Silver Triangle Building
25505 West Twelve Mile Road
Southfield, MI 48034-8339
(248) 353-2700
creditacceptance.com


NEWS RELEASE
FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
Date: May 3, 2018

Investor Relations: Douglas W. Busk
Senior Vice President and Treasurer
(248) 353-2700 Ext. 4432
IR@creditacceptance.com

Nasdaq Symbol: CACC


CREDIT ACCEPTANCE ANNOUNCES
FIRST QUARTER 2018 EARNINGS

Southfield, Michigan – May 3, 2018 – Credit Acceptance Corporation (Nasdaq: CACC) (referred to as the “Company”, “Credit Acceptance”, “we”, “our”, or “us”) today announced consolidated net income of $120.1 million, or $6.17 per diluted share, for the three months ended March 31, 2018 compared to consolidated net income of $93.3 million, or $4.72 per diluted share, for the same period in 2017.

Adjusted net income, a non-GAAP financial measure, for the three months ended March 31, 2018 was $118.9 million, or $6.11 per diluted share, compared to $92.3 million, or $4.67 per diluted share, for the same period in 2017.

Webcast Details

We will host a webcast on May 4, 2018 at 9:00 a.m. Eastern Time to answer questions related to our first quarter results.  The webcast can be accessed live by visiting the “Investor Relations” section of our website at creditacceptance.com or by dialing 877-303-2904.  Additionally, a replay and transcript of the webcast will be archived in the “Investor Relations” section of our website.




1

 

Consumer Loan Metrics

Dealers assign retail installment contracts (referred to as “Consumer Loans”) to Credit Acceptance. At the time a Consumer Loan is submitted to us for assignment, we forecast future expected cash flows from the Consumer Loan. Based on the amount and timing of these forecasts and expected expense levels, an advance or one-time purchase payment is made to the related dealer at a price designed to maximize economic profit, a non-GAAP financial measure that considers our return on capital, our cost of capital and the amount of capital invested. 

We use a statistical model to estimate the expected collection rate for each Consumer Loan at the time of assignment. We continue to evaluate the expected collection rate of each Consumer Loan subsequent to assignment. Our evaluation becomes more accurate as the Consumer Loans age, as we use actual performance data in our forecast. By comparing our current expected collection rate for each Consumer Loan with the rate we projected at the time of assignment, we are able to assess the accuracy of our initial forecast. The following table compares our forecast of Consumer Loan collection rates as of March 31, 2018 with the forecasts as of December 31, 2017 and at the time of assignment, segmented by year of assignment:

 
 
Forecasted Collection Percentage as of (1)
 
Current Forecast Variance from
 Consumer Loan Assignment Year
 
March 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
 
Initial
Forecast
 
December 31, 2017
 
Initial
Forecast
2009
 
79.5
%
 
79.5
%

71.9
%
 
0.0
 %

7.6
 %
2010
 
77.6
%
 
77.6
%

73.6
%
 
0.0
 %

4.0
 %
2011
 
74.7
%
 
74.7
%

72.5
%
 
0.0
 %

2.2
 %
2012
 
73.8
%
 
73.8
%

71.4
%
 
0.0
 %

2.4
 %
2013
 
73.4
%
 
73.5
%

72.0
%
 
-0.1
 %

1.4
 %
2014
 
71.7
%
 
71.7
%

71.8
%
 
0.0
 %

-0.1
 %
2015
 
65.3
%
 
65.5
%
 
67.7
%
 
-0.2
 %
 
-2.4
 %
2016
 
64.4
%
 
64.8
%
 
65.4
%
 
-0.4
 %
 
-1.0
 %
2017
 
65.5
%
 
65.6
%
 
64.0
%
 
-0.1
 %
 
1.5
 %
2018
 
63.6
%
 

 
63.5
%
 

 
0.1
 %

(1)
Represents the total forecasted collections we expect to collect on the Consumer Loans as a percentage of the repayments that we were contractually owed on the Consumer Loans at the time of assignment.  Contractual repayments include both principal and interest. Forecasted collection rates are negatively impacted by canceled Consumer Loans as the contractual amount owed is not removed from the denominator for purposes of computing forecasted collection rates in the table.

Consumer Loans assigned in 2009 through 2013 and 2017 have yielded forecasted collection results materially better than our initial estimates, while Consumer Loans assigned in 2015 and 2016 have yielded forecasted collection results materially worse than our initial estimates. For Consumer Loans assigned in 2014 and 2018, actual results have been close to our initial estimates. For the three months ended March 31, 2018, forecasted collection rates declined for Consumer Loans assigned in 2015 and 2016 and were generally consistent with expectations at the start of the period for all other assignment years presented.

The changes in forecasted collection rates for the three months ended March 31, 2018 and 2017 impacted forecasted net cash flows (forecasted collections less forecasted dealer holdback payments) as follows:
(In millions)
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
Increase (Decrease) in Forecasted Net Cash Flows
 
2018
 
2017
Dealer loans
 
$
(6.1
)
 
$
(3.4
)
Purchased loans
 
(4.7
)
 
11.5

Total loans
 
$
(10.8
)
 
$
8.1



2

 

The following table presents information on the average Consumer Loan assignment for each of the last 10 years:
 
 
Average
 Consumer Loan Assignment Year
 
Consumer Loan (1)
 
Advance (2)
 
Initial Loan Term (in months)
2009
 
$
12,689

 
$
5,565

 
38
2010
 
14,480

 
6,473

 
41
2011
 
15,686

 
7,137

 
46
2012
 
15,468

 
7,165

 
47
2013
 
15,445

 
7,344

 
47
2014
 
15,692

 
7,492

 
47
2015
 
16,354

 
7,272

 
50
2016
 
18,218

 
7,976

 
53
2017
 
20,230

 
8,746

 
55
2018
 
21,719

 
9,352

 
57

(1)
Represents the repayments that we were contractually owed on Consumer Loans at the time of assignment, which include both principal and interest.

(2)
Represents advances paid to dealers on Consumer Loans assigned under our portfolio program and one-time payments made to dealers to purchase Consumer Loans assigned under our purchase program.  Payments of dealer holdback and accelerated dealer holdback are not included.

Forecasting collection rates accurately at loan inception is difficult.  With this in mind, we establish advance rates that are intended to allow us to achieve acceptable levels of profitability, even if collection rates are less than we initially forecast.

The following table presents forecasted Consumer Loan collection rates, advance rates, the spread (the forecasted collection rate less the advance rate), and the percentage of the forecasted collections that had been realized as of March 31, 2018.  All amounts, unless otherwise noted, are presented as a percentage of the initial balance of the Consumer Loan (principal + interest).  The table includes both dealer loans and purchased loans.
 
 
As of March 31, 2018
 Consumer Loan Assignment Year
 
Forecasted
Collection %
 
Advance % (1)
 
Spread %
 
% of Forecast
Realized (2)
2009
 
79.5
%

43.9
%
 
35.6
%
 
99.8
%
2010
 
77.6
%

44.7
%
 
32.9
%
 
99.5
%
2011
 
74.7
%

45.5
%
 
29.2
%
 
99.0
%
2012
 
73.8
%

46.3
%
 
27.5
%
 
98.4
%
2013
 
73.4
%

47.6
%
 
25.8
%
 
96.8
%
2014
 
71.7
%

47.7
%
 
24.0
%
 
91.3
%
2015
 
65.3
%
 
44.5
%
 
20.8
%
 
77.3
%
2016
 
64.4
%
 
43.8
%
 
20.6
%
 
54.5
%
2017
 
65.5
%
 
43.2
%
 
22.3
%
 
24.0
%
2018
 
63.6
%
 
43.1
%
 
20.5
%
 
2.5
%
 
(1)  
Represents advances paid to dealers on Consumer Loans assigned under our portfolio program and one-time payments made to dealers to purchase Consumer Loans assigned under our purchase program as a percentage of the initial balance of the Consumer Loans.  Payments of dealer holdback and accelerated dealer holdback are not included.

(2)  
Presented as a percentage of total forecasted collections.

The risk of a material change in our forecasted collection rate declines as the Consumer Loans age. For 2014 and prior Consumer Loan assignments, the risk of a material forecast variance is modest, as we have currently realized in excess of 90% of the expected collections. Conversely, the forecasted collection rates for more recent Consumer Loan assignments are less certain as a significant portion of our forecast has not been realized.

The spread between the forecasted collection rate and the advance rate has ranged from 20.5% to 35.6% over the last 10 years. The spread was at the high end of this range in 2009 and 2010, when the competitive environment was unusually favorable, and much lower during other years (2015 through 2018) when competition was more intense. The decrease in the spread from 2017 to 2018 was the result of the performance of 2017 Consumer Loans, which has materially exceeded our initial estimates, and a change in the mix of Consumer Loan assignments received during 2018, including an increase in purchased loans as a percentage of total unit volume.




3

 

The following table compares our forecast of Consumer Loan collection rates as of March 31, 2018 with the forecasts at the time of assignment, for dealer loans and purchased loans separately:

 
 
Dealer Loans
 
Purchased Loans
 
 
Forecasted Collection Percentage as of (1)
 
 
 
Forecasted Collection Percentage as of (1)
 
 
 Consumer Loan Assignment Year
 
March 31,
2018
 
Initial
Forecast
 
Variance
 
March 31,
2018
 
Initial
Forecast
 
Variance
2009
 
79.3
%
 
72.1
%
 
7.2
 %
 
80.8
%
 
70.5
%
 
10.3
%
2010
 
77.5
%
 
73.6
%
 
3.9
 %
 
78.7
%
 
73.1
%
 
5.6
%
2011
 
74.6
%
 
72.4
%
 
2.2
 %
 
76.3
%
 
72.7
%
 
3.6
%
2012
 
73.6
%
 
71.3
%
 
2.3
 %
 
75.8
%
 
71.4
%
 
4.4
%
2013
 
73.4
%
 
72.1
%
 
1.3
 %
 
74.3
%
 
71.6
%
 
2.7
%
2014
 
71.6
%
 
71.9
%
 
-0.3
 %
 
72.6
%
 
70.9
%
 
1.7
%
2015
 
64.6
%
 
67.5
%
 
-2.9
 %
 
69.5
%
 
68.5
%
 
1.0
%
2016
 
63.5
%
 
65.1
%
 
-1.6
 %
 
67.1
%
 
66.5
%
 
0.6
%
2017
 
64.9
%
 
63.8
%
 
1.1
 %
 
67.2
%
 
64.6
%
 
2.6
%
2018
 
63.6
%
 
63.5
%
 
0.1
 %
 
63.8
%
 
63.6
%
 
0.2
%

(1)  
The forecasted collection rates presented for dealer loans and purchased loans reflect the Consumer Loan classification at the time of assignment.

The following table presents forecasted Consumer Loan collection rates, advance rates, and the spread (the forecasted collection rate less the advance rate) as of March 31, 2018 for dealer loans and purchased loans separately.  All amounts are presented as a percentage of the initial balance of the Consumer Loan (principal + interest).

 
 
Dealer Loans
 
Purchased Loans
 Consumer Loan Assignment Year
 
Forecasted Collection % (1)
 
Advance % (1)(2)
 
Spread %
 
Forecasted Collection % (1)
 
Advance % (1)(2)
 
Spread %
2009
 
79.3
%
 
43.4
%
 
35.9
%
 
80.8
%
 
46.0
%
 
34.8
%
2010
 
77.5
%
 
44.4
%
 
33.1
%
 
78.7
%
 
47.3
%
 
31.4
%
2011
 
74.6
%
 
45.1
%
 
29.5
%
 
76.3
%
 
49.3
%
 
27.0
%
2012
 
73.6
%
 
46.0
%
 
27.6
%
 
75.8
%
 
50.0
%
 
25.8
%
2013
 
73.4
%
 
47.2
%
 
26.2
%
 
74.3
%
 
51.5
%
 
22.8
%
2014
 
71.6
%
 
47.2
%
 
24.4
%
 
72.6
%
 
51.8
%
 
20.8
%
2015
 
64.6
%
 
43.4
%
 
21.2
%
 
69.5
%
 
50.2
%
 
19.3
%
2016
 
63.5
%
 
42.1
%
 
21.4
%
 
67.1
%
 
48.6
%
 
18.5
%
2017
 
64.9
%
 
42.1
%
 
22.8
%
 
67.2
%
 
45.8
%
 
21.4
%
2018
 
63.6
%
 
42.3
%
 
21.3
%
 
63.8
%
 
44.7
%
 
19.1
%

(1)  
The forecasted collection rates and advance rates presented for dealer loans and purchased loans reflect the Consumer Loan classification at the time of assignment.

(2)
Represents advances paid to dealers on Consumer Loans assigned under our portfolio program and one-time payments made to dealers to purchase Consumer Loans assigned under our purchase program as a percentage of the initial balance of the Consumer Loans.  Payments of dealer holdback and accelerated dealer holdback are not included.

Although the advance rate on purchased loans is higher as compared to the advance rate on dealer loans, purchased loans do not require us to pay dealer holdback.

The spread on dealer loans decreased from 22.8% in 2017 to 21.3% in 2018 as a result of the performance of 2017 Consumer Loans in our dealer loan portfolio, which has materially exceeded our initial estimates, and a change in the mix of Consumer Loan assignments.

The spread on purchased loans decreased from 21.4% in 2017 to 19.1% in 2018 primarily as a result of the performance of 2017 Consumer Loans in our purchased loan portfolio, which has materially exceeded our initial estimates.


4

 

Consumer Loan Volume

The following table summarizes changes in Consumer Loan assignment volume in each of the last five quarters as compared to the same period in the previous year:
 
 
Year over Year Percent Change
Three Months Ended
 
Unit Volume
 
Dollar Volume (1)
March 31, 2017
 
-6.6
 %
 
6.4
 %
June 30, 2017
 
1.0
 %
 
7.1
 %
September 30, 2017
 
-4.7
 %
 
-0.5
 %
December 31, 2017
 
10.8
 %
 
26.2
 %
March 31, 2018
 
18.5
 %
 
32.9
 %

(1)  
Represents advances paid to dealers on Consumer Loans assigned under our portfolio program and one-time payments made to dealers to purchase Consumer Loans assigned under our purchase program.  Payments of dealer holdback and accelerated dealer holdback are not included.
 
Consumer Loan assignment volumes depend on a number of factors including (1) the overall demand for our financing programs, (2) the amount of capital available to fund new loans, and (3) our assessment of the volume that our infrastructure can support.  Our pricing strategy is intended to maximize the amount of economic profit we generate, within the confines of capital and infrastructure constraints.
 
Unit and dollar volumes grew 18.5% and 32.9%, respectively, during the first quarter of 2018 as the number of active dealers grew 11.6% while average volume per active dealer grew 5.8%. Dollar volume grew faster than unit volume during the first quarter of 2018 due to an increase in the average advance paid per unit. This increase was the result of an increase in the average size of the Consumer Loans assigned primarily due to increases in the average initial loan term and average vehicle selling price and an increase in purchased loans as a percentage of total unit volume. Unit volume for the one month ended April 30, 2018 grew 25.3% as compared to the same period in 2017.
 
The following table summarizes the changes in Consumer Loan unit volume and active dealers:
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
Consumer Loan unit volume
112,345

 
94,809

 
18.5
%
Active dealers (1)
8,762

 
7,851

 
11.6
%
Average volume per active dealer
12.8

 
12.1

 
5.8
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consumer Loan unit volume from dealers active both periods
83,494

 
78,295

 
6.6
%
Dealers active both periods
5,173

 
5,173

 

Average volume per dealer active both periods
16.1

 
15.1

 
6.6
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Consumer loan unit volume from dealers not active both periods
28,851

 
16,514

 
74.7
%
Dealers not active both periods
3,589

 
2,678

 
34.0
%
Average volume per dealer not active both periods
8.0

 
6.2

 
29.0
%
 
(1)
Active dealers are dealers who have received funding for at least one Consumer Loan during the period.

The following table provides additional information on the changes in Consumer Loan unit volume and active dealers: 
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
Consumer Loan unit volume from new dealers
6,111

 
4,949

 
23.5
%
New active dealers (1)
1,158

 
965

 
20.0
%
Average volume per new active dealer
5.3

 
5.1

 
3.9
%
 
 
 
 
 
 
Attrition (2)
-17.4
 %
 
-18.5
 %
 
 

(1)  
New active dealers are dealers who enrolled in our program and have received funding for their first dealer loan or purchased loan from us during the period.

(2)  
Attrition is measured according to the following formula:  decrease in Consumer Loan unit volume from dealers who have received funding for at least one dealer loan or purchased loan during the comparable period of the prior year but did not receive funding for any dealer loans or purchased loans during the current period divided by prior year comparable period Consumer Loan unit volume.


5

 

The following table shows the percentage of Consumer Loans assigned to us as dealer loans and purchased loans for each of the last five quarters:
 
 
Unit Volume
 
Dollar Volume (1)
Three Months Ended
 
Dealer Loans
 
Purchased Loans
 
Dealer Loans
 
Purchased Loans
March 31, 2017
 
73.3
%
 
26.7
%
 
67.8
%
 
32.2
%
June 30, 2017
 
72.3
%
 
27.7
%
 
67.9
%
 
32.1
%
September 30, 2017
 
71.9
%
 
28.1
%
 
68.6
%
 
31.4
%
December 31, 2017
 
72.5
%
 
27.5
%
 
69.7
%
 
30.3
%
March 31, 2018
 
70.1
%
 
29.9
%
 
67.4
%
 
32.6
%

(1)
Represents advances paid to dealers on Consumer Loans assigned under our portfolio program and one-time payments made to dealers to purchase Consumer Loans assigned under our purchase program.  Payments of dealer holdback and accelerated dealer holdback are not included.

As of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, the net dealer loans receivable balance was 67.2% and 68.2%, respectively, of the total net loans receivable balance.

Financial Results

 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
GAAP average debt
$
3,281.4

 
$
2,732.8

 
20.1
 %
GAAP average shareholders' equity
1,591.7

 
1,169.5

 
36.1
 %
Average capital
$
4,873.1

 
$
3,902.3

 
24.9
 %
GAAP net income
$
120.1

 
$
93.3

 
28.7
 %
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
19,473,563

 
19,772,658

 
-1.5
 %
GAAP net income per diluted share
$
6.17

 
$
4.72

 
30.7
 %

The increase in GAAP net income for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, was primarily the result of the following:
An increase in finance charges of 13.6% ($32.3 million) primarily due to growth in our loan portfolio.
A decrease in provision for income taxes of 26.1% ($13.3 million) primarily due to the enactment of the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act ("2017 Tax Act") in December 2017, which lowered our federal statutory income tax rate to from 35% to 21%, partially offset by an increase in pre-tax income.
An increase in operating expenses of 16.0% ($10.3 million) primarily due to:
An increase in salaries and wages expense of 19.7% ($7.0 million) comprised of the following:
An increase of $3.9 million, excluding the change in cash-based incentive compensation expense, primarily related to increases of $2.7 million for our support function and $1.0 million for our servicing function primarily as a result of an increase in the number of team members.
An increase of $3.1 million in cash-based incentive compensation expense primarily due to an improvement in Company performance measures.
An increase in sales and marketing expense of 17.9% ($2.7 million) primarily due to an increase in sales commissions related to growth in Consumer Loan assignment volume and an increase in the size of our sales force.
An increase in interest expense of 25.0% ($6.9 million) primarily due to an increase in the average outstanding debt principal balance due to debt proceeds used to fund the growth in our loan portfolio and stock repurchases.


6

 

Adjusted financial results are provided to help shareholders understand our financial performance.  The financial data below is non-GAAP, unless labeled otherwise.  We use adjusted financial information internally to measure financial performance and to determine incentive compensation.  The table below shows our results following adjustments to reflect non-GAAP accounting methods.  Material adjustments are explained in the table footnotes and the subsequent “Floating Yield Adjustment” and “Senior Notes Adjustment” sections.  Measures such as adjusted average capital, adjusted net income, adjusted net income per diluted share, adjusted net income plus interest expense after-tax, adjusted return on capital, adjusted revenue, operating expenses, and economic profit are all non-GAAP financial measures.  These non-GAAP financial measures should be viewed in addition to, and not as an alternative for, our reported results prepared in accordance with GAAP.

Adjusted financial results for the three months ended March 31, 2018, compared to the same period in 2017, include the following:
 
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
2018
 
2017
 
% Change
Adjusted average capital
$
4,886.2

 
$
3,979.3

 
22.8
 %
Adjusted net income
$
118.9

 
$
92.3

 
28.8
 %
Adjusted interest expense (after-tax)
$
27.2

 
$
17.9

 
52.0
 %
Adjusted net income plus interest expense (after-tax)
$
146.1

 
$
110.2

 
32.6
 %
Adjusted return on capital
12.0
%
 
11.1
%
 
8.1
 %
Cost of capital
6.1
%
 
5.2
%
 
17.3
 %
Economic profit
$
71.5

 
$
58.5

 
22.2
 %
Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
19,473,563

 
19,772,658

 
-1.5
 %
Adjusted net income per diluted share
$
6.11

 
$
4.67

 
30.8
 %

Economic profit increased 22.2% for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017.  Economic profit is a function of the return on capital in excess of the cost of capital and the amount of capital invested in the business.  The following table summarizes the impact each of these components had on the change in economic profit for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017:

 
Year over Year Change in Economic Profit
For the Three Months Ended March 31, 2018
(In millions)
As Reported
 
Impact of
2017 Tax Act
 
Excluding Impact of 2017 Tax Act
Increase in adjusted average capital
$
13.3

 
$

 
$
13.3

Increase (decrease) in adjusted return on capital
10.8

 
26.5

 
(15.7
)
Increase in cost of capital
(11.1
)
 
(10.0
)
 
(1.1
)
Increase (decrease) in economic profit
$
13.0

 
$
16.5

 
$
(3.5
)

The increase in economic profit for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the same period in 2017, was primarily the result of the following:
A decrease in our estimated long-term effective income tax rate from 37% to 23% due to the enactment of the 2017 Tax Act in December 2017, which increased our adjusted return on capital by 220 basis points and increased our cost of capital by 80 basis points.
An increase in our adjusted average capital of 22.8% due to growth in our loan portfolio.
A decrease in our adjusted return on capital of 130 basis points (excluding the impact of the 2017 Tax Act) primarily as a result of a decline in the yield on our loan portfolio primarily due to the revision of our net cash flow timing forecast during the fourth quarter of 2017 and a decline in Consumer Loan performance during the first quarter of 2018.


7

 

The following table shows adjusted revenue and operating expenses as a percentage of adjusted average capital, the adjusted return on capital, and the percentage change in adjusted average capital for each of the last eight quarters, compared to the same period in the prior year:

 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
Mar. 31, 2018
 
Dec. 31, 2017
 
Sept. 30, 2017
 
Jun. 30, 2017
 
Mar. 31, 2017
 
Dec. 31, 2016
 
Sept. 30, 2016
 
Jun. 30, 2016
 
Adjusted revenue as a percentage of adjusted average capital (1)
 
21.7
%
 
22.6
%
 
23.9
%
 
24.2
%
 
24.1
%
 
24.4
%
 
24.8
%
 
25.0
%
 
Operating expenses as a percentage of adjusted average capital (1)
 
6.1
%
 
5.8
%
 
5.7
%
 
5.8
%
 
6.5
%
 
5.7
%
 
6.0
%
 
6.2
%
 
Adjusted return on capital (1)
 
12.0
%
 
10.6
%
 
11.5
%
 
11.5
%
 
11.1
%
 
11.7
%
 
11.8
%
 
11.9
%
 
Percentage change in adjusted average capital compared to the same period in the prior year
 
22.8
%
 
18.0
%
 
18.5
%
 
18.5
%
 
24.5
%
 
28.2
%
 
26.1
%
 
27.1
%
 

(1)  
Annualized.

The decrease in adjusted revenue as a percentage of adjusted average capital of 90 basis points for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the three months ended December 31, 2017, was the result of a decline in the yield on our loan portfolio primarily due to the revision of our net cash flow timing forecast during the fourth quarter of 2017 and a decline in Consumer Loan performance during the first quarter of 2018.

The increase in adjusted return on capital of 140 basis points for the three months ended March 31, 2018, as compared to the three months ended December 31, 2017, was primarily the result of:
A decrease in our estimated long-term effective income tax rate from 37% to 23%, which increased the adjusted return on capital by 220 basis points, due to the enactment of the 2017 Tax Act in December 2017.
A decline in adjusted revenue as a percentage of adjusted average capital, which decreased the adjusted return on capital by 60 basis points (excluding the impact of the 2017 Tax Act).

8

 

The following tables provide a reconciliation of non-GAAP measures to GAAP measures.  Certain amounts do not recalculate due to rounding.
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
 
Mar. 31, 2018
 
Dec. 31, 2017
 
Sept. 30, 2017
 
Jun. 30, 2017
 
Mar. 31, 2017
 
Dec. 31, 2016
 
Sept. 30, 2016
 
Jun. 30, 2016
Adjusted net income
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP net income
 
$
120.1

 
$
177.1

 
$
100.7

 
$
99.1

 
$
93.3

 
$
87.6

 
$
85.9

 
$
84.9

Floating yield adjustment (after-tax)
 
(19.9
)
 
(14.7
)
 
(11.2
)
 
(10.5
)
 
(11.0
)
 
(9.1
)
 
(7.5
)
 
(6.6
)
GAAP provision for credit losses (after-tax)
 
18.0

 
38.6

 
16.3

 
13.6

 
13.0

 
17.3

 
14.3

 
11.4

Senior notes adjustment (after-tax)
 
(0.6
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.6
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.6
)
 
(0.5
)
 
(0.5
)
Income tax adjustment (1)
 
1.3

 
(100.0
)
 
0.2

 
(0.1
)
 
(2.5
)
 
1.5

 
0.2

 
0.0

Adjusted net income
 
$
118.9

 
$
100.5

 
$
105.4

 
$
101.6

 
$
92.3

 
$
96.7

 
$
92.4

 
$
89.2

 
 
 
 


 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted net income per diluted share (2)
 
$
6.11

 
$
5.16

 
$
5.43

 
$
5.22

 
$
4.67

 
$
4.79

 
$
4.53

 
$
4.38

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
 
19,473,563

 
19,471,638

 
19,415,545

 
19,463,521

 
19,772,658

 
20,208,838

 
20,384,624

 
20,382,804

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted revenue
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP total revenue
 
$
295.6

 
$
287.3

 
$
283.9

 
$
276.0

 
$
262.8

 
$
256.2

 
$
246.6

 
$
238.5

Floating yield adjustment
 
(25.9
)
 
(23.4
)
 
(17.7
)
 
(16.7
)
 
(17.4
)
 
(14.4
)
 
(11.9
)
 
(10.4
)
GAAP provision for claims
 
(5.2
)
 
(5.1
)
 
(5.5
)
 
(6.1
)
 
(6.0
)
 
(5.6
)
 
(6.6
)
 
(7.0
)
Adjusted revenue
 
$
264.5

 
$
258.8

 
$
260.7

 
$
253.2

 
$
239.4

 
$
236.2

 
$
228.1

 
$
221.1

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted average capital
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP average debt
 
$
3,281.4

 
$
3,087.6

 
$
2,979.1

 
$
2,907.4

 
$
2,732.8

 
$
2,635.4

 
$
2,496.2

 
$
2,445.4

GAAP average shareholders' equity
 
1,591.7

 
1,418.6

 
1,299.2

 
1,206.6

 
1,169.5

 
1,172.2

 
1,121.6

 
1,036.1

Deferred debt issuance adjustment
 
21.7

 
19.3

 
18.7

 
17.4

 
17.1

 
17.4

 
16.8

 
16.2

Senior notes adjustment
 
10.5

 
9.8

 
10.4

 
10.9

 
11.4

 
11.9

 
12.4

 
12.9

Income tax adjustment (3)
 
(115.4
)
 
(16.5
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

Floating yield adjustment
 
96.3

 
57.0

 
52.3

 
48.6

 
48.5

 
40.5

 
32.6

 
25.1

Adjusted average capital
 
$
4,886.2

 
$
4,575.8

 
$
4,359.7

 
$
4,190.9

 
$
3,979.3

 
$
3,877.4

 
$
3,679.6

 
$
3,535.7

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted revenue as a percentage of adjusted average capital (4)
 
21.7
%
 
22.6
%
 
23.9
%
 
24.2
%
 
24.1
%
 
24.4
%
 
24.8
%
 
25.0
%
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted interest expense (after-tax)
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP interest expense
 
$
34.5

 
$
32.2

 
$
30.5

 
$
29.9

 
$
27.6

 
$
26.2

 
$
25.1

 
$
24.3

Senior notes adjustment
 
0.8

 
0.9

 
0.8

 
0.8

 
0.8

 
0.9

 
0.8

 
0.8

Adjusted interest expense (pre-tax)
 
35.3

 
33.1

 
31.3

 
30.7

 
28.4

 
27.1

 
25.9

 
25.1

Adjustment to record tax effect (1)
 
(8.1
)
 
(12.3
)
 
(11.5
)
 
(11.4
)
 
(10.5
)
 
(10.1
)
 
(9.5
)
 
(9.4
)
Adjusted interest expense (after-tax)
 
$
27.2

 
$
20.8

 
$
19.8

 
$
19.3

 
$
17.9

 
$
17.0

 
$
16.4

 
$
15.7


(1)
Adjustment to record taxes at our estimated long-term effective income tax rate. The adjustment for the three months ended March 31, 2018 is calculated using a 23% income tax rate, which represents our estimated long-term effective income tax rate for 2018 and future years. Prior to the enactment of the 2017 Tax Act in December 2017, we used 37% to calculate after-tax adjustments, which was our long-term effective income tax rate for 2017 and prior years. 

(2)
Net income per share is computed independently for each of the quarters presented. Therefore, the sum of quarterly net income per share information may not equal year-to-date net income per share.

(3)
The enactment of the 2017 Tax Act in December 2017 resulted in the reversal of provision for income taxes to reflect the new federal statutory income tax rate. This adjustment removes the impact of this reversal from GAAP average shareholders’ equity. We believe the income tax adjustment provides a more accurate reflection of the performance of our business as we are recognizing provision for income taxes at the applicable long-term effective tax rate for the period.

(4)
Annualized.

9

 

 
 
For the Three Months Ended
(Dollars in millions)
 
Mar. 31, 2018
 
Dec. 31, 2017

Sept. 30, 2017

Jun. 30, 2017

Mar. 31, 2017

Dec. 31, 2016

Sept. 30, 2016

Jun. 30, 2016
Adjusted return on capital
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted net income
 
$
118.9

 
$
100.5

 
$
105.4

 
$
101.6

 
$
92.3

 
$
96.7

 
$
92.4

 
$
89.2

Adjusted interest expense (after-tax)
 
27.2

 
20.8

 
19.8

 
19.3

 
17.9

 
17.0

 
16.4

 
15.7

Adjusted net income plus interest expense (after-tax)
 
$
146.1

 
$
121.3

 
$
125.2

 
$
120.9

 
$
110.2

 
$
113.7

 
$
108.8

 
$
104.9

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reconciliation of GAAP return on equity to adjusted return on capital (4)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP return on equity (1)
 
30.2
 %
 
49.9
 %
 
31.0
 %
 
32.9
 %
 
31.9
 %
 
29.9
 %
 
30.6
 %
 
32.8
 %
Non-GAAP adjustments
 
-18.2
 %
 
-39.3
 %
 
-19.5
 %
 
-21.4
 %
 
-20.8
 %
 
-18.2
 %
 
-18.8
 %
 
-20.9
 %
Adjusted return on capital (2)
 
12.0
 %
 
10.6
 %
 
11.5
 %
 
11.5
 %
 
11.1
 %
 
11.7
 %
 
11.8
 %
 
11.9
 %
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Economic profit
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted return on capital
 
12.0
 %
 
10.6
 %
 
11.5
 %
 
11.5
 %
 
11.1
 %
 
11.7
 %
 
11.8
 %
 
11.9
 %
Cost of capital (3) (4)
 
6.1
 %
 
5.2
 %
 
5.1
 %
 
5.1
 %
 
5.2
 %
 
5.1
 %
 
4.8
 %
 
4.9
 %
Adjusted return on capital in excess of cost of capital
 
5.9
 %
 
5.4
 %
 
6.4
 %
 
6.4
 %
 
5.9
 %
 
6.6
 %
 
7.0
 %
 
7.0
 %
Adjusted average capital
 
$
4,886.2

 
$
4,575.8

 
$
4,359.7

 
$
4,190.9

 
$
3,979.3

 
$
3,877.4

 
$
3,679.6

 
$
3,535.7

    Economic profit
 
$
71.5

 
$
61.8

 
$
69.4

 
$
67.3

 
$
58.5

 
$
64.3

 
$
64.5

 
$
61.4

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Reconciliation of GAAP net income
to economic profit
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP net income
 
$
120.1

 
$
177.1

 
$
100.7

 
$
99.1

 
$
93.3

 
$
87.6

 
$
85.9

 
$
84.9

Non-GAAP adjustments
 
(1.2
)
 
(76.6
)
 
4.7

 
2.5

 
(1.0
)
 
9.1

 
6.5

 
4.3

Adjusted net income
 
118.9

 
100.5

 
105.4

 
101.6

 
92.3

 
96.7

 
92.4

 
89.2

Adjusted interest expense (after-tax)
 
27.2

 
20.8

 
19.8

 
19.3

 
17.9

 
17.0

 
16.4

 
15.7

Adjusted net income plus interest expense (after-tax)
 
146.1

 
121.3

 
125.2

 
120.9

 
110.2

 
113.7

 
108.8

 
104.9

Less: cost of capital
 
74.6

 
59.5

 
55.8

 
53.6

 
51.7

 
49.4

 
44.3

 
43.5

Economic profit
 
$
71.5

 
$
61.8

 
$
69.4

 
$
67.3

 
$
58.5

 
$
64.3

 
$
64.5

 
$
61.4

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
GAAP salaries and wages
 
$
42.5

 
$
38.2

 
$
33.7

 
$
32.7

 
$
35.5

 
$
31.3

 
$
32.4

 
$
30.1

GAAP general and administrative
 
14.5

 
13.4

 
14.2

 
14.0

 
13.9

 
12.5

 
11.0

 
12.6

GAAP sales and marketing
 
17.8

 
14.7

 
14.2

 
14.4

 
15.1

 
11.6

 
12.2

 
11.9

Operating expenses
 
$
74.8

 
$
66.3

 
$
62.1

 
$
61.1

 
$
64.5

 
$
55.4

 
$
55.6

 
$
54.6

 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Operating expenses as a percentage of adjusted average capital (4)
 
6.1
 %
 
5.8
 %
 
5.7
 %
 
5.8
 %
 
6.5
 %
 
5.7
 %
 
6.0
 %
 
6.2
 %
 
 
 
 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Percentage change in adjusted average capital compared to the same period in the prior year
 
22.8
 %
 
18.0
 %
 
18.5
 %
 
18.5
 %
 
24.5
 %
 
28.2
 %
 
26.1
 %
 
27.1
 %

(1)  
Calculated by dividing GAAP net income by GAAP average shareholders' equity.

(2)  
Adjusted return on capital is defined as adjusted net income plus adjusted interest expense (after-tax) divided by adjusted average capital.

(3)  
The cost of capital includes both a cost of equity and a cost of debt.  The cost of equity capital is determined based on a formula that considers the risk of the business and the risk associated with our use of debt.  The formula utilized for determining the cost of equity capital is as follows: (the average 30-year Treasury rate + 5%) + [(1 – tax rate) x (the average 30-year Treasury rate + 5% – pre-tax average cost of debt rate) x average debt/(average equity + average debt x tax rate)].  For the periods presented, the average 30-year Treasury rate and the adjusted pre-tax average cost of debt were as follows:
 
 
For the Three Months Ended
 
 
Mar. 31, 2018
 
Dec. 31, 2017
 
Sept. 30, 2017
 
Jun. 30, 2017
 
Mar. 31, 2017
 
Dec. 31, 2016
 
Sept. 30, 2016
 
Jun. 30, 2016
Average 30-year Treasury rate
 
3.0
%
 
2.8
%
 
2.8
%
 
2.9
%
 
3.0
%
 
2.8
%
 
2.2
%
 
2.6
%
Adjusted pre-tax average cost of debt (4)
 
4.3
%
 
4.3
%
 
4.2
%
 
4.2
%
 
4.1
%
 
4.1
%
 
4.1
%
 
4.1
%

(4)  
Annualized.


10

 

Floating Yield Adjustment

The purpose of this non-GAAP adjustment is to modify the calculation of our GAAP-based finance charge revenue so that favorable and unfavorable changes in expected cash flows from loans receivable are treated consistently.  To make the adjustment understandable, we must first explain how GAAP requires us to account for finance charge revenue, our primary revenue source.

The finance charge revenue we will recognize over the life of the loan equals the cash inflows from our loan portfolio less cash outflows to acquire the loans.  Our GAAP finance charge revenue is based on estimates of future cash flows and is recognized on a level-yield basis over the estimated life of the loan.  With the level-yield approach, the amount of finance charge revenue recognized from a loan in a given period, divided by the loan asset, is a constant percentage.  Under GAAP, favorable changes in expected cash flows are treated as increases to the yield and are recognized over time, while unfavorable changes are recorded as a current period expense.  The non-GAAP methodology that we use (the “floating yield” method) is identical to the GAAP approach except that, under the “floating yield” method, all changes in expected cash flows (both positive and negative) are treated as yield adjustments and therefore impact earnings over time.  The GAAP treatment results in a lower carrying value of the loan receivable asset, but may result in either higher or lower earnings for any given period depending on the timing and amount of expected cash flow changes.

We believe the floating yield adjustment provides a more accurate reflection of the performance of our business, since both favorable and unfavorable changes in estimated cash flows are treated consistently.

Senior Notes Adjustment

On January 22, 2014, we issued $300.0 million of 6.125% senior notes due 2021 (the “2021 notes”) in a private offering exempt from registration under the Securities Act of 1933. On February 21, 2014, we used the net proceeds from the 2021 notes, together with borrowings under our revolving credit facilities, to redeem in full the $350.0 million outstanding principal amount of our 9.125% senior notes due 2017 (the “2017 notes”). The purpose of this non-GAAP adjustment is to modify our GAAP financial results to treat the issuance of the 2021 notes as a refinancing of the 2017 notes.

Under GAAP, the redemption of the 2017 notes in the first quarter of 2014 required us to recognize a pre-tax loss on extinguishment of debt of $21.8 million. Under our non-GAAP approach, the loss on extinguishment of debt and additional interest expense that was recognized for GAAP purposes for the quarter ended March 31, 2014 was deferred as a debt issuance cost and is being recognized ratably as interest expense over the term of the 2021 notes. In addition, for adjusted average capital purposes, the impact of additional outstanding debt related to the one month lag from the issuance of the 2021 notes to the redemption of the 2017 notes was deferred and is being recognized ratably over the term of the 2021 notes.

We believe the senior notes adjustment provides a more accurate reflection of the performance of our business, since we are recognizing the costs incurred with this transaction in a manner consistent with how we recognize the costs incurred when we periodically refinance our other debt facilities.


11

 

Cautionary Statement Regarding Forward-Looking Information

We claim the protection of the safe harbor for forward-looking statements contained in the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 for all of our forward-looking statements.  Statements in this release that are not historical facts, such as those using terms like “may,” “will,” “should,” “believe,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “assume,” “forecast,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “target” and those regarding our future results, plans and objectives, are “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws.  These forward-looking statements represent our outlook only as of the date of this release.  Actual results could differ materially from these forward-looking statements since the statements are based on our current expectations, which are subject to risks and uncertainties.  Factors that might cause such a difference include, but are not limited to, the factors set forth in Item 1A of our Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2017, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 9, 2018, other risk factors discussed herein or listed from time to time in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission and the following:
 
Our inability to accurately forecast and estimate the amount and timing of future collections could have a material adverse effect on results of operations.
We may be unable to execute our business strategy due to current economic conditions.
We may be unable to continue to access or renew funding sources and obtain capital needed to maintain and grow our business.
The terms of our debt limit how we conduct our business.
A violation of the terms of our asset-backed secured financing facilities or revolving secured warehouse facilities could have a material adverse impact on our operations.
The conditions of the U.S. and international capital markets may adversely affect lenders with which we have relationships, causing us to incur additional costs and reducing our sources of liquidity, which may adversely affect our financial position, liquidity and results of operations.
Our substantial debt could negatively impact our business, prevent us from satisfying our debt obligations and adversely affect our financial condition.
Due to competition from traditional financing sources and non-traditional lenders, we may not be able to compete successfully.
We may not be able to generate sufficient cash flows to service our outstanding debt and fund operations and may be forced to take other actions to satisfy our obligations under such debt.
Interest rate fluctuations may adversely affect our borrowing costs, profitability and liquidity.
Reduction in our credit rating could increase the cost of our funding from, and restrict our access to, the capital markets and adversely affect our liquidity, financial condition and results of operations.
We may incur substantially more debt and other liabilities.  This could exacerbate further the risks associated with our current debt levels.
The regulation to which we are or may become subject could result in a material adverse effect on our business.
Adverse changes in economic conditions, the automobile or finance industries, or the non-prime consumer market could adversely affect our financial position, liquidity and results of operations, the ability of key vendors that we depend on to supply us with services, and our ability to enter into future financing transactions.
Litigation we are involved in from time to time may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.
Changes in tax laws and the resolution of uncertain income tax matters could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and cash flows from operations.
Our dependence on technology could have a material adverse effect on our business.
Our use of electronic contracts could impact our ability to perfect our ownership or security interest in Consumer Loans.
Reliance on third parties to administer our ancillary product offerings could adversely affect our business and financial results.
We are dependent on our senior management and the loss of any of these individuals or an inability to hire additional team members could adversely affect our ability to operate profitably.
Our reputation is a key asset to our business, and our business may be affected by how we are perceived in the marketplace.
The concentration of our dealers in several states could adversely affect us.
Failure to properly safeguard confidential consumer and team member information could subject us to liability, decrease our profitability and damage our reputation.
A small number of our shareholders have the ability to significantly influence matters requiring shareholder approval and such shareholders have interests which may conflict with the interests of our other security holders.
Reliance on our outsourced business functions could adversely affect our business.
Our ability to hire and retain foreign information technology personnel could be hindered by immigration restrictions.
Natural disasters, acts of war, terrorist attacks and threats or the escalation of military activity in response to these attacks or otherwise may negatively affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
 
Other factors not currently anticipated by management may also materially and adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.  We do not undertake, and expressly disclaim any obligation, to update or alter our statements whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by applicable law.


12

 

Description of Credit Acceptance Corporation

Since 1972, Credit Acceptance has offered financing programs that enable automobile dealers to sell vehicles to consumers, regardless of their credit history.  Our financing programs are offered through a nationwide network of automobile dealers who benefit from sales of vehicles to consumers who otherwise could not obtain financing; from repeat and referral sales generated by these same customers; and from sales to customers responding to advertisements for our financing programs, but who actually end up qualifying for traditional financing.

Without our financing programs, consumers are often unable to purchase vehicles or they purchase unreliable ones.  Further, as we report to the three national credit reporting agencies, an important ancillary benefit of our programs is that we provide consumers with an opportunity to improve their lives by improving their credit score and move on to more traditional sources of financing. Credit Acceptance is publicly traded on the Nasdaq Stock Market under the symbol CACC.  For more information, visit creditacceptance.com.

13

 


CREDIT ACCEPTANCE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF INCOME
(UNAUDITED)
    
(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
For the Three Months Ended March 31,
 
2018
 
2017
Revenue:
 
 
 
Finance charges
$
270.3

 
$
238.0

Premiums earned
10.3

 
10.1

Other income
15.0

 
14.7

Total revenue
295.6

 
262.8

Costs and expenses:
 
 
 
Salaries and wages
42.5

 
35.5

General and administrative
14.5

 
13.9

Sales and marketing
17.8

 
15.1

Provision for credit losses
23.4

 
20.5

Interest
34.5

 
27.6

Provision for claims
5.2

 
6.0

Total costs and expenses
137.9

 
118.6

Income before provision for income taxes
157.7

 
144.2

Provision for income taxes
37.6

 
50.9

Net income
$
120.1

 
$
93.3

 
 
 
 
Net income per share:
 
 
 
Basic
$
6.18

 
$
4.73

Diluted
$
6.17

 
$
4.72

 
 
 
 
Weighted average shares outstanding:
 
 
 
Basic
19,437,735

 
19,722,491

Diluted
19,473,563

 
19,772,658




14

 


CREDIT ACCEPTANCE CORPORATION
CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(UNAUDITED)

(Dollars in millions, except per share data)
As of
 
March 31, 2018
 
December 31, 2017
ASSETS:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
11.5

 
$
8.2

Restricted cash and cash equivalents
368.5

 
255.6

Restricted securities available for sale
51.3

 
46.1

 
 
 
 
Loans receivable
5,498.1

 
5,049.0

Allowance for credit losses
(448.4
)
 
(429.4
)
Loans receivable, net
5,049.7

 
4,619.6

 
 
 
 
Property and equipment, net
20.4

 
20.5

Income taxes receivable
2.5

 
2.2

Other assets
30.1

 
33.4

Total Assets
$
5,534.0

 
$
4,985.6

 
 
 
 
LIABILITIES AND SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY:
 
 
 
Liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable and accrued liabilities
$
168.9

 
$
151.7

Revolving secured line of credit
23.0

 
13.9

Secured financing
2,880.2

 
2,514.1

Senior notes
543.2

 
542.8

Deferred income taxes, net
206.4

 
187.4

Income taxes payable
55.6

 
39.9

Total Liabilities
3,877.3

 
3,449.8

 
 
 
 
Shareholders' Equity:
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.01 par value, 1,000,000 shares authorized, none issued

 

Common stock, $0.01 par value, 80,000,000 shares authorized, 19,309,937 and 19,310,049 shares issued and outstanding as of March 31, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively
0.2

 
0.2

Paid-in capital
147.7

 
145.5

Retained earnings
1,509.3

 
1,390.3

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(0.5
)
 
(0.2
)
Total Shareholders' Equity
1,656.7

 
1,535.8

Total Liabilities and Shareholders' Equity
$
5,534.0

 
$
4,985.6





15

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