, or failure to comply with regulatory requirements. Our or our third party service providers' controls may not be able to detect all possible circumstances of such non-compliant activity and the internal structures in place to prevent this activity may not be effective in all cases. Any losses relating to such non-compliant activity could adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Portions of our insurance business is underwritten and serviced by third parties. With respect to underwriting, our contractual arrangements with third parties will typically grant them limited rights to write new and renewal policies, subject to contractual restrictions and obligations, including requiring them to underwrite within the terms of our licenses. Should these third parties issue policies that exceed these contractual restrictions, we could be deemed liable for such policies and subject to regulatory fines and penalties for any breach of licensing requirements. It is possible that in such circumstance we might not be fully indemnified for such third parties’ contractual breaches.
Additionally, we rely on certain third-party claims administrators, including the administrators of our long term care claims, to perform significant claim administration and claim adjudication functions. Any failure by such administrator to properly perform service functions may result in losses as a result of over-payment of claims, legal claims against us and adverse regulatory enforcement exposure.
We have also licensed certain systems from third parties. We cannot be certain that we will have access to these systems or that our information technology or application systems will continue to operate as intended.
These risks could adversely impact our reputation and client relationships and have a material adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Loss of key vendor relationships and issues relating to the transitioning of vendor relationships could compromise our ability to conduct business.
In the event that one or more of our vendors suffers a bankruptcy, is sold to another entity, sustains a significant business interruption or otherwise becomes unable to continue to provide products or services at the requisite level, we may be adversely affected. We may suffer operational impairments and financial losses associated with transferring business to a new vendor, assisting a vendor with rectifying operational difficulties, failure by vendors to properly perform service functions or assuming previously outsourced operations ourselves. Our inability to provide for appropriate servicing if a vendor becomes unable to fulfill its contractual obligations to
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us, either through transitioning to another service provider temporarily or permanently or assuming servicing internally, may have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
We are subject to capital adequacy requirements and, if we are unable to maintain or raise sufficient capital to meet these requirements, regulatory agencies may restrict or prohibit us from operating our business.
Insurance companies such as ours are subject to capital adequacy standards set by regulators to help identify companies that merit further regulatory attention. In the U.S., these standards apply specified risk factors to various asset, premium and reserve components of our legal entity statutory basis of accounting financial statements. Current rules, including those promulgated by insurance regulators and specialized markets, such as Lloyd's, require companies to maintain statutory capital and surplus at a specified minimum level determined using the applicable jurisdiction's regulatory capital adequacy formula. If we do not meet these minimum requirements, we may be restricted or prohibited from operating our business in the applicable jurisdictions and specialized markets. If we are required to record a material charge against earnings in connection with a change in estimated insurance reserves or the occurrence of a catastrophic event, or if we incur significant losses related to our investment portfolio, which severely deteriorates our capital position, we may violate these minimum capital adequacy requirements unless we are able to raise sufficient additional capital. We may be limited in our ability to raise significant amounts of capital on favorable terms or at all.
The IAIS has adopted a common framework for the supervision of internationally active insurance groups and continues to develop a group basis Insurance Capital Standard (ICS). The NAIC is also developing a group capital standard that is intended to be comparable to the ICS. The development and adoption of these capital standards could increase our prescribed capital requirement, the level at which regulatory scrutiny intensifies, as well as significantly increase our cost of regulatory compliance.
Our insurance subsidiaries, upon whom we depend for dividends in order to fund our corporate obligations, are limited by insurance regulators in their ability to pay dividends.
We are a holding company and are dependent upon dividends, loans and other sources of cash from our subsidiaries in order to meet our obligations. Ordinary dividend payments, or dividends that do not require prior approval by the insurance subsidiaries' domiciliary insurance regulator, are generally limited to amounts determined by formulas that vary by jurisdiction. If we are restricted from paying or receiving intercompany dividends, by regulatory rule or otherwise, we may not be able to fund our corporate obligations and debt service requirements or pay our stockholders dividends from available cash. As a result, we would need to pursue other sources of capital which may be more expensive or may not be available at all.
Rating agencies may downgrade their ratings of us, thereby adversely affecting our ability to write insurance at competitive rates or at all and increasing our cost of capital.
Ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our insurance company subsidiaries, as well as our public debt, are rated by rating agencies, including, A.M. Best Company (A.M. Best), Moody's Investors Service, Inc. (Moody's), Standard & Poor's (S&P) and Fitch Ratings, Inc. (Fitch). Ratings reflect the rating agency's opinions of an insurance company's or insurance holding company's financial strength, capital adequacy, enterprise risk management practices, operating performance, strategic position and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders and debt holders.
The rating agencies may take action to lower our ratings in the future as a result of any significant financial loss or changes in the methodology or criteria applied by the rating agencies. The severity of the impact on our business is dependent on the level of downgrade and, for certain products, which rating agency takes the rating action. Among the adverse effects in the event of such downgrades would be the inability to obtain a material volume of business from certain major insurance brokers, the inability to sell a material volume of our insurance products to certain markets and the required collateralization of certain future payment obligations or reserves. Further, if one or more of our corporate debt ratings were downgraded, we may find it more difficult to access the capital markets and we may incur higher borrowing costs.
In addition, it is possible that a significant lowering of the corporate debt ratings of Loews by certain of the rating agencies could result in an adverse effect on our ratings, independent of any change in our circumstances.
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For further discussion of our ratings, see the Ratings subsection within the Liquidity and Capital Resources section of MD&A in Item 7.
We are subject to extensive existing state, local, federal and foreign governmental regulations that restrict our ability to do business and generate revenues; additional regulation or significant modification to existing regulations or failure to comply with regulatory requirements may have a materially adverse effect on our business, results of operations and financial condition.
The insurance industry is subject to comprehensive and detailed regulation and supervision. Most insurance regulations are designed to protect the interests of our policyholders and third-party claimants, rather than our investors. Each jurisdiction in which we do business has established supervisory agencies that regulate the manner in which we do business. Any changes in regulation could impose significant burdens on us. In addition, the Lloyd's marketplace sets rules under which its members, including our Hardy syndicate, operate.
These rules and regulations relate to, among other things, the standards of solvency (including risk-based capital measures), government-supported backstops for certain catastrophic events (including terrorism), investment restrictions, accounting and reporting methodology, establishment of reserves and potential assessments of funds to settle covered claims against impaired, insolvent or failed private or quasi-governmental insurers.
Regulatory powers also extend to premium rate regulations which require that rates not be excessive, inadequate or unfairly discriminatory. State jurisdictions ensure compliance with such regulations through market conduct exams, which may result in losses to the extent non-compliance is ascertained, either as a result of failure to document transactions properly or failure to comply with internal guidelines, or otherwise. The jurisdictions in which we do business may also require us to provide coverage to persons whom we would not otherwise consider eligible or restrict us from withdrawing from unprofitable lines of business or unprofitable market areas. Each jurisdiction dictates the types of insurance and the level of coverage that must be provided to such involuntary risks. Our share of these involuntary risks is mandatory and generally a function of our respective share of the voluntary market by line of insurance in each jurisdiction.

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ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
None.
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
We lease our principal executive offices in Chicago, Illinois, as well as other property and casualty insurance offices throughout the U.S.  We also lease offices in Canada, the U.K., Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, primarily for branch and insurance business operations in those locations.
We consider our properties to be in generally good condition, well maintained and suitable and adequate to carry on our business.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
Information on our legal proceedings is set forth in Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
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PART II
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Our common stock is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and the Chicago Stock Exchange under the symbol CNA.
As of February 5, 2021, we had 271,391,603 shares of common stock outstanding and approximately 89.6% of our outstanding common stock was owned by Loews. We had 866 stockholders of record as of February 5, 2021 according to the records maintained by our transfer agent.
Our Board of Directors has approved an authorization to purchase, in the open market or through privately negotiated transactions, our outstanding common stock, as our management deems appropriate. No repurchases of our common stock were made in the three months ended December 31, 2020.
The following graph compares the five-year total return of our common stock, the Standard & Poor's 500 (S&P 500) Index and the S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index. The graph assumes that the value of the investment in our common stock and each index was $100 at the base period, January 1, 2016, and that dividends, if any, were reinvested in the stock or index.
Company / IndexBase Period20162017201820192020
CNA Financial Corporation$100.00 $130.24 $178.35 $158.44 $173.46 $164.11 
S&P 500 Index100.00 111.96 136.40 130.42 171.49 203.04 
S&P 500 Property & Casualty Insurance Index100.00 115.71 141.61 134.97 169.88 181.70 
cna-20201231_g1.jpg
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ITEM 6. SELECTED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table presents selected consolidated financial data. The table should be read in conjunction with Item 7 Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K.
As of or for the years ended December 31
(In millions, except per share data)20202019201820172016
Results of Operations:
Revenues$10,808 $10,767 $10,134 $9,542 $9,366 
Net income690 1,000 813 899 859 
Basic earnings per share 2.54 3.68 2.99 3.32 3.18 
Diluted earnings per share 2.53 3.67 2.98 3.30 3.17 
Dividends declared per common share3.48 3.40 3.30 3.10 3.00 
Financial Condition:
Total investments$50,293 $47,744 $44,486 $46,870 $45,420 
Total assets64,026 60,612 57,152 56,567 55,233 
Insurance reserves41,143 38,614 36,764 37,212 36,431 
Long and short term debt2,776 2,679 2,680 2,858 2,710 
Stockholders' equity12,707 12,215 11,217 12,244 11,969 
Book value per common share46.82 45.00 41.32 45.15 44.25 

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ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
2019 Compared with 2018
This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2020 and 2019 results and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. A discussion of changes in our results of operations from 2019 to 2018 has been omitted from this Form 10-K, but may be found in “Part II, Item 7. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on February 11, 2020.
Index to this MD&A
Management's discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations is comprised of the following sections:
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OVERVIEW
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with Item 1A Risk Factors, Item 6 Selected Financial Data and Item 8 Financial Statements and Supplementary Data of this Form 10-K.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING ESTIMATES
The preparation of Consolidated Financial Statements in conformity with GAAP requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the Consolidated Financial Statements and the amount of revenues and expenses reported during the period. Actual results may differ from those estimates.
Our Consolidated Financial Statements and accompanying notes have been prepared in accordance with GAAP applied on a consistent basis. We continually evaluate the accounting policies and estimates used to prepare the Consolidated Financial Statements. In general, our estimates are based on historical experience, evaluation of current trends, information from third-party professionals and various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the known facts and circumstances.
The accounting estimates discussed below are considered by us to be critical to an understanding of our Consolidated Financial Statements as their application places the most significant demands on our judgment. Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 should be read in conjunction with this section to assist with obtaining an understanding of the underlying accounting policies related to these estimates. Due to the inherent uncertainties involved with these types of judgments, actual results could differ significantly from our estimates and may have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition, equity, business, and insurer financial strength and corporate debt ratings.
Insurance Reserves
Insurance reserves are established for both short and long-duration insurance contracts. Short-duration contracts are primarily related to property and casualty insurance policies where the reserving process is based on actuarial estimates of the amount of loss, including amounts for known and unknown claims. Long-duration contracts are primarily related to long term care policies and are estimated using actuarial estimates about morbidity and persistency as well as assumptions about expected investment returns and future premium rate increases. The reserve for unearned premiums represents the portion of premiums written related to the unexpired terms of coverage. The reserving process is discussed in further detail in the Reserves-Estimates and Uncertainties section below.
Long Term Care Reserves
Future policy benefit reserves for our long term care policies are based on certain assumptions, including morbidity, persistency, inclusive of mortality, discount rates and future premium rate increases. The adequacy of the reserves is contingent upon actual experience and our future expectations related to these key assumptions. If actual or expected future experience differs from these assumptions, the reserves may not be adequate, requiring us to add to reserves.
A prolonged period during which investment returns remain at levels lower than those anticipated in our reserving discount rate assumption could result in shortfalls in investment income on assets supporting our obligations under long term care policies, which may also require an increase to our reserves. In addition, we may not receive regulatory approval for the level of premium rate increases we request.
These changes to our reserves could materially adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and equity. The reserving process is discussed in further detail in the Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties section below.
Reinsurance and Insurance Receivables
Exposure exists with respect to the collectibility of ceded property and casualty and life reinsurance to the extent that any reinsurer is unable to meet its obligations or disputes the liabilities we have ceded under reinsurance agreements. An allowance for uncollectible reinsurance is recorded on the basis of periodic evaluations of balances due from reinsurers, reinsurer financial strength rating and solvency, industry
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experience and current and forecast economic conditions. Further information on our reinsurance receivables is in Note G to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Additionally, exposure exists with respect to the collectibility of amounts due from policyholders related to insurance contracts, including amounts due from insureds under high deductible policies and retrospectively rated policies. An allowance for uncollectible insurance receivables is recorded on the basis of periodic evaluations of balances due from insureds, currently as well as in the future, historical business default data, management's experience and current and forecast economic conditions.
If actual experience differs from the estimates made by management in determining the allowances for uncollectible reinsurance and insurance receivables, net receivables as reflected on our Consolidated Balance Sheets may not be collected. Therefore, our results of operations, financial condition or equity could be materially adversely affected. Further information on our process for determining the allowances for uncollectible reinsurance and insurance receivables is in Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Valuation of Investments and Impairment of Securities
Our fixed maturity and equity securities are carried at fair value on the balance sheet. Fair value represents the price that would be received in a sale of an asset in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date, the determination of which may require us to make a significant number of assumptions and judgments. Securities with the greatest level of subjectivity around valuation are those that rely on inputs that are significant to the estimated fair value and that are not observable in the market or cannot be derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data. These unobservable inputs are based on assumptions consistent with what we believe other market participants would use to price such securities. Further information on our fair value measurements is in Note C to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Our fixed maturity securities are subject to market declines below amortized cost that may result in the recognition of impairment losses in earnings. Factors considered in the determination of whether or not an impairment loss is recognized in earnings include a current intention or need to sell the security or an indication that a credit loss exists. Significant judgment is required in the determination of whether a credit loss has occurred for a security. We consider all available evidence when determining whether a security requires a credit allowance to be recorded, including the financial condition and expected near-term and long-term prospects of the issuer, whether the issuer is current with interest and principal payments, credit ratings on the security or changes in ratings over time, general market conditions, industry, sector or other specific factors and whether we expect to receive cash flows sufficient to recover the entire amortized cost basis of the security.
Our mortgage loan portfolio is subject to the expected credit loss model, which requires immediate recognition of estimated credit losses over the life of the asset and the presentation of the asset at the net amount expected to be collected. Significant judgment is required in the determination of estimated credit losses and any changes in our expectation of the net amount to be collected are recognized in earnings.
Further information on our process for evaluating impairments and expected credit losses is in Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Income Taxes
We account for income taxes under the asset and liability method. Under this method, deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences between the financial statement and tax return basis of assets and liabilities. Any resulting future tax benefits are recognized to the extent that realization of such benefits is more likely than not, and a valuation allowance is established for any portion of a deferred tax asset that management believes will not be realized. The assessment of the need for a valuation allowance requires management to make estimates and assumptions about future earnings, reversal of existing temporary differences and available tax planning strategies. If actual experience differs from these estimates and assumptions, the recorded deferred tax asset may not be fully realized resulting in an increase to income tax expense in our results of operations. In addition, the ability to record deferred tax assets in the future could be limited, resulting in a higher effective tax rate in that future period.
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RESERVES - ESTIMATES AND UNCERTAINTIES
The level of claim reserves we maintain represents our best estimate, as of a particular point in time, of what the ultimate settlement and administration of claims will cost based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known at that time. Reserves are not an exact calculation of liability but instead are complex estimates that we derive, generally utilizing a variety of actuarial reserve estimation techniques, from numerous assumptions and expectations about future events, both internal and external, many of which are highly uncertain. As noted below, we review our reserves for each segment of our business periodically, and any such review could result in the need to increase reserves in amounts which could be material and could adversely affect our results of operations, financial condition, equity, business and insurer financial strength and corporate debt ratings. Further information on reserves is provided in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Property and Casualty Claim and Claim Adjustment Expense Reserves
We maintain loss reserves to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claim and claim adjustment expenses, including the estimated cost of the claims adjudication process, for claims that have been reported but not yet settled (case reserves) and claims that have been incurred but not reported (IBNR). IBNR includes a provision for development on known cases as well as a provision for late reported incurred claims. Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are reflected as liabilities and are included on the Consolidated Balance Sheets under the heading “Insurance Reserves.” Adjustments to prior year reserve estimates, if necessary, are reflected in results of operations in the period that the need for such adjustments is determined. The carried case and IBNR reserves as of each balance sheet date are provided in the Segment Results section of this MD&A and in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
As discussed in the Risk Factors discussion within Item 1A, there is a risk that our recorded reserves are insufficient to cover our estimated ultimate unpaid liability for claims and claim adjustment expenses. Given the unprecedented nature of the event, a particularly high level of uncertainty exists as to the potential impact on insurance losses related to the COVID-19 pandemic, mitigating actions and consequent economic crisis. Unforeseen emerging or potential claims and coverage issues are also difficult to predict and could materially adversely affect the adequacy of our claim and claim adjustment expense reserves and could lead to future reserve additions.
In addition, our property and casualty insurance subsidiaries also have actual and potential exposures related to A&EP claims, which could result in material losses. To mitigate the risks posed by our exposure to A&EP claims and claim adjustment expenses, we completed a transaction with NICO under which substantially all of our legacy A&EP liabilities were ceded to NICO effective January 1, 2010. See Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for further discussion about the transaction with NICO, its impact on our results of operations, the deferred retroactive reinsurance gain and the amount of remaining reinsurance limit.
Establishing Property & Casualty Reserve Estimates
In developing claim and claim adjustment expense (loss or losses) reserve estimates, our actuaries perform detailed reserve analyses that are staggered throughout the year. The data is organized at a reserve group level. A reserve group can be a line of business covering a subset of insureds such as commercial automobile liability for small or middle market customers or it can be a particular type of claim such as construction defect. Every reserve group is reviewed at least once during the year, but most are reviewed more frequently. The analyses generally review losses gross of ceded reinsurance and apply the ceded reinsurance terms to the gross estimates to establish estimates net of reinsurance. In addition to the detailed analyses, we review actual loss emergence for all products each quarter.
Most of our business can be characterized as long-tail. For long-tail business, it will generally be several years between the time the business is written and the time when all claims are settled. Our long-tail exposures include commercial automobile liability, workers' compensation, general liability, medical professional liability, other professional liability and management liability coverages, assumed reinsurance run-off and products liability. Short-tail exposures include property, commercial automobile physical damage, marine, surety and
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warranty. Specialty, Commercial and International contain both long-tail and short-tail exposures. Corporate & Other contains run-off long-tail exposures.
Various methods are used to project ultimate losses for both long-tail and short-tail exposures.
The paid development method estimates ultimate losses by reviewing paid loss patterns and applying them to accident or policy years with further expected changes in paid losses. Selection of the paid loss pattern may require consideration of several factors, including the impact of inflation on claim costs, the rate at which claims professionals make claim payments and close claims, the impact of judicial decisions and legislative changes, the impact of underwriting changes, the impact of large claim payments and other factors. Claim cost inflation itself may require evaluation of changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, changes in the cost of medical care, changes in the cost of wage replacement and the impact of judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors. Because this method assumes that losses are paid at a consistent rate, changes in any of these factors can affect the results. Since the method does not rely on case reserves, it is not directly influenced by changes in their adequacy.
For many reserve groups, paid loss data for recent periods may be too immature or erratic for accurate predictions. This situation often exists for long-tail exposures. In addition, changes in the factors described above may result in inconsistent payment patterns. Finally, estimating the paid loss pattern subsequent to the most mature point available in the data analyzed often involves considerable uncertainty for long-tail products such as workers' compensation.
The incurred development method is similar to the paid development method, but it uses case incurred losses instead of paid losses.  Since the method uses more data (case reserves in addition to paid losses) than the paid development method, the incurred development patterns may be less variable than paid patterns. However, selection of the incurred loss pattern typically requires analysis of all of the same factors described above. In addition, the inclusion of case reserves can lead to distortions if changes in case reserving practices have taken place, and the use of case incurred losses may not eliminate the issues associated with estimating the incurred loss pattern subsequent to the most mature point available.
The loss ratio method multiplies earned premiums by an expected loss ratio to produce ultimate loss estimates for each accident or policy year. This method may be useful for immature accident or policy periods or if loss development patterns are inconsistent, losses emerge very slowly or there is relatively little loss history from which to estimate future losses. The selection of the expected loss ratio typically requires analysis of loss ratios from earlier accident or policy years or pricing studies and analysis of inflationary trends, frequency trends, rate changes, underwriting changes and other applicable factors.
The Bornhuetter-Ferguson method using paid loss is a combination of the paid development method and the loss ratio method. This method normally determines expected loss ratios similar to the approach used to estimate the expected loss ratio for the loss ratio method and typically requires analysis of the same factors described above. This method assumes that future losses will develop at the expected loss ratio level. The percent of paid loss to ultimate loss implied from the paid development method is used to determine what percentage of ultimate loss is yet to be paid. The use of the pattern from the paid development method typically requires consideration of the same factors listed in the description of the paid development method. The estimate of losses yet to be paid is added to current paid losses to estimate the ultimate loss for each year. For long-tail lines, this method will react very slowly if actual ultimate loss ratios are different from expectations due to changes not accounted for by the expected loss ratio calculation.
The Bornhuetter-Ferguson method using incurred loss is similar to the Bornhuetter-Ferguson method using paid loss except that it uses case incurred losses. The use of case incurred losses instead of paid losses can result in development patterns that are less variable than paid patterns. However, the inclusion of case reserves can lead to distortions if changes in case reserving have taken place, and the method typically requires analysis of the same factors that need to be reviewed for the loss ratio and incurred development methods.
The frequency times severity method multiplies a projected number of ultimate claims by an estimated ultimate average loss for each accident or policy year to produce ultimate loss estimates. Since projections of the ultimate number of claims are often less variable than projections of ultimate loss, this method can provide more reliable results for reserve groups where loss development patterns are inconsistent or too variable to be relied
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on exclusively. In addition, this method can more directly account for changes in coverage that affect the number and size of claims. However, this method can be difficult to apply to situations where very large claims or a substantial number of unusual claims result in volatile average claim sizes. Projecting the ultimate number of claims may require analysis of several factors, including the rate at which policyholders report claims to us, the impact of judicial decisions, the impact of underwriting changes and other factors. Estimating the ultimate average loss may require analysis of the impact of large losses and claim cost trends based on changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, changes in the cost of medical care, changes in the cost of wage replacement, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors.
Stochastic modeling produces a range of possible outcomes based on varying assumptions related to the particular reserve group being modeled. For some reserve groups, we use models which rely on historical development patterns at an aggregate level, while other reserve groups are modeled using individual claim variability assumptions supplied by the claims department. In either case, multiple simulations using varying assumptions are run and the results are analyzed to produce a range of potential outcomes. The results will typically include a mean and percentiles of the possible reserve distribution which aid in the selection of a point estimate.
For many exposures, especially those that are considered long-tail, a particular accident or policy year may not have a sufficient volume of paid losses to produce a statistically reliable estimate of ultimate losses. In such a case, our actuaries typically assign more weight to the incurred development method than to the paid development method. As claims continue to settle and the volume of paid loss increases, the actuaries may assign additional weight to the paid development method.  For most of our products, even the incurred losses for accident or policy years that are early in the claim settlement process will not be of sufficient volume to produce a reliable estimate of ultimate losses. In these cases, we may not assign much, if any, weight to the paid and incurred development methods. We may use the loss ratio, Bornhuetter-Ferguson and/or frequency times severity methods.  For short-tail exposures, the paid and incurred development methods can often be relied on sooner, primarily because our history includes a sufficient number of years to cover the entire period over which paid and incurred losses are expected to change. However, we may also use the loss ratio, Bornhuetter-Ferguson and/or frequency times severity methods for short-tail exposures.
For other more complex reserve groups where the above methods may not produce reliable indications, we use additional methods tailored to the characteristics of the specific situation.
Periodic Reserve Reviews
The reserve analyses performed by our actuaries result in point estimates. Each quarter, the results of the detailed reserve reviews are summarized and discussed with senior management to determine management's best estimate of reserves. Senior management considers many factors in making this decision. Our recorded reserves reflect our best estimate as of a particular point in time based upon known facts and circumstances, consideration of the factors cited above and our judgment. The carried reserves differ from the actuarial point estimate as discussed further below.
Currently, our recorded reserves are modestly higher than the actuarial point estimate. For Commercial, Specialty and International, the difference between our reserves and the actuarial point estimate is primarily driven by uncertainty with respect to immature accident years, claim cost inflation, changes in claims handling, changes to the tort environment which may adversely affect claim costs and the effects from the economy. For Corporate & Other, the difference between our reserves and the actuarial point estimate is primarily driven by the potential tail volatility of run-off exposures.
The key assumptions fundamental to the reserving process are often different for various reserve groups and accident or policy years. Some of these assumptions are explicit assumptions that are required of a particular method, but most of the assumptions are implicit and cannot be precisely quantified. An example of an explicit assumption is the pattern employed in the paid development method. However, the assumed pattern is itself based on several implicit assumptions such as the impact of inflation on medical costs and the rate at which claim professionals close claims. As a result, the effect on reserve estimates of a particular change in assumptions typically cannot be specifically quantified, and changes in these assumptions cannot be tracked over time.
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Our recorded reserves are management's best estimate. In order to provide an indication of the variability associated with our net reserves, the following discussion provides a sensitivity analysis that shows the approximate estimated impact of variations in significant factors affecting our reserve estimates for particular types of business. These significant factors are the ones that we believe could most likely materially affect the reserves. This discussion covers the major types of business for which we believe a material deviation to our reserves is reasonably possible. There can be no assurance that actual experience will be consistent with the current assumptions or with the variation indicated by the discussion. In addition, there can be no assurance that other factors and assumptions will not have a material impact on our reserves.
The three areas for which we believe a significant deviation to our net reserves is reasonably possible are (i) professional liability, management liability and surety products; (ii) workers' compensation; and (iii) general liability.
Professional liability, management liability and surety products include U.S. professional liability coverages provided to various professional firms, including architects, real estate agents, small and mid-sized accounting firms, law firms and other professional firms. They also include directors and officers (D&O), employment practices, fiduciary, fidelity and surety coverages, and medical liability. The most significant factor affecting reserve estimates for these liability coverages is claim severity. Claim severity is driven by the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, legal fees, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors. Underwriting and claim handling decisions, such as the classes of business written and individual claim settlement decisions, can also affect claim severity. If the estimated claim severity increases by 9%, we estimate that net reserves would increase by approximately $400 million. If the estimated claim severity decreases by 3%, we estimate that net reserves would decrease by approximately $150 million. Our net reserves for these products were approximately $4.6 billion as of December 31, 2020.
For workers' compensation, since many years will pass from the time the business is written until all claim payments have been made, the most significant factor affecting workers' compensation reserve estimates is claim cost inflation on claim payments. Workers' compensation claim cost inflation is driven by the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, expected claimant lifetimes, judicial decisions, legislative changes and other factors. If estimated workers' compensation claim cost inflation increases by 100 basis points for the entire period over which claim payments will be made, we estimate that our net reserves would increase by approximately $350 million. If estimated workers' compensation claim cost inflation decreases by 100 basis points for the entire period over which claim payments will be made, we estimate that our net reserves would decrease by approximately $350 million. Our net reserves for workers' compensation were approximately $3.9 billion as of December 31, 2020.
For general liability, the most significant factor affecting reserve estimates is claim severity. Claim severity is driven by changes in the cost of repairing or replacing property, the cost of medical care, the cost of wage replacement, judicial decisions, legislation and other factors. If the estimated claim severity for general liability increases by 6%, we estimate that our net reserves would increase by approximately $200 million. If the estimated claim severity for general liability decreases by 3%, we estimate that our net reserves would decrease by approximately $100 million. Our net reserves for general liability were approximately $3.5 billion as of December 31, 2020.
Given the factors described above, it is not possible to quantify precisely the ultimate exposure represented by claims and related litigation. As a result, we regularly review the adequacy of our reserves and reassess our reserve estimates as historical loss experience develops, additional claims are reported and settled and additional information becomes available in subsequent periods. In reviewing our reserve estimates, we make adjustments in the period that the need for such adjustments is determined. These reviews have resulted in our identification of information and trends that have caused us to change our reserves in prior periods and could lead to our identification of a need for additional material increases or decreases in claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, which could materially affect our results of operations, financial condition, equity, business and insurer financial strength and corporate debt ratings, positively or negatively. See discussion within Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for additional information about reserve development and the Ratings section of this MD&A for further information regarding our financial strength and corporate debt ratings.
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Life & Group Policyholder Reserves
Our Life & Group segment includes our run-off long term care business as well as structured settlement obligations not funded by annuities related to certain property and casualty claimants. Long term care policies provide benefits for nursing homes, assisted living facilities and home health care subject to various daily and lifetime caps. Generally, policyholders must continue to make periodic premium payments to keep the policy in force and we have the ability to increase policy premiums, subject to state regulatory approval.
We maintain both claim and claim adjustment expense reserves as well as future policy benefit reserves for policyholder benefits for our Life & Group segment. Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves consist of estimated reserves for long term care policyholders that are currently receiving benefits, including claims that have been incurred but are not yet reported. In developing the claim and claim adjustment expense reserve estimates for our long term care policies, our actuaries perform a detailed claim reserve review on an annual basis. The review analyzes the sufficiency of existing reserves for policyholders currently on claim and includes an evaluation of expected benefit utilization and claim duration. In addition, claim and claim adjustment expense reserves are also maintained for the structured settlement obligations. In developing the claim and claim adjustment expense reserve estimates for our structured settlement obligations, our actuaries monitor mortality experience on an annual basis. Our recorded claim and claim adjustment expense reserves reflect management's best estimate after incorporating the results of the most recent reviews. Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves for long term care policies and structured settlement obligations are discounted as discussed in Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Future policy benefit reserves consist of the active life reserves related to our long term care policies for policyholders that are not currently receiving benefits and represent the present value of expected future benefit payments and expenses less expected future premium. The determination of these reserves requires management to make estimates and assumptions about expected investment and policyholder experience over the life of the contract. Since many of these contracts may be in force for several decades, these assumptions are subject to significant estimation risk.
The actuarial assumptions that management believes are subject to the most variability are morbidity, persistency, discount rates and anticipated future premium rate increases. Morbidity is the frequency and severity of injury, illness, sickness and diseases contracted. Persistency is the percentage of policies remaining in force and can be affected by policy lapses, benefit reductions and death. Discount rates are influenced by the investment yield on assets supporting long term care reserves which is subject to interest rate and market volatility and may also be affected by changes to the Internal Revenue Code. Future premium rate increases are generally subject to regulatory approval, and therefore the exact timing and size of the approved rate increases are unknown. As a result of this variability, our long term care reserves may be subject to material increases if actual experience develops adversely to our expectations.
Annually, in the third quarter, management assesses the adequacy of its long term care future policy benefit reserves by performing a gross premium valuation (GPV) to determine if there is a premium deficiency. Under the GPV, management estimates required reserves using best estimate assumptions as of the date of the assessment without provisions for adverse deviation. The GPV required reserves are then compared to the existing recorded reserves. If the GPV required reserves are greater than the existing recorded reserves, the assumptions are unlocked and future policy benefit reserves are increased to the greater amount. Any such increase is reflected in our results of operations in the period in which the need for such adjustment is determined. If the GPV required reserves are less than the existing recorded reserves, assumptions remain locked in and no adjustment is required.
Periodically, management engages independent third parties to assess the appropriateness of its best estimate assumptions. The most recent third party assessment, performed in 2019, validated the assumption setting process and confirmed the best estimate assumptions appropriately reflected the experience data at that time.
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The September 30, 2020 GPV indicated a premium deficiency of $74 million and future policy benefit reserves were increased accordingly. As a result, the long term care active life reserves carried as of September 30, 2020 represent management's best estimate assumptions at that date with no margin for adverse deviation. A summary of the changes as a result of the 2020 GPV is presented in the table below:
Long Term Care Active Life Reserve - Change in estimated reserve margin (In millions)
September 30, 2019 Estimated Margin$— 
Changes in underlying discount rate assumptions(609)
Changes in underlying morbidity assumptions51 
Changes in underlying persistency assumptions152 
Changes in underlying premium rate action assumptions318 
Changes in underlying expense and other assumptions14 
September 30, 2020 Premium Deficiency$(74)
The premium deficiency was primarily driven by changes in discount rate assumptions due to lower expected reinvestment rates, contemplating both near-term market indications and long-term normative assumptions. This unfavorable driver was significantly offset by higher than previously estimated rate increases on active rate increase programs, new planned rate increase filings and favorable changes to the underlying persistency and morbidity assumptions.
Our projections do not indicate a pattern of expected profits in earlier future years followed by expected losses in later future years. As such, we are not establishing additional future policy benefit reserves for profits followed by losses in periods where the long term care business generates core income. The need for these additional future policy benefit reserves will be re-evaluated in connection with the next GPV, which is expected to be completed in the third quarter of 2021.
The table below summarizes the estimated pretax impact on our results of operations from various hypothetical revisions to our active life reserve assumptions. The annual GPV process involves updating all assumptions to management's then current best estimate, and historically all significant assumptions have been revised each year. In the Hypothetical revisions table below, we have assumed that revisions to such assumptions would occur in each policy type, age and duration within each policy group and would occur absent any changes, mitigating or otherwise, in the other assumptions. Although such hypothetical revisions are not currently required or anticipated, we believe they could occur based on past variances in experience and our expectations of the ranges of future experience that could reasonably occur. Any actual adjustment would be dependent on the specific policies affected and, therefore, may differ from the estimates summarized below.
2020 GPV
Estimated reduction to pretax income
Hypothetical revisions (In millions)
Morbidity:
2.5% increase in morbidity$339 
5% increase in morbidity677 
Persistency:
5% decrease in active life mortality and lapse$254 
10% decrease in active life mortality and lapse469 
Discount Rates:
25 basis point decline in new money interest rates$175 
50 basis point decline in new money interest rates356 
Premium Rate Actions:
25% decrease in anticipated future premium rate increases$66 
50% decrease in anticipated future premium rate increases132 
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CATASTROPHES AND RELATED REINSURANCE
Various events can cause catastrophe losses. These events can be natural or man-made, including hurricanes, windstorms, earthquakes, hail, severe winter weather, fires, floods, riots, strikes, civil unrest, cyber attacks, pandemics and acts of terrorism that produce unusually large aggregate losses. In most, but not all cases, our catastrophe losses from these events in the U.S. are defined consistent with the definition of the Property Claims Service (PCS). PCS defines a catastrophe as an event that causes damage of $25 million or more in direct insured losses to property and affects a significant number of policyholders and insurers. For events outside of the U.S., we define a catastrophe as an industry recognized event that generates an accumulation of claims amounting to more than $1 million for the International segment.
Catastrophes are an inherent risk of the property and casualty insurance business and have contributed to material period-to-period fluctuations in our results of operations and/or equity. We reported catastrophe losses, net of reinsurance, of $550 million and $179 million for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019. Net catastrophe losses for the year ended December 31, 2020 included $294 million related primarily to severe weather related events, $195 million related to the COVID-19 pandemic and $61 million related to civil unrest. Net catastrophe losses for the year ended December 31, 2019 related primarily to U.S. weather related events.
We generally seek to manage our exposure to catastrophes through the purchase of catastrophe reinsurance and have catastrophe reinsurance treaties that cover property and workers’ compensation losses. We conduct an ongoing review of our risk and catastrophe coverages and from time to time make changes as we deem appropriate. The following discussion summarizes our most significant catastrophe reinsurance coverage at January 1, 2021.
Group North American Property Treaty
We purchased corporate catastrophe excess-of-loss treaty reinsurance covering our U.S. states and territories and Canadian property exposures underwritten in our North American and European companies. Exposures underwritten through Hardy are excluded. The treaty has a term of May 1, 2020 to May 1, 2021 and provides coverage for the accumulation of covered losses from catastrophe occurrences above our per occurrence retention of $250 million up to $1.2 billion. Losses stemming from terrorism events are covered unless they are due to a nuclear, biological or chemical attack. All layers of the treaty provide for one full reinstatement.
Group Workers' Compensation Treaty
We also purchased corporate Workers' Compensation catastrophe excess-of-loss treaty reinsurance for the period January 1, 2021 to January 1, 2022 providing $275 million of coverage for the accumulation of covered losses related to natural catastrophes above our per occurrence retention of $25 million. The treaty also provides $475 million of coverage for the accumulation of covered losses related to terrorism events above our retention of $25 million. Of this $475 million in Terrorism coverage, $200 million is provided for nuclear, biological chemical and radiation events. One full reinstatement is available for the first $275 million above the retention, regardless of the covered peril. We also purchased a targeted facultative facility to address exposure accumulations in specific peak Terrorism zones.
Terrorism Risk Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2019 (TRIPRA)
Our principal reinsurance protection against large-scale terrorist attacks, including nuclear, biological, chemical or radiological attacks, is the coverage currently provided through TRIPRA which runs through the end of 2027. TRIPRA provides a U.S. government backstop for insurance-related losses resulting from any “act of terrorism”, which is certified by the Secretary of Treasury in consultation with the Secretary of Homeland Security for losses that exceed a threshold of $200 million industry-wide for the calendar year 2021. Under the current provisions of the program, in 2021, the federal government will reimburse 80% of our covered losses in excess of our applicable deductible up to a total industry program cap of $100 billion. Our deductible is based on eligible commercial property and casualty earned premiums for the preceding calendar year. Based on 2020 earned premiums, our estimated deductible under the program is $820 million for 2021. If an act of terrorism or acts of terrorism result in covered losses exceeding the $100 billion annual industry aggregate limit, Congress would be responsible for determining how additional losses in excess of $100 billion will be paid.

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CONSOLIDATED OPERATIONS
Results of Operations
In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 to be a pandemic. The pandemic, together with global, national, regional and local efforts to mitigate the spread of the virus, have rapidly evolved and led to severely depressed economic conditions and financial market disruption. These conditions had a significant impact across our enterprise during 2020. During the first quarter of 2020 we experienced significant declines in the value of our investment portfolio. While financial markets broadly recovered by the end of 2020, our Net investment income and Net investment gains (losses) are lower for the year ended December 31, 2020 as compared with 2019. We also recorded significant catastrophe losses during 2020 related to COVID-19 and recorded a reduction in our estimated audit premiums due to lower exposure. Our 2020 consolidated financial statements reflect our best estimate of the impacts related to COVID-19. While we currently believe that the predominant financial impacts of the pandemic and related mitigating efforts have been incurred as of December 31, 2020, given the unprecedented nature of this event, a high level of uncertainty remains as to future effects. The scope, duration and magnitude of the pandemic and its direct and indirect effects could continue to evolve, and could materially adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.

For a further discussion of the risks to our business associated with COVID-19, see the Risk Factor included under Part I, Item 1A of this Form 10-K.

For more detailed components of our business operations and a discussion of the core income (loss) financial measure, see the Segment Results section within this MD&A. For further discussion of Net investment income and Net investment gains or losses, see the Investments section of this MD&A.

The following table includes the consolidated results of our operations including our financial measure, core income (loss).
Years ended December 31
(In millions)20202019
Operating Revenues
Net earned premiums$7,649 $7,428 
Net investment income1,935 2,118 
Non-insurance warranty revenue1,252 1,161 
Other revenues26 31 
Total operating revenues10,862 10,738 
Claims, Benefits and Expenses
Net incurred claims and benefits6,149 5,783 
Policyholders' dividends21 23 
Amortization of deferred acquisition costs1,410 1,383 
Non-insurance warranty expense1,159 1,082 
Other insurance related expenses1,028 1,038 
Other expenses220 235 
Total claims, benefits and expenses9,987 9,544 
Core income before income tax875 1,194 
Income tax expense on core income(140)(215)
Core income735 979 
Net investment (losses) gains(54)29 
Income tax benefit (expense) on net investment (losses) gains(8)
Net investment (losses) gains, after tax(45)21 
Net income $690 $1,000 
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2020 Compared with 2019
Core income decreased $244 million in 2020 as compared with 2019. Core income for our Property & Casualty Operations decreased $356 million primarily due to higher net catastrophe losses and lower net investment income partially offset by improved non-catastrophe current accident year underwriting results. Core results for our Life & Group segment improved $118 million. Life & Group results for the year ended December 31, 2020 include a $59 million charge related to recognition of a premium deficiency as a result of the third quarter 2020 GPV compared to a $170 million charge in 2019 related to recognition of a premium deficiency as a result of the third quarter 2019 GPV. Core loss for our Corporate & Other segment increased $6 million.
Net catastrophe losses were $550 million in 2020 as compared with $179 million in 2019. Catastrophe losses for the year ended December 31, 2020 include $294 million related primarily to severe weather related events, $195 million related to COVID-19 and $61 million related to civil unrest. The COVID-19 losses represent our best estimate of ultimate insurance losses and loss adjustment expenses, including defense costs resulting from the pandemic, mitigating actions and the consequent economic crisis. The losses were substantially driven by healthcare professional liability with additional impacts from workers' compensation, management liability, commercial property, trade credit and surety. Due to the timing and fluidity of the events related to COVID-19, emergence pattern of claims and long tail nature of certain exposures, the losses are substantially classified as incurred but not reported (IBNR) reserves. The COVID-19 catastrophe losses do not include the benefits of lower current accident year losses associated with lower loss frequency in certain lines of business as a result of shelter in place restrictions. Those benefits are modest and are partially offset by the impact of a reduction in our estimated audit premiums and an increase in our credit allowance for premium receivables resulting from depressed economic conditions.
Favorable net prior year loss reserve development of $20 million and $73 million was recorded in 2020 and 2019 related to our Specialty, Commercial, International and Corporate & Other segments. Further information on net prior year loss reserve development is in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
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SEGMENT RESULTS
The following discusses the results of operations for our business segments.
Our property and casualty commercial insurance operations are managed and reported in three business segments: Specialty, Commercial and International, which we refer to collectively as Property & Casualty Operations. Specialty provides management and professional liability and other coverages through property and casualty products and services using a network of brokers, independent agencies and managing general underwriters. Commercial works with a network of brokers and independent agents to market a broad range of property and casualty insurance products to all types of insureds targeting small business, construction, middle markets and other commercial customers. The International segment underwrites property and casualty coverages on a global basis through a branch operation in Canada, a European business consisting of two insurance companies based in the U.K. and Luxembourg and Hardy, our Lloyd's syndicate.
Our operations outside of Property & Casualty Operations are managed and reported in two segments: Life & Group and Corporate & Other. Life & Group primarily includes the results of our long term care business that is in run-off. Corporate & Other primarily includes certain corporate expenses, including interest on corporate debt, and the results of certain property and casualty businesses in run-off, including CNA Re and A&EP. Intersegment eliminations are also included in this segment.
On December 30, 2020, we entered into an agreement with Cavello Bay Reinsurance Limited (Cavello), a subsidiary of Enstar Group Limited, under which Cavello will reinsure a legacy portfolio of excess workers’ compensation policies. The transaction closed on February 5, 2021 and is based on reserves in place as of January 1, 2020, and adjusted for any subsequent claim activity. We will reclassify this business from the Commercial segment to the Corporate & Other segment, better reflecting the manner in which we are organized for purposes of making operating decisions and assessing performance. The new classifications will be presented in our financial statements beginning with the period ending March 31, 2021, and prior periods presented will conform to the new presentation. Further information on this retroactive reinsurance agreement is provided in Note S to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
We utilize the core income (loss) financial measure to monitor our operations. Core income (loss) is calculated by excluding from net income (loss) the after-tax effects of net investment gains or losses and any cumulative effects of changes in accounting guidance. The calculation of core income (loss) excludes net investment gains or losses because net investment gains or losses are generally driven by economic factors that are not necessarily reflective of our primary operations. Management monitors core income (loss) for each business segment to assess segment performance. Presentation of consolidated core income (loss) is deemed to be a non-GAAP financial measure. See further discussion regarding how we manage our business and reconciliations of non-GAAP measures to the most comparable GAAP measures and other information in Note O to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
In evaluating the results of our Specialty, Commercial and International segments, we utilize the loss ratio, the loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development, the expense ratio, the dividend ratio, the combined ratio and the combined ratio excluding catastrophes and development. These ratios are calculated using GAAP financial results. The loss ratio is the percentage of net incurred claim and claim adjustment expenses to net earned premiums. The loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development excludes net catastrophes losses and changes in estimates of claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, net of reinsurance, for prior years from the loss ratio. The expense ratio is the percentage of insurance underwriting and acquisition expenses, including the amortization of deferred acquisition costs, to net earned premiums. The dividend ratio is the ratio of policyholders' dividends incurred to net earned premiums. The combined ratio is the sum of the loss, expense and dividend ratios. The combined ratio excluding catastrophes and development is the sum of the loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development, the expense ratio and the dividend ratio. In addition, we also utilize renewal premium change, rate, retention and new business in evaluating operating trends. Renewal premium change represents the estimated change in average premium on policies that renew, including rate and exposure changes. Rate represents the average change in price on policies that renew excluding exposure change. For certain products within Small Business, where quantifiable, rate includes the influence of new business as well. Exposure represents the measure of risk used in the pricing of the insurance product. Retention represents the percentage of premium dollars renewed in comparison to the expiring premium dollars from policies available to renew. Renewal premium change, rate and retention presented for the prior year are updated to reflect
33

subsequent activity on policies written in the period. New business represents premiums from policies written with new customers and additional policies written with existing customers. Gross written premiums, excluding third party captives, excludes business which is ceded to third party captives, including business related to large warranty programs.
Changes in estimates of claim and claim adjustment expense reserves, net of reinsurance, for prior years are defined as net prior year loss reserve development within this MD&A. These changes can be favorable or unfavorable. Net prior year loss reserve development does not include the effect of any related acquisition expenses. Further information on our reserves is provided in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.


34

Specialty
Specialty provides management and professional liability and other coverages through property and casualty products and services using a network of brokers, independent agencies and managing general underwriters. Specialty includes the following business groups:
Management & Professional Liability consists of the following coverages and products:
Professional liability coverages and risk management services to various professional firms, including architects, real estate agents, accounting firms and law firms.
D&O, employment practices, fiduciary and fidelity coverages. Specific areas of focus include small and mid-size firms, public as well as privately held firms and not-for-profit organizations.
Insurance products to serve the healthcare industry, including professional and general liability as well as associated standard property and casualty coverages. Key customer groups include aging services, allied medical facilities, dentists, physicians, hospitals, nurses and other medical practitioners.
Surety offers small, medium and large contract and commercial surety bonds. Surety provides surety and fidelity bonds in all 50 states.
Warranty and Alternative Risks provides extended service contracts and insurance products that provide protection from the financial burden associated with mechanical breakdown and other related losses, primarily for vehicles, portable electronic communication devices and other consumer goods. Service contracts are generally distributed by commission-based independent representatives and sold by auto dealerships and retailers in North America to customers in conjunction with the purchase of a new or used vehicle or new consumer goods. Additionally, our insurance companies may issue contractual liability insurance policies or guaranteed asset protection reimbursement insurance policies to cover the liabilities of these service contracts issued by affiliated entities or third parties.
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The following table details the results of operations for Specialty.
Years ended December 31
(In millions, except ratios, rate, renewal premium change and retention)20202019
Gross written premiums$7,180 $6,900 
Gross written premiums excluding third party captives3,296 3,015 
Net written premiums3,040 2,848 
Net earned premiums2,883 2,773 
Net investment income449 556 
Core income 535 671 
Other performance metrics:
Loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development59.9 %60.3 %
Effect of catastrophe impacts4.3 0.5 
Effect of development-related items(2.1)(3.3)
Loss ratio62.1 57.5 
Expense ratio31.3 32.5 
Dividend ratio0.1 0.2 
Combined ratio93.5 %90.2 %
Combined ratio excluding catastrophes and development91.3 %93.0 %
Rate12 %%
Renewal premium change11 
Retention86 88 
New business$389 $367 
2020 Compared with 2019
Gross written premiums, excluding third party captives, for Specialty increased $281 million in 2020 as compared with 2019 driven by strong rate and higher new business. Net written premiums for Specialty increased $192 million in 2020 as compared with 2019. The increase in net earned premiums was consistent with the trend in net written premiums.
Core income decreased $136 million in 2020 as compared with 2019 primarily due to higher net catastrophe losses and lower net investment income partially offset by improved non-catastrophe current accident year underwriting results.
The combined ratio of 93.5% increased 3.3 points in 2020 as compared with 2019 primarily due to a 4.6 point increase in the loss ratio partially offset by a 1.2 point improvement in the expense ratio. The increase in the loss ratio was primarily due to higher net catastrophe losses. Net catastrophe losses were $125 million, or 4.3 points of the loss ratio, for 2020, as compared with $15 million, or 0.5 points of the loss ratio, for 2019. Net catastrophe losses in 2020 included $109 million related to the COVID-19 pandemic and $16 million related primarily to severe weather related events. The improvement in the expense ratio was driven by lower underwriting expenses and higher net earned premiums.
Favorable net prior year loss reserve development of $61 million and $92 million was recorded in 2020 and 2019. Further information on net prior year loss reserve development is in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
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The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves for Specialty.
December 31
(In millions)20202019
Gross case reserves$1,567 $1,481 
Gross IBNR reserves4,181 3,757 
Total gross carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$5,748 $5,238 
Net case reserves$1,410 $1,343 
Net IBNR reserves3,488 3,333 
Total net carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$4,898 $4,676 

37

Commercial
Commercial works with a network of brokers and independent agents to market a broad range of property and casualty insurance products to all types of insureds targeting small business, construction, middle markets and other commercial customers. Property products include standard and excess property, marine and boiler and machinery coverages. Casualty products include standard casualty insurance products such as workers' compensation, general and product liability, commercial auto and umbrella coverages. Most insurance programs are provided on a guaranteed cost basis; however, we also offer specialized loss-sensitive insurance programs and total risk management services relating to claim and information services to the large commercial insurance marketplace.
The following table details the results of operations for Commercial.
Years ended December 31
(In millions, except ratios, rate, renewal premium change and retention)20202019
Gross written premiums$4,086 $3,693 
Gross written premiums excluding third party captives3,993 3,609 
Net written premiums3,565 3,315 
Net earned premiums3,323 3,162 
Net investment income565 654 
Core income261 489 
Other performance metrics:
Loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development60.6 %61.7 %
Effect of catastrophe impacts10.7 4.9 
Effect of development-related items2.1 0.7 
Loss ratio73.4 67.3 
Expense ratio33.0 32.9 
Dividend ratio0.5 0.6 
Combined ratio106.9 %100.8 %
Combined ratio excluding catastrophes and development94.1 %95.2 %
Rate10 %%
Renewal premium change
Retention84 86 
New business$761 $682 
2020 Compared with 2019
Gross written premiums for Commercial increased $393 million in 2020 as compared with 2019 driven by strong rate and higher new business. Net written premiums for Commercial increased $250 million in 2020 as compared with 2019. The increase in net earned premiums was consistent with the trend in net written premiums partially offset by a reduction in estimated audit premiums as a result of the economic slowdown arising from COVID-19 and premium rate adjustments impacting certain general liability policies. Further information on the general liability premium rate adjustments is provided in Note F to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Core income decreased $228 million in 2020 as compared with 2019, primarily due to higher net catastrophe losses, lower net investment income and unfavorable net prior year loss reserve development in the current year, including a $50 million charge for mass tort exposures primarily due to New York reviver statute-related claims. These results were partially offset by improved non-catastrophe current accident year underwriting results.
The combined ratio of 106.9% increased 6.1 points in 2020 as compared with 2019 due to an increase in the loss ratio. The increase in the loss ratio was driven by higher net catastrophe losses and unfavorable net prior
38

year loss reserve development. Net catastrophe losses were $358 million, or 10.7 points of the loss ratio, for 2020, as compared with $154 million, or 4.9 points of the loss ratio, for 2019. Net catastrophe losses in 2020 included $252 million related primarily to severe weather related events, $58 million related to civil unrest and $48 million related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The expense ratio in 2020 was consistent with 2019 as higher acquisition expenses were offset by higher net earned premiums and lower underwriting expenses.
Unfavorable net prior year loss reserve development of $43 million was recorded in 2020 as compared with favorable development of $2 million in 2019. Further information on net prior year loss reserve development is in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves for Commercial.
December 31
(In millions)20202019
Gross case reserves$3,724 $3,937 
Gross IBNR reserves5,317 4,719 
Total gross carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$9,041 $8,656 
Net case reserves$3,357 $3,543 
Net IBNR reserves4,847 4,306 
Total net carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$8,204 $7,849 
39

International
The International segment underwrites property and casualty coverages on a global basis through a branch operation in Canada, a European business consisting of two insurance companies based in the U.K. and Luxembourg and Hardy, our Lloyd's syndicate.
Canada provides standard commercial and specialty insurance products, primarily in the marine, oil & gas, construction, manufacturing and life science industries.
Europe provides a diverse range of specialty products as well as commercial insurance products primarily in the marine, property, financial services and healthcare & technology industries throughout Europe on both a domestic and cross-border basis.
Hardy operates through Lloyd’s Syndicate 382 underwriting energy, marine, property, casualty and specialty lines with risks located in many countries around the world. The capacity of, and results from the syndicate, are 100% attributable to CNA.
The following table details the results of operations for International.
Years ended December 31
(In millions, except ratios, rate, renewal premium change and retention)20202019
Gross written premiums$1,133 $1,111 
Net written premiums961 971 
Net earned premiums940 974 
Net investment income58 63 
Core income38 30 
Other performance metrics:
Loss ratio excluding catastrophes and development60.1 %60.9 %
Effect of catastrophe impacts7.1 1.1 
Effect of development-related items(0.3)2.1 
Loss ratio66.9 64.1 
Expense ratio35.5 37.7 
Combined ratio102.4 %101.8 %
Combined ratio excluding catastrophes and development95.6 %98.6 %
Rate14 %%
Renewal premium change12 
Retention73 71 
New business$245 $273 
2020 Compared with 2019
Gross written premiums for International increased $22 million in 2020 as compared with 2019 driven by growth in Europe and Canada partially offset by the impact of the strategic exit from certain Lloyd’s business classes. Net written premiums for International decreased $10 million in 2020 as compared with 2019. The decrease in net earned premiums was consistent with the trend in net written premiums.
Core income increased $8 million in 2020 as compared with 2019.
The combined ratio of 102.4% increased 0.6 points in 2020 as compared with 2019 due to a 2.8 point increase in the loss ratio partially offset by a 2.2 point improvement in the expense ratio. The increase in the loss ratio was driven by higher net catastrophe losses partially offset by favorable net prior year loss reserve development in the current year. Net catastrophe losses were $67 million, or 7.1 points of the loss ratio, for 2020, as compared with $10 million, or 1.1 points of the loss ratio, for 2019. Net catastrophe losses in 2020 included $38 million related to the COVID-19 pandemic, $26 million related primarily to severe weather related events
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and $3 million related to civil unrest. The improvement in the expense ratio was driven by lower acquisition and underwriting expenses.
Favorable net prior year loss reserve development of $2 million was recorded in 2020 as compared with unfavorable net prior year loss reserve development of $21 million in 2019. Further information on net prior year loss reserve development is in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves for International.
December 31
(In millions)20202019
Gross case reserves$892 $858 
Gross IBNR reserves1,199 1,018 
Total gross carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$2,091 $1,876 
Net case reserves$777 $759 
Net IBNR reserves1,045 869 
Total net carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$1,822 $1,628 
41

Life & Group
The Life & Group segment includes our run-off long term care business as well as structured settlement obligations not funded by annuities related to certain property and casualty claimants. Long term care policies were sold on both an individual and group basis.
The following table summarizes the results of operations for Life & Group.
Years ended December 31
(In millions)20202019
Net earned premiums$504 $520 
Net investment income851 820 
Core loss before income tax(47)(199)
Income tax benefit on core loss56 90 
Core income (loss)(109)
2020 Compared with 2019
Core results improved $118 million in 2020 as compared with 2019.
Core income for 2020 included a $59 million charge related to the recognition of an active life reserve premium deficiency for long term care policies primarily driven by actions taken on discount rate assumptions. The normative risk free rate (the projection of the 10-year U.S. Treasury rate in the long term) was lowered by 100 basis points to 2.75% and the time period to grade up to the normative rate was extended from 6 years to 10 years. Core income for 2020 also included a $36 million charge related to an increase in the structured settlement claim reserves and a $30 million benefit related to a reduction in long term care claim reserves, both resulting from the annual claim reserve reviews in the third quarter of 2020. Core loss for 2019 included a $170 million charge related to the recognition of an active life reserve premium deficiency and a $44 million benefit related to a reduction in long term care claim reserves resulting from the annual claim reserve reviews in the third quarter of 2019.
Excluding the impacts of the GPV and claim reserve reviews, core results in 2020 were favorable driven by better than expected morbidity in the long term care business and higher net investment income. The increase in net investment income was driven by the allocation of a portion of limited partnership income to the Life & Group segment beginning in the fourth quarter of 2020. Further, during 2020, relative to expectations, we experienced lower new claim frequency, higher claim terminations and more favorable claim severity amid the effects of COVID-19. Given the uncertainty of these trends, we increased our IBNR reserves in anticipation of increased claim activity as the COVID-19 pandemic abates.












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The following tables summarize policyholder reserves for Life & Group.
December 31, 2020
(In millions)Claim and claim adjustment expensesFuture policy benefitsTotal
Long term care$2,844 $9,762 $12,606 
Structured settlement annuities543— 543 
Other10— 10 
Total3,397 9,762 13,159 
Shadow adjustments (1)
2183,2933,511 
Ceded reserves (2)
128 263 391 
Total gross reserves$3,743 $13,318 $17,061 
December 31, 2019
(In millions)Claim and claim adjustment expensesFuture policy benefitsTotal
Long term care$2,863 $9,470 $12,333 
Structured settlement annuities515— 515 
Other12— 12 
Total3,390 9,470 12,860 
Shadow adjustments (1)
1672,6152,782 
Ceded reserves (2)
159 226 385 
Total gross reserves$3,716 $12,311 $16,027 
(1)    To the extent that unrealized gains on fixed income securities supporting long term care products and annuity contracts would result in a premium deficiency if those gains were realized, an increase in Insurance reserves is recorded, net of tax, as a reduction of net unrealized gains through Other comprehensive income (loss) (Shadow Adjustments).
(2)     Ceded reserves relate to claim or policy reserves fully reinsured in connection with a sale or exit from the underlying business.
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Corporate & Other
Corporate & Other primarily includes certain corporate expenses, including interest on corporate debt and the results of certain property and casualty business in run-off, including CNA Re and A&EP.
The following table summarizes the results of operations for the Corporate & Other segment, including intersegment eliminations.
Years ended December 31
(In millions)20202019
Net investment income$12 $25 
Interest expense122 131 
Core loss(108)(102)
2020 Compared with 2019
Core loss in 2020 was generally consistent with 2019 and is driven by interest expense on corporate debt.
The application of retroactive reinsurance accounting to the A&EP Loss Portfolio Transfer (LPT) in both periods resulted in after-tax charges of $5 million and $14 million in 2020 and 2019, respectively, which have no economic impact. The LPT is further discussed in Note E to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
The following table summarizes the gross and net carried reserves for Corporate & Other.
December 31
(In millions)20202019
Gross case reserves$1,105 $1,137 
Gross IBNR reserves978 1,097 
Total gross carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$2,083 $2,234 
Net case reserves$88 $92 
Net IBNR reserves74 83 
Total net carried claim and claim adjustment expense reserves$162 $175 

44

INVESTMENTS
Net Investment Income
The significant components of Net investment income are presented in the following table. Fixed income securities, as presented, include both fixed maturity securities and non-redeemable preferred stock.
Years ended December 31
(In millions)20202019
Fixed income securities:
Taxable fixed income securities$1,451 $1,538 
Tax-exempt fixed income securities319 318 
Total fixed income securities1,770 1,856 
Limited partnership investments121 180 
Common stock23 46 
Other, net of investment expense21 36 
Net investment income$1,935 $2,118 
Effective income yield for the fixed income securities portfolio4.5 %4.8 %
Limited partnership and common stock return8.3 %11.7 %
Net investment income decreased $183 million in 2020 as compared with 2019 driven by lower yields in our fixed income portfolio and lower limited partnership and common stock returns.
Net Investment Gains (Losses)
The components of Net investment gains (losses) are presented in the following table.
Years ended December 31
(In millions)20202019
Fixed maturity securities:
Corporate and other bonds$(71)$(8)
States, municipalities and political subdivisions40 13 
Asset-backed31 (11)
Total fixed maturity securities— (6)
Non-redeemable preferred stock(3)66 
Short term and other(30)(31)
Mortgage loans(21)— 
Net investment (losses) gains(54)29 
Income tax benefit (expense) on net investment (losses) gains(8)
Net investment (losses) gains, after tax$(45)$21 
Net investment (losses) gains decreased $83 million for 2020 as compared with 2019. The decrease was driven by higher impairment losses recognized in earnings and the unfavorable change in fair value of non-redeemable preferred stock partially offset by higher net realized investment gains on sales of fixed maturity securities.
Further information on our investment gains and losses is set forth in Notes A and B to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
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Portfolio Quality
The following table presents the estimated fair value and net unrealized gains (losses) of our fixed maturity securities by rating distribution.
December 3120202019

(In millions)
Estimated Fair ValueNet Unrealized Gains (Losses)Estimated Fair ValueNet Unrealized Gains (Losses)
U.S. Government, Government agencies and Government-sponsored enterprises$3,672 $117 $4,136 $95 
AAA3,627 454 3,254 349 
AA 7,159 1,012 6,663 801 
A9,543 1,390 9,062 1,051 
BBB18,007 2,596 16,839 1,684 
Non-investment grade2,623 149 2,253 101 
Total$44,631 $5,718 $42,207 $4,081 
As of December 31, 2020 and 2019, 1% of our fixed maturity portfolio was rated internally. AAA rated securities included $1.8 billion and $1.5 billion of pre-funded municipal bonds as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
The following table presents available-for-sale fixed maturity securities in a gross unrealized loss position by ratings distribution.
December 31, 2020
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueGross Unrealized Losses
U.S. Government, Government agencies and Government-sponsored enterprises$115 $
AAA36 
AA163 
A561 14 
BBB520 28 
Non-investment grade335 24 
Total$1,730 $77 
The following table presents the maturity profile for these available-for-sale fixed maturity securities. Securities not due to mature on a single date are allocated based on weighted average life.
December 31, 2020
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueGross Unrealized Losses
Due in one year or less$161 $
Due after one year through five years676 24 
Due after five years through ten years653 36 
Due after ten years240 
Total$1,730 $77 
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Duration
A primary objective in the management of the investment portfolio is to optimize return relative to the corresponding liabilities and respective liquidity needs. Our views on the current interest rate environment, tax regulations, asset class valuations, specific security issuer and broader industry segment conditions as well as domestic and global economic conditions, are some of the factors that enter into an investment decision. We also continually monitor exposure to issuers of securities held and broader industry sector exposures and may from time to time adjust such exposures based on our views of a specific issuer or industry sector.
A further consideration in the management of the investment portfolio is the characteristics of the corresponding liabilities and the ability to align the duration of the portfolio to those liabilities and to meet future liquidity needs, minimize interest rate risk and maintain a level of income sufficient to support the underlying insurance liabilities. For portfolios where future liability cash flows are determinable and typically long term in nature, we segregate investments for asset/liability management purposes. The segregated investments support the long term care and structured settlement liabilities in the Life & Group segment.
The effective durations of fixed income securities and short term investments are presented in the following table. Amounts presented are net of payable and receivable amounts for securities purchased and sold, but not yet settled.
December 3120202019
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueEffective
Duration
(In years)
Estimated Fair ValueEffective
Duration
(In years)
Investments supporting Life & Group$18,518 9.2 $18,015 8.9 
Other investments28,839 4.5 26,813 4.1 
Total$47,357 6.3 $44,828 6.0 
The investment portfolio is periodically analyzed for changes in duration and related price risk. Certain securities have duration characteristics that are variable based on market interest rates, credit spreads and other factors that may drive variability in the amount and timing of cash flows. Additionally, we periodically review the sensitivity of the portfolio to the level of foreign exchange rates and other factors that contribute to market price changes. A summary of these risks and specific analysis on changes is included in the Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk included under Item 7A.
Short Term Investments
The carrying value of the components of the Short term investments are presented in the following table.
December 31
(In millions)20202019
Short term investments:
Commercial paper$— $1,181 
U.S. Treasury securities1,702 364 
Other205 316 
Total short term investments$1,907 $1,861 
During 2020, we shifted our commercial paper holdings to U.S. Treasury securities. In addition to Short term investments, we held $419 million and $242 million of Cash as of December 31, 2020 and 2019.
47

LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Cash Flows
Our primary operating cash flow sources are premiums and investment income. Our primary operating cash flow uses are payments for claims, policy benefits and operating expenses, including interest expense on corporate debt. Additionally, cash may be paid or received for income taxes.
For 2020, net cash provided by operating activities was $1,775 million as compared with $1,140 million for 2019. The increase in cash provided by operating activities was driven by an increase in premiums collected, lower net claim payments and lower income taxes paid, partially offset by a lower level of distributions from limited partnerships.
Cash flows from investing activities include the purchase and disposition of financial instruments, excluding those held as trading, and may include the purchase and sale of businesses, equipment and other assets not generally held for resale.
Net cash used by investing activities was $705 million for 2020, as compared with $225 million for 2019. Net cash used by investing activities is primarily driven by cash available from operations and by other factors, such as financing activities.
Cash flows from financing activities may include proceeds from the issuance of debt and equity securities, and outflows for stockholder dividends, repayment of debt and purchases of treasury stock.
Net cash used by financing activities was $902 million and $988 million for 2020 and 2019. Financing activities for the periods presented include:
In 2020, we paid dividends of $950 million and repurchased 435,376 shares of our common stock at an aggregate cost of $18 million.
In the third quarter of 2020, we issued $500 million of 2.05% senior notes due August 15, 2030 and redeemed the $400 million outstanding aggregate principal balance of our 5.75% senior notes due August 15, 2021.
In 2019, we paid dividends of $929 million and repurchased 527,454 shares of our common stock at an aggregate cost of $23 million.
In the second quarter of 2019, we issued $500 million of 3.90% senior notes due May 1, 2029 and redeemed the $500 million outstanding aggregate principal balance of our 5.875% senior notes due August 15, 2020.
Liquidity
We believe that our present cash flows from operating, investing and financing activities are sufficient to fund our current and expected working capital and debt obligation needs and we do not expect this to change in the near term. There are currently no amounts outstanding under our $250 million senior unsecured revolving credit facility and no borrowings outstanding through our membership in the Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago (FHLBC).
CCC paid dividends of $975 million and $1,065 million to CNAF during 2020 and 2019.
We have an effective automatic shelf registration statement on file with the Securities and Exchange Commission under which we may publicly issue debt, equity or hybrid securities from time to time.
On February 5, 2021, in connection with the closing of the retroactive reinsurance transaction with Cavello, we transferred approximately $630 million of cash into a collateral trust account as security for Cavello’s obligations under the terms of the agreement. See Note S to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8 for further information on the retroactive reinsurance transaction with Cavello.
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Common Stock Dividends
Dividends of $3.48 per share on our common stock, including a special dividend of $2.00 per share, were declared and paid in 2020. On February 5, 2021, our Board of Directors declared a quarterly dividend of $0.38 per share and a special dividend of $0.75 per share, payable March 11, 2021 to stockholders of record on February 22, 2021. The declaration and payment of future dividends to holders of our common stock will be at the discretion of our Board of Directors and will depend on many factors, including our earnings, financial condition, business needs and regulatory constraints.
Our ability to pay dividends and other credit obligations is significantly dependent on receipt of dividends from our subsidiaries. The payment of dividends to us by our insurance subsidiaries without prior approval of the insurance department of each subsidiary's domiciliary jurisdiction is limited by formula. Dividends in excess of these amounts are subject to prior approval by the respective state insurance departments.
Further information on our dividends from subsidiaries is provided in Note M to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
Commitments, Contingencies and Guarantees
We have various commitments, contingencies and guarantees which arose in the ordinary course of business. The impact of these commitments, contingencies and guarantees should be considered when evaluating our liquidity and capital resources.
A summary of our commitments is presented in the following table.
December 31, 2020
(In millions)TotalLess than 1 year1-3 years3-5 yearsMore than 5 years
Debt (1)
$3,409 $109 $459 $697 $2,144 
Lease obligations (2)
337 44 77 53 163 
Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves (3)
23,709 5,983 6,205 3,096 8,425 
Future policy benefit reserves (4)
25,394 (329)111 865 24,747 
Total (5)
$52,849 $5,807 $6,852 $4,711 $35,479 
(1)    Includes estimated future interest payments.
(2)    The lease obligations reflected above are not discounted.
(3)    The Claim and claim adjustment expense reserves reflected above are not discounted and represent our estimate of the amount and timing of the ultimate settlement and administration of gross claims based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known as of December 31, 2020. See the Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties section of this MD&A for further information.
(4)    The Future policy benefit reserves reflected above are not discounted and represent our estimate of the ultimate amount and timing of the settlement of benefits net of expected premiums, and are based on our assessment of facts and circumstances known as of December 31, 2020. See the Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties section of this MD&A for further information.
(5)    Does not include investment commitments of approximately $1,210 million related to future capital calls from various third-party limited partnerships, signed and accepted mortgage loan applications, and obligations related to private placement securities.
Further information on our commitments, contingencies and guarantees is provided in Notes A, B, E, F, H and L to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
49

Ratings
Ratings are an important factor in establishing the competitive position of insurance companies. Our insurance company subsidiaries are rated by major rating agencies and these ratings reflect the rating agency's opinion of the insurance company's financial strength, operating performance, strategic position and ability to meet its obligations to policyholders. Agency ratings are not a recommendation to buy, sell or hold any security and may be revised or withdrawn at any time by the issuing organization. Each agency's rating should be evaluated independently of any other agency's rating. One or more of these agencies could take action in the future to change the ratings of our insurance subsidiaries.
The table below reflects the Insurer Financial Strength Ratings of CNA's insurance company subsidiaries issued by A.M. Best, Moody's, S&P and Fitch. The table also includes the ratings for CNAF's senior debt.
December 31, 2020Insurer Financial Strength RatingsSenior Debt Ratings
A.M. BestAbbb+
Moody'sA2Baa2
S&PA+A-
FitchA+BBB+
A.M. Best, Moody’s, S&P and Fitch maintain stable outlooks across the Company’s Financial Strength and Senior Debt Ratings.
CNA Insurance Company Limited and CNA Insurance Company (Europe) S.A. are included within S&P’s Insurer Financial Strength Rating for the Company. Syndicate 382 benefits from the Financial Strength Rating of Lloyd’s, which is rated A+ by S&P and A by A.M. Best with stable outlooks.

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ACCOUNTING STANDARDS UPDATE
For a discussion of Accounting Standards Updates adopted as of January 1, 2020 and that will be adopted in the future, see Note A to the Consolidated Financial Statements included under Item 8.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains a number of forward-looking statements which relate to anticipated future events rather than actual present conditions or historical events. These statements are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 and generally include words such as “believes,” “expects,” “intends,” “anticipates,” “estimates” and similar expressions. Forward-looking statements in this report include any and all statements regarding expected developments in our insurance business, including losses and loss reserves (note that loss reserves for long term care, A&EP and other mass tort claims are more uncertain, and therefore more difficult to estimate than loss reserves respecting traditional property and casualty exposures); the impact of routine ongoing insurance reserve reviews we are conducting; our expectations concerning our revenues, earnings, expenses and investment activities; volatility in investment returns; and our proposed actions in response to trends in our business. Forward-looking statements, by their nature, are subject to a variety of inherent risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from the results projected in the forward-looking statement. We cannot control many of these risks and uncertainties. These risks and uncertainties include, but are not limited to, the following:
Company-Specific Factors
the risks and uncertainties associated with our insurance reserves, as outlined in the Critical Accounting Estimates and the Reserves - Estimates and Uncertainties sections of this report, including the sufficiency of the reserves and the possibility for future increases, which would be reflected in the results of operations in the period that the need for such adjustment is determined;
the risk that the other parties to the transaction in which, subject to certain limitations, we ceded our legacy A&EP liabilities will not fully perform their obligations to CNA, the uncertainty in estimating loss reserves for A&EP liabilities and the possible continued exposure of CNA to liabilities for A&EP claims that are not covered under the terms of the transaction;
the performance of reinsurance companies under reinsurance contracts with us; and
the risks and uncertainties associated with potential acquisitions and divestitures, including the consummation of such transactions, the successful integration of acquired operations and the potential for subsequent impairment of goodwill or intangible assets.
Industry and General Market Factors
the COVID-19 pandemic, and actions seeking to mitigate the spread of the virus, have resulted in significant risk across our enterprise, as economic uncertainty and depressed business conditions brought on by the crisis may materially and adversely impact our business, drive significant decreases in our premium volume and result in significant losses in our investment portfolio, increased claim and litigation activity and unfavorable regulatory outcomes.
the impact of competitive products, policies and pricing and the competitive environment in which we operate, including changes in our book of business;
product and policy availability and demand and market responses, including the level of ability to obtain rate increases and decline or non-renew underpriced accounts, to achieve premium targets and profitability and to realize growth and retention estimates;
general economic and business conditions, including recessionary conditions that may decrease the size and number of our insurance customers and create additional losses to our lines of business and inflationary pressures on medical care costs, construction costs and other economic sectors that increase the severity of claims;
conditions in the capital and credit markets, including uncertainty and instability in these markets, as well as the overall economy, and their impact on the returns, types, liquidity and valuation of our investments;
conditions in the capital and credit markets that may limit our ability to raise significant amounts of capital on favorable terms; and
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the possibility of changes in our ratings by ratings agencies, including the inability to access certain markets or distribution channels and the required collateralization of future payment obligations as a result of such changes, and changes in rating agency policies and practices.
Regulatory Factors
regulatory and legal initiatives and compliance with governmental regulations and other legal requirements, including with respect to cyber security protocols, legal inquiries by state authorities, judicial interpretations within the regulatory framework, including interpretation of policy provisions, decisions regarding coverage and theories of liability, legislative actions that increase claimant activity, including those revising applicability of statutes of limitations, trends in litigation and the outcome of any litigation involving us and rulings and changes in tax laws and regulations;
regulatory limitations, impositions and restrictions upon us, including with respect to our ability to increase premium rates, and the effects of assessments and other surcharges for guaranty funds and second-injury funds, other mandatory pooling arrangements and future assessments levied on insurance companies;
regulatory limitations and restrictions, including limitations upon our ability to receive dividends from our insurance subsidiaries, imposed by regulatory authorities, including regulatory capital adequacy standards; and
the increasing complexities and regulatory costs relating to operations in Europe resulting from the completion of Brexit and the formation of a new European underwriting subsidiary as a result thereof.
Impact of Natural and Man-Made Disasters and Mass Tort Claims
weather and other natural physical events, including the severity and frequency of storms, hail, snowfall and other winter conditions, natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes, as well as climate change, including effects on global weather patterns, greenhouse gases, sea, land and air temperatures, sea levels, wildfires, rain, hail and snow;
regulatory requirements imposed by coastal state regulators in the wake of hurricanes or other natural disasters, including limitations on the ability to exit markets or to non-renew, cancel or change terms and conditions in policies, as well as mandatory assessments to fund any shortfalls arising from the inability of quasi-governmental insurers to pay claims;
man-made disasters, including the possible occurrence of terrorist attacks, the unpredictability of the nature, targets, severity or frequency of such events, and the effect of the absence or insufficiency of applicable terrorism legislation on coverages;
the occurrence of epidemics and pandemics; and
mass tort claims, including those related to exposure to potentially harmful products or substances such as glyphosate, lead paint and opioids; and claims arising from changes that repeal or weaken tort reforms, such as those related to abuse reviver statutes.
Our forward-looking statements speak only as of the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K and we do not undertake any obligation to update or revise any forward-looking statement to reflect events or circumstances after the date of the filing of this Annual Report on Form 10-K, even if our expectations or any related events or circumstances change.
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ITEM 7A. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Our financial instruments are exposed to various market risks, such as interest rate risk, equity price risk and foreign currency risk. Due to the level of risk associated with certain invested assets and the level of uncertainty related to changes in the value of these assets, it is possible that changes in these risks in the near term could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations, financial condition or equity.
Discussions herein regarding market risk focus on only one element of market risk, which is price risk. Price risk relates to changes in the level of prices due to changes in interest rates, equity prices, foreign exchange rates or other factors such as credit spreads. The fair value of our financial instruments is generally adversely affected when interest rates rise, equity markets decline or the dollar strengthens against foreign currency.
Active management of market risk is integral to our operations. We may take the following actions to manage our exposure to market risk within defined tolerance ranges: (1) change the character of future investments purchased or sold or (2) use derivatives to offset the market behavior of existing assets and liabilities or assets expected to be purchased and liabilities expected to be incurred.
Sensitivity Analysis
We monitor our sensitivity to interest rate changes by revaluing financial assets and liabilities using a variety of different interest rates. The Company uses duration and convexity at the security level to estimate the change in fair value that would result from a change in each security's yield. Duration measures the price sensitivity of an asset to changes in yield. Convexity measures how the duration of the asset changes with interest rates. The duration and convexity analysis takes into account the unique characteristics (e.g., call and put options and prepayment expectations) of each security in determining the hypothetical change in fair value. The analysis is performed at the security level and aggregated up to the asset category levels for reporting in the tables below.
The evaluation is performed by applying an instantaneous change in yield rates of varying magnitudes on a static balance sheet to determine the effect such a change in rates would have on our fair value at risk and the resulting effect on stockholders' equity. The analysis presents the sensitivity of the fair value of our financial instruments to selected changes in capital market rates and index levels. The range of change chosen reflects our view of changes that are reasonably possible over a one-year period. The selection of the range of values chosen to represent changes in interest rates should not be construed as our prediction of future market events, but rather an illustration of the impact of such events.
The sensitivity analysis estimates the decline in the fair value of our interest sensitive assets and liabilities that were held as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 due to an instantaneous change in the yield of the security at the end of the period of 100 and 150 basis points, with all other variables held constant.
The sensitivity analysis also assumes an instantaneous 10% and 20% decline in the foreign currency exchange rates versus the United States dollar from their levels as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, with all other variables held constant.
Equity price risk was measured assuming an instantaneous 10% and 25% decline in the S&P 500 from its level as of December 31, 2020 and 2019, with all other variables held constant. Our common stock holdings, which are included in equity securities, were assumed to be highly and positively correlated with the S&P 500 index. The value of limited partnerships are also affected by changes in equity markets, so a model was developed to analyze the observed changes in the value of limited partnerships held by the Company over a multiple year period along with the corresponding changes in the S&P 500 index. The result of the model allowed us to estimate the change in value of limited partnerships due to equity risk.
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The following tables present the estimated effects on the fair value of our financial instruments as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 due to an increase in yield rates of 100 basis points, a 10% decline in foreign currency exchange rates and a 10% decline in the S&P 500, with all other variables held constant.
Market Risk Scenario 1
December 31, 2020Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueInterest Rate RiskForeign Currency RiskEquity Price Risk
Assets:
Fixed maturity securities (1)
$44,631 $(2,963)$(257)$— 
Equity securities992 (30)(1)(23)
Limited partnership investments1,619 — — (65)
Other invested assets76 — (6)— 
Mortgage loans (2)
1,151 (51)— — 
Short term investments1,907 (2)(13)— 
Total assets50,376 (3,046)(277)(88)
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities(19)20 — — 
Total$50,357 $(3,026)$(277)$(88)
Long term debt (3)
$3,148 $(169)$— $— 
(1)    From a financial reporting perspective, Shadow Adjustments related to Life & Group reserves would reduce the impact of the decrease in fixed maturity securities.
(2)    Reported at amortized value, less allowance for uncollectible receivables, in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.
(3)    Reported at amortized value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.
Market Risk Scenario 1
December 31, 2019Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueInterest Rate RiskForeign Currency RiskEquity Price Risk
Assets:
Fixed maturity securities (1)
$42,207 $(2,669)$(229)$— 
Equity securities865 (28)(1)(18)
Limited partnership investments1,752 — — (70)
Other invested assets65 — (6)— 
Mortgage loans (2)
1,025 (45)— — 
Short term investments1,861 (1)(13)— 
Total assets47,775 (2,743)(249)(88)
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities(7)16 — — 
Total$47,768 $(2,727)$(249)$(88)
Long term debt (2)
$2,906 $(142)$— $— 
(1)    From a financial reporting perspective, Shadow Adjustments related to Life & Group reserves would reduce the impact of the decrease in fixed maturity securities.
(2)    Reported at amortized value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.
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The following tables present the estimated effects on the fair value of our financial instruments as of December 31, 2020 and 2019 due to an increase in yield rates of 150 basis points, a 20% decline in foreign currency exchange rates and a 25% decline in the S&P 500, with all other variables held constant.
Market Risk Scenario 2
December 31, 2020Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueInterest Rate RiskForeign Currency RiskEquity Price Risk
Assets:
Fixed maturity securities (1)
$44,631 $(4,443)$(513)$— 
Equity securities992 (45)(2)(57)
Limited partnership investments1,619 — — (162)
Other invested assets76 — (12)— 
Mortgage loans (2)
1,151 (76)— — 
Short term investments1,907 (3)(26)— 
Total assets50,376 (4,567)(553)(219)
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities(19)30 — — 
Total$50,357 $(4,537)$(553)$(219)
Long term debt (3)
$3,148 $(254)$— $— 
(1)    From a financial reporting perspective, Shadow Adjustments related to Life & Group reserves would reduce the impact of the decrease in fixed maturity securities.
(2)    Reported at amortized value, less allowance for uncollectible receivables, in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.
(3)    Reported at amortized value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.
Market Risk Scenario 2
December 31, 2019Increase (Decrease)
(In millions)Estimated Fair ValueInterest Rate RiskForeign Currency RiskEquity Price Risk
Assets:
Fixed maturity securities (1)
$42,207 $(4,003)$(458)$— 
Equity securities865 (42)(3)(45)
Limited partnership investments1,752 — — (175)
Other invested assets65 — (11)— 
Mortgage loans (2)
1,025 (67)— — 
Short term investments1,861 (2)(27)— 
Total assets47,775 (4,114)(499)(220)
Derivative financial instruments, included in Other liabilities(7)24 — — 
Total$47,768 $(4,090)$(499)$(220)
Long term debt (2)
$2,906 $(213)$— $— 
(1)    From a financial reporting perspective, Shadow Adjustments related to Life & Group reserves would reduce the impact of the decrease in fixed maturity securities.
(2)    Reported at amortized value in the Consolidated Balance Sheets included under Item 8 and not adjusted for fair value changes.

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ITEM 8. FINANCIAL STATEMENTS AND SUPPLEMENTARY DATA
CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Operations
Years ended December 31
(In millions, except per share data)202020192018
Revenues
Net earned premiums$7,649 $7,428 $7,312 
Net investment income1,935 2,118 1,817 
Net investment (losses) gains(54)29 (52)
Non-insurance warranty revenue1,252 1,161 1,007 
Other revenues26 31 50 
Total revenues10,808 10,767 10,134 
Claims, Benefits and Expenses
Insurance claims and policyholders’ benefits6,170 5,806 5,572 
Amortization of deferred acquisition costs1,410 1,383 1,335 
Non-insurance warranty expense1,159 1,082 923 
Other operating expenses 1,126 1,142 1,202 
Interest122 131 138 
Total claims, benefits and expenses9,987 9,544 9,170 
Income before income tax821 1,223 964 
Income tax expense(131)(223)(151)
Net income$690 $1,000 $813 
Basic earnings per share$2.54 $3.68 $2.99 
Diluted earnings per share$2.53 $3.67 $2.98 
Weighted Average Outstanding Common Stock and Common Stock Equivalents
Basic271.6271.6271.5
Diluted272.4272.5272.5
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.

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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Years ended December 31
(In millions)202020192018
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Net income $690 $1,000 $813 
Other Comprehensive Income (Loss), net of tax
Changes in:
Net unrealized gains and losses on investments with an allowance for credit losses— — — 
Net unrealized gains and losses on other investments720 948 (812)
Net unrealized gains and losses on investments720 948 (812)
Foreign currency translation adjustment47 39 (82)
Pension and postretirement benefits(15)(58)— 
Other comprehensive income (loss), net of tax752 929 (894)
Total comprehensive income (loss)$1,442 $1,929 $(81)
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Balance Sheets
December 31
(In millions, except share data)20202019
Assets  
Investments:  
Fixed maturity securities at fair value (amortized cost of $38,953 and $38,126, less allowance for credit loss of $40 and $—)
$44,631 $42,207 
Equity securities at fair value (cost of $941 and $820)
992 865 
Limited partnership investments1,619 1,752 
Other invested assets76 65 
Mortgage loans (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $26 and $—)
1,068 994 
Short term investments1,907 1,861 
Total investments50,293 47,744 
Cash419 242 
Reinsurance receivables (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $21 and $25)
4,457 4,179 
Insurance receivables (less allowance for uncollectible receivables of $33 and $32)
2,607 2,449 
Accrued investment income380 395 
Deferred acquisition costs708 662 
Deferred income taxes66 199 
Property and equipment at cost (less accumulated depreciation of $231 and $215)
252 282 
Goodwill148 147 
Deferred non-insurance warranty acquisition expense3,068 2,840 
Other assets (includes $— and $21 due from Loews Corporation)
1,628 1,473 
Total assets$64,026 $60,612 
Liabilities  
Insurance reserves: 
Claim and claim adjustment expenses$22,706 $21,720 
Unearned premiums5,119 4,583 
Future policy benefits13,318 12,311 
Long term debt2,776 2,679 
Deferred non-insurance warranty revenue4,023 3,779 
Other liabilities (includes $89 and $21 due to Loews Corporation)
3,377 3,325 
Total liabilities51,319 48,397 
Commitments and contingencies (Notes B and F)
Stockholders' Equity  
Common stock ($2.50 par value; 500,000,000 shares authorized; 273,040,243 shares issued; 271,391,603 and 271,412,591 shares outstanding)
683 683 
Additional paid-in capital2,211 2,203 
Retained earnings9,081 9,348 
Accumulated other comprehensive income803 51 
Treasury stock (1,648,640 and 1,627,652 shares), at cost
(71)(70)
Total stockholders’ equity12,707 12,215 
Total liabilities and stockholders' equity$64,026 $60,612 
The accompanying Notes are an integral part of these Consolidated Financial Statements.
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CNA Financial Corporation
Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
Years ended December 31
(In millions)202020192018
Cash Flows from Operating Activities  
Net income$690 $1,000 $813 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash flows provided by operating activities:
Deferred income tax benefit(49)(46)(20)
Trading portfolio activity(5)(16)— 
Net investment losses (gains)54 (29)52 
Equity method investees(8)11 330 
Net amortization of investments(67)(89)(70)
Depreciation and amortization60 68 79 
Changes in:
Receivables, net(409)137 (229)
Accrued investment income16 (3)19 
Deferred acquisition costs(43)(26)(6)
Insurance reserves1,681 358 482 
Other, net(145)(225)(223)
Net cash flows provided by operating activities1,775 1,140 1,227 
Cash Flows from Investing Activities  
Dispositions:
Fixed maturity securities - sales5,904 5,842 8,408 
Fixed maturity securities - maturities, calls and redemptions3,760 2,997 2,370 
Equity securities355 214 89 
Limited partnerships373 479 343 
Mortgage loans74 143 128 
Purchases:
Fixed maturity securities