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Blue Bird Corp (BLBD) SEC Filing 10-Q Quarterly report for the period ending Saturday, July 4, 2020

Blue Bird Corp

CIK: 1589526 Ticker: BLBD
capturea18.jpg

BLUE BIRD FISCAL 2020 THIRD
QUARTER RESULTS SIGNIFICANTLY IMPACTED
BY COVID-19; FOCUSED ON MARGIN GROWTH

Net Sales of $189.2M, down 39% from prior year
Bus average selling price up 9%
GAAP net income of $1.3M, down $13.3M
GAAP Diluted EPS of 5 cents, down 50 cents
Adjusted EBITDA of $12.5M, down $16.6M


Macon, GA, August 12, 2020 – Blue Bird Corporation (“Blue Bird”) (Nasdaq: BLBD), the leading independent designer and manufacturer of school buses, announced today its fiscal 2020 third quarter results. GAAP net income for the third quarter was $1.3 million, down $13.3 million from the third quarter of FY2019. Adjusted EBITDA for the quarter was $12.5 million, a decrease of $16.6 million from prior year. Diluted EPS and Adjusted Diluted EPS were down 50 cents and 53 cents, respectively, from prior year.
    
Highlights
(in millions except Unit Sales and EPS data)
Three Months Ended July 4, 2020
 
B/(W) 
 2019
 
Nine Months Ended July 4, 2020
 
B/(W) 
 2019
Unit Sales
1,948

 
(1,472
)
 
6,002

 
(1,289
)
GAAP Measures:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue
$
189.2

 
$
(119.6
)
 
$
597.8

 
$
(77.5
)
Net Income
$
1.3

 
$
(13.3
)
 
$
0.2

 
$
(12.5
)
Diluted Loss per Share
$
0.05

 
$
(0.50
)
 
$
0.01

 
$
(0.46
)
Non-GAAP Measures1:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Adjusted EBITDA
$
12.5

 
$
(16.6
)
 
$
32.8

 
$
(15.7
)
Adjusted Net Income
$
4.4

 
$
(14.0
)
 
$
8.9

 
$
(14.6
)
Adjusted Diluted Earnings per Share
$
0.16

 
$
(0.53
)
 
$
0.33

 
$
(0.54
)
1 Reconciliation to relevant GAAP metrics shown below

“The third quarter was a challenge as operations were significantly impacted by COVID-19" said Phil Horlock, President and Chief Executive Officer of Blue Bird Corporation. “School shutdowns and shelter-in-place mandates delayed orders through the third quarter and continued supplier disruptions impacted our efficiencies throughout the quarter, We have seen significant stabilization in our supply base since then, although orders have continued to be slow as schools deliberate online versus in-classroom teaching this Fall.

"While working through these challenges, however, I am very pleased with our progress in improving the underlying business structure that is key to achieving our EBITDA margin target of at least 10% in the near-term. We successfully moved to a single shift production schedule late in the quarter, which will drive efficiency and quality improvement. Average selling price per bus increased by more than $7,000, or 9%, over last year's third quarter. The increase was due to a combination of pricing and a richer mix of higher-priced vehicles, including electric-powered buses. I am particularly pleased with our alternative-fuel results, which represents a 48% mix of our year-to-date sales and backlog, and we are the market share leader in propane, gasoline and electric-powered buses, based on fiscal year vehicle registrations through June. Our overall alternative-fuel market share is very strong at 64%. We also continued to make great progress in

1

The following information was filed by Blue Bird Corp (BLBD) on Wednesday, August 12, 2020 as an 8K 2.02 statement, which is an earnings press release pertaining to results of operations and financial condition. It may be helpful to assess the quality of management by comparing the information in the press release to the information in the accompanying 10-Q Quarterly Report statement of earnings and operation as management may choose to highlight particular information in the press release.
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington D.C. 20549

FORM 10-Q

QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the quarterly period ended July 4, 2020

OR
 TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

For the transition period from ................................ to ...............................................

Commission File Number 001-36267

BLUE BIRD CORPORATION
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)


Delaware                                 46-3891989
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)                (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)

        
3920 Arkwright Road, 2nd Floor, Macon, Georgia 31210
(Address of principal executive offices)
(Zip Code)

(478) 822-2801
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)

Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each class
 
Trading Symbol(s)
 
Name of each exchange on which registered
Common stock, $0.0001 par value
 
BLBD
 
NASDAQ Global Market

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.
Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).
Yes No
    

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer 
 
 
Accelerated Filer
 
Non-accelerated filer 
 
 
Smaller reporting company
 
 
 
 
 
Emerging growth company
 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
    
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes No

At August 7, 2020, 27,048,404 shares of the registrant’s common stock, $0.0001 par value, were outstanding.



BLUE BIRD CORPORATION
FORM 10-Q

TABLE OF CONTENTS









PART I – FINANCIAL INFORMATION

Item 1. Financial Statements (Unaudited).

BLUE BIRD CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED BALANCE SHEETS
(Unaudited)
(in thousands of dollars, except for share data)
July 4, 2020
 
September 28, 2019
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
12,538

 
$
70,959

Accounts receivable, net
13,694

 
10,537

Inventories
155,717

 
78,830

Other current assets
9,459

 
11,765

Total current assets
$
191,408

 
$
172,091

Property, plant and equipment, net
104,667

 
100,058

Goodwill
18,825

 
18,825

Intangible assets, net
52,404

 
54,720

Equity investment in affiliate
11,946

 
11,106

Deferred tax assets
3,882

 
3,600

Finance lease right-of-use assets
5,790

 
4,638

Other assets
1,133

 
375

Total assets
$
390,055

 
$
365,413

Liabilities and Stockholders' Deficit
 
 
 
Current liabilities
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
95,538

 
$
102,266

Warranty
8,123

 
9,161

Accrued expenses
15,638

 
28,697

Deferred warranty income
8,448

 
8,632

Finance lease obligations
1,032

 
716

Other current liabilities
13,425

 
10,310

Current portion of long-term debt
9,900

 
9,900

Total current liabilities
$
152,104

 
$
169,682

Long-term liabilities
 
 
 
Revolving credit facility
$
45,000

 
$

Long-term debt
166,467

 
173,226

Warranty
12,705

 
13,182

Deferred warranty income
13,597

 
15,413

Deferred tax liabilities
792

 
168

Finance lease obligations
4,870

 
3,921

Other liabilities
13,251

 
12,108

Pension
43,197

 
45,524

Total long-term liabilities
$
299,879

 
$
263,542

Guarantees, commitments and contingencies (Note 6)

 

Stockholders' deficit
 
 
 
Preferred stock, $0.0001 par value, 10,000,000 shares authorized, 0 shares issued at July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019
$

 
$

Common stock, $0.0001 par value, 100,000,000 shares authorized, 27,048,404 and 26,476,336 shares outstanding at July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019, respectively
3

 
3

Additional paid-in capital
88,930

 
84,271

Accumulated deficit
(45,405
)
 
(45,649
)
Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(55,174
)
 
(56,154
)
Treasury stock, at cost, 1,782,568 shares at July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019
(50,282
)
 
(50,282
)
Total stockholders' deficit
$
(61,928
)
 
$
(67,811
)
Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit
$
390,055

 
$
365,413


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

2


BLUE BIRD CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars except for share data)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Net sales
$
189,181

 
$
308,774

 
$
597,810

 
$
675,342

Cost of goods sold
168,099

 
266,992

 
531,259

 
588,496

Gross profit
$
21,082

 
$
41,782

 
$
66,551

 
$
86,846

Operating expenses
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
17,793

 
20,996

 
58,146

 
61,197

Operating profit
$
3,289

 
$
20,786

 
$
8,405

 
$
25,649

Interest expense
(2,406
)
 
(3,369
)
 
(9,961
)
 
(10,241
)
Interest income
27

 

 
27

 
9

Other income (expense), net
181

 
(410
)
 
555

 
(1,034
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
$
1,091

 
$
17,007

 
$
(974
)
 
$
14,383

Income tax (expense) benefit
(765
)
 
(3,248
)
 
378

 
(2,833
)
Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliate
960

 
842

 
840

 
1,158

Net income
$
1,286

 
$
14,601

 
$
244

 
$
12,708

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic weighted average shares outstanding
27,027,731

 
26,451,107

 
26,784,404

 
26,449,751

Diluted weighted average shares outstanding
27,080,015

 
26,720,110

 
26,980,480

 
26,788,306

Basic earnings per share
$
0.05

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.01

 
$
0.48

Diluted earnings per share
$
0.05

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.01

 
$
0.47

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


3


BLUE BIRD CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF COMPREHENSIVE INCOME
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Net income
$
1,286

 
$
14,601

 
$
244

 
$
12,708

Other comprehensive income, net of tax
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net change in defined benefit pension plan
327

 
524

 
980

 
1,572

Total other comprehensive income
$
327

 
$
524

 
$
980

 
$
1,572

Comprehensive income
$
1,613

 
$
15,125

 
$
1,224

 
$
14,280


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.


4


BLUE BIRD CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(Unaudited)
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Cash flows from operating activities
 
 
 
Net income
$
244

 
$
12,708

Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash used in operating activities:
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization
10,728

 
7,406

Non-cash interest expense
3,560

 
2,172

Share-based compensation
4,105

 
3,146

Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliate
(840
)
 
(1,158
)
(Gain) loss on disposal of fixed assets
(100
)
 
50

Deferred taxes
32

 
500

Amortization of deferred actuarial pension losses
1,289

 
2,068

Foreign currency hedges

 
109

Changes in assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts receivable
(3,157
)
 
(16,162
)
Inventories
(76,887
)
 
(83,355
)
Other assets
2,480

 
(5,014
)
Accounts payable
(3,115
)
 
42,429

Accrued expenses, pension and other liabilities
(16,644
)
 
15,988

Total adjustments
$
(78,549
)
 
$
(31,821
)
Total cash used in operating activities
$
(78,305
)
 
$
(19,113
)
Cash flows from investing activities
 
 
 
Cash paid for fixed assets
$
(16,724
)
 
$
(30,154
)
Proceeds from sale of fixed assets
150

 

Total cash used in investing activities
$
(16,574
)
 
$
(30,154
)
Cash flows from financing activities
 
 
 
Borrowings under the revolving credit facility
$
45,000

 
$
25,000

Borrowings under the senior term loan

 
50,000

Repayments under the senior term loan
(7,425
)
 
(7,425
)
Principal payments on finance leases
(854
)
 

Cash paid for debt issuance costs
(935
)
 

Cash paid for employee taxes on vested restricted shares and stock option exercises
(3,568
)
 
(622
)
Proceeds from exercises of warrants
4,240

 
1,499

Tender offer repurchase of common stock and preferred stock

 
(50,370
)
Total cash provided by financing activities
$
36,458

 
$
18,082

Change in cash and cash equivalents
(58,421
)
 
(31,185
)
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period
70,959

 
60,260

Cash and cash equivalents, end of period
$
12,538

 
$
29,075

 
 
 
 
Supplemental disclosures of cash flow information
 
 
 
Cash paid during the period for:
 
 
 
Interest paid, net of interest received
$
6,616

 
$
7,916

Income tax paid, net of tax refunds
(1,668
)
 
2,431

Non-cash investing and financing activities:
 
 
 
Changes in accounts payable for capital additions to property, plant and equipment
$
(3,613
)
 
$
(1,307
)
Cashless exercise of stock options
5,246

 
295

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for finance lease obligations
1,942

 

Right-of-use assets obtained in exchange for operating lease obligations

 
8,040

Conversion of preferred stock into common stock

 
9,264


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these condensed consolidated financial statements.

5


BLUE BIRD CORPORATION AND SUBSIDIARIES
CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED STATEMENTS OF STOCKHOLDERS' DEFICIT
(Unaudited)
 
Three Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars, except for share data)
Common Stock
 
Convertible Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
Treasury Stock
 
 
 
 Shares
 
Par Value
 
Additional Paid-In-Capital
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Total Stockholders' Deficit
Balance, April 4, 2020
27,027,272

 
$
3

 
$
87,408

 

 
$

 
$
(55,501
)
 
$
(46,691
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(65,063
)
Restricted stock activity

 

 
(255
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(255
)
Stock option activity
21,132

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Share-based compensation expense

 

 
1,777

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,777

Net income

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,286

 

 

 
1,286

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

 

 

 

 

 
327

 

 

 

 
327

Balance, July 4, 2020
27,048,404

 
$
3

 
$
88,930

 

 
$

 
$
(55,174
)
 
$
(45,405
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(61,928
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance, March 30, 2019
26,440,663

 
$
3

 
$
81,889

 

 
$

 
$
(37,379
)
 
$
(71,842
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,261
)
 
$
(77,590
)
Warrant exercises
17,750

 

 
204

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
204

Stock option activity
2,043

 

 
(20
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(20
)
Share-based compensation expense

 

 
1,095

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,095

Tender offer share repurchases

 

 
21

 

 

 

 

 

 
(21
)
 

Net income

 

 

 

 

 

 
14,601

 

 

 
14,601

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

 

 

 

 

 
524

 

 

 

 
524

Balance, June 29, 2019
26,460,456

 
$
3

 
$
83,189

 

 
$

 
$
(36,855
)
 
$
(57,241
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(61,186
)


6


 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars, except for share data)
Common Stock
 
Convertible Preferred Stock
 
 
 
 
 
Treasury Stock
 
 
 
 Shares
 
Par Value
 
Additional Paid-In-Capital
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss
 
Accumulated Deficit
 
Shares
 
Amount
 
Total Stockholders' Deficit
Balance, September 28, 2019
26,476,336

 
$
3

 
$
84,271

 

 
$

 
$
(56,154
)
 
$
(45,649
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(67,811
)
Warrant exercises
368,712

 

 
4,240

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
4,240

Restricted stock activity
94,724

 

 
(1,623
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(1,623
)
Stock option activity
108,632

 

 
(1,945
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(1,945
)
Share-based compensation expense

 

 
3,987

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
3,987

Net income

 

 

 

 

 

 
244

 

 

 
244

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

 

 

 

 

 
980

 

 

 

 
980

Balance, July 4, 2020
27,048,404

 
$
3

 
$
88,930

 

 
$

 
$
(55,174
)
 
$
(45,405
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(61,928
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Balance, September 29, 2018
27,259,262

 
$
3

 
$
70,023

 
93,000

 
$
9,300

 
$
(38,427
)
 
$
(69,235
)
 

 
$

 
$
(28,336
)
Adoption of new revenue recognition standard (ASC 606) adjustment

 

 

 

 

 

 
(714
)
 

 

 
(714
)
Warrant exercises
130,385

 

 
1,499

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
1,499

Restricted stock activity
51,195

 

 
(596
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(596
)
Stock option activity
2,567

 

 
(26
)
 

 

 

 

 

 

 
(26
)
Share-based compensation expense

 

 
3,077

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
3,077

Tender offer share repurchases
(1,782,568
)
 

 
(52
)
 
(364
)
 
(36
)
 

 

 
1,782,568

 
(50,282
)
 
(50,370
)
Preferred stock conversion
799,615

 

 
9,264

 
(92,636
)
 
(9,264
)
 

 

 

 

 

Net income

 

 

 

 

 

 
12,708

 

 

 
12,708

Other comprehensive income, net of tax

 

 

 

 

 
1,572

 

 

 

 
1,572

Balance, June 29, 2019
26,460,456

 
$
3

 
$
83,189

 

 
$

 
$
(36,855
)
 
$
(57,241
)
 
1,782,568

 
$
(50,282
)
 
$
(61,186
)



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these consolidated financial statements.


7


BLUE BIRD CORPORATION
NOTES TO CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)

1. Nature of Business and Basis of Presentation

Nature of Business

Blue Bird Body Company, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Blue Bird Corporation, was incorporated in 1958 and has manufactured, assembled and sold school buses to a variety of municipal, federal and commercial customers since 1927. The majority of Blue Bird’s sales are made to an independent distributor network, which in turn sells buses to ultimate end users. We are headquartered in Macon, Georgia. References in these notes to financial statements to “Blue Bird”, the “Company,” “we,” “our,” or “us” refer to Blue Bird Corporation and its wholly-owned subsidiaries, unless the context specifically indicates otherwise.

COVID-19

During our third quarter of fiscal 2020, the novel coronavirus known as "COVID-19" continued to spread throughout the world, perpetuating a global pandemic. The pandemic materially impacted our third quarter of fiscal 2020 results causing lower customer orders for both buses and bus parts, supply disruptions, higher rates of absenteeism among our hourly production workforce and a temporary shutdown of manufacturing. The continuing development and fluidity of the pandemic precludes any prediction as to the ultimate severity of the adverse impacts on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and liquidity. A prolonged economic downturn resulting from the continuing pandemic would likely have a material adverse impact on our financial results.

Basis of Presentation

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All significant inter-company transactions and accounts have been eliminated in consolidation.

The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles for interim financial reporting and Article 8 of Regulation S-X. The Company’s fiscal year ends on the Saturday closest to September 30 with its quarters consisting of thirteen weeks in most years. In fiscal year 2020, there is a total of 53 weeks. The third quarters of fiscal 2020 and 2019 both included 13 weeks. The nine month periods in fiscal 2020 and 2019 included 40 and 39 weeks, respectively.

In the opinion of management, all adjustments considered necessary for a fair presentation of financial results have been made. Such adjustments consist of only those of a normal recurring nature. Operating results for any interim period are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the entire year. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by generally accepted accounting principles for complete financial statements.

The Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet data as of September 28, 2019 was derived from the Company’s audited financial statements but does not include all disclosures required by generally accepted accounting principles. For additional information, including the Company’s significant accounting policies, refer to the consolidated financial statements and related footnotes for the fiscal year ended September 28, 2019 as set forth in the Company's 2019 Form 10-K filed on December 12, 2019.

Use of Estimates and Assumptions

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”) requires management to make estimates and assumptions. At the date of the financial statements, these estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosures of contingent assets and liabilities, and during the reporting period, these estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of revenues and expenses. For example, significant management judgments are required in determining excess, obsolete, or unsalable inventory, allowance for doubtful accounts, potential impairment of long-lived assets, goodwill and intangibles, the accounting for self-insurance reserves, warranty reserves, pension obligations, income taxes, environmental liabilities and contingencies. Future events, including the extent and duration of COVID-19 related economic impacts, and their effects cannot be predicted with certainty, and, accordingly, the Company’s accounting estimates require the exercise of judgment. The accounting estimates used in the preparation of the Company’s condensed consolidated financial statements may change as new events occur, as more experience is acquired, as additional information is obtained and as the Company’s operating environment changes. The Company evaluates and updates its assumptions and estimates on an ongoing basis and may employ outside experts to assist in the Company’s evaluations. Actual results could differ from the estimates that the Company has used.

2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Recently Issued Accounting Standards

The Company’s significant accounting policies are described in the Company’s 2019 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on December 12, 2019. Our senior management has reviewed these significant accounting policies and related disclosures and determined that there were no significant changes in our critical accounting policies in the nine months ended July 4, 2020, except as follows (and as discussed in the Recently Adopted Accounting Standards section of this Note 2):

Amortization of Deferred Pension Losses

Historically, the Company has amortized deferred losses from our frozen defined benefit pension plan accounted for under ASC 715, Compensation - Retirement Benefits, over the expected remaining employment period of the participants who remained employed with the Company. ASC 715 states that if all or almost all of a plan's participants are inactive, the average remaining life expectancy of the inactive participants shall be used to amortize the unrecognized net gain or loss instead of the average remaining service period of active plan participants. In the first quarter of 2020, the ratio of active (employed) to inactive participants in our plan declined to less than 10%, a figure we believe meets the definition of almost all participants as inactive. Accordingly, we have changed the amortization period from approximately seven years in 2019 to approximately 23 years in 2020. Future amortization periods (remaining life expectancy) will be determined based on the participant and actuarial data at that time.

Recently Adopted Accounting Standards

ASU 2018-02 – In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220). This ASU provides guidance on a reclassification from accumulated other comprehensive income ("AOCI") to retained earnings for the effect of the tax rate change resulting from the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R.1) (the "Tax Act"). The amendments eliminate the stranded tax effects resulting from the Tax Act and will improve the usefulness of information reported to financial statement users. This ASU is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2018, with early adoption permitted. We adopted this ASU, in the first quarter of fiscal 2020, and did not elect to reclassify the income tax effects of the Tax Act from AOCI to retained earnings. We use a specific identification approach to release the income tax effects in AOCI.

ASU 2019-12 – In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which simplifies the process for calculating interim (intraperiod) income taxes and the accounting for deferred tax liabilities for foreign equity-method investments, among other simplifications. We have early adopted this standard effective the first quarter of fiscal 2020. The impacts of adopting this standard were not material to us.

Recently Issued Accounting Standards

ASU 2020-04 On March 12, 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848): Facilitation of the Effects of Reference Rate Reform on Financial Reporting, providing temporary guidance to ease the potential burden in accounting for reference rate reform primarily resulting from the discontinuation of LIBOR, which is currently expected to occur on December 31, 2021. The amendments in ASU 2020-04 are elective and apply to all entities that have contracts, hedging relationships, and other transactions that reference LIBOR or another reference rate expected to be discontinued. An entity may elect to apply the amendments prospectively from March 12, 2020 through December 31, 2022. Our debt and derivative agreements currently reference LIBOR. Contract language is expected to be incorporated into these agreements to address the transition to an alternative reference rate. We are currently evaluating the impact this ASU may have on our consolidated financial statements.

3. Supplemental Financial Information

Inventories

The following table presents the components of inventories at the dates indicated:
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
September 28, 2019
Raw materials
$
108,041

 
$
60,033

Work in process
29,790

 
16,663

Finished goods
17,886

 
2,134

Total inventories
$
155,717

 
$
78,830




8


Product Warranties

The following table reflects activity in accrued warranty cost (current and long-term portions combined) for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Balance at beginning of period
$
21,398

 
$
21,520

 
$
22,343

 
$
22,646

Add current period accruals
1,947

 
3,358

 
6,076

 
7,196

Current period reductions of accrual
(2,517
)
 
(2,358
)
 
(7,591
)
 
(7,322
)
Balance at end of period
$
20,828

 
$
22,520

 
$
20,828

 
$
22,520


Extended Warranties
The following table reflects activity in deferred warranty income (current and long-term portions combined), for the sale of extended warranties of two to five years, for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Balance at beginning of period
$
22,948

 
$
22,901

 
$
24,045

 
$
23,191

Add current period deferred income
1,769

 
2,880

 
5,058

 
6,686

Current period recognition of income
(2,672
)
 
(2,196
)
 
(7,058
)
 
(6,292
)
Balance at end of period
$
22,045

 
$
23,585

 
$
22,045

 
$
23,585



The outstanding balance of deferred warranty income in the table above is considered a "contract liability", and represents a performance obligation of the Company that we satisfy over the term of the arrangement but for which we have been paid in full at the time the warranty was sold. We expect to recognize $2.3 million of the outstanding contract liability during the remainder of fiscal 2020, $7.8 million in fiscal 2021, and the remaining balance thereafter.

Self-Insurance

The following table reflects our total accrued self-insurance liability, comprised of workers' compensation and health insurance related claims, at the dates indicated:
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
September 28, 2019
Current portion
$
2,732

 
$
2,933

Long-term portion
1,794

 
1,775

Total accrued self-insurance
$
4,526

 
$
4,708



The current and long-term portions of the accrued self-insurance liability are reflected in accrued expenses and other liabilities, respectively, on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.

Shipping and Handling Revenues

Shipping and handling revenues were $3.9 million and $6.0 million for the three months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively, and $11.5 million and $12.5 million for the nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively. The related cost of goods sold was $3.4 million and $5.3 million for the three months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively, and $10.0 million and $11.0 million for the nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively.


9


Pension Expense

Components of net periodic pension benefit cost were as follows for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Interest cost
$
1,237

 
$
1,512

 
$
3,711

 
$
4,535

Expected return on plan assets
(1,846
)
 
(1,905
)
 
(5,538
)
 
(5,714
)
Amortization of prior loss
430

 
689

 
1,289

 
2,068

Net periodic benefit cost
$
(179
)
 
$
296

 
$
(538
)
 
$
889

Amortization of prior loss, recognized in other comprehensive income
430

 
689

 
1,289

 
2,068

Total recognized in net periodic pension benefit cost and other comprehensive income
$
(609
)
 
$
(393
)
 
$
(1,827
)
 
$
(1,179
)


Derivative Instruments

We are charged variable rates of interest on our indebtedness outstanding under the Amended Credit Agreement (defined below) which exposes us to fluctuations in interest rates. On October 24, 2018, the Company entered into a four-year interest rate collar with a $150.0 million notional value with an effective date of November 30, 2018. The collar was entered into in order to partially mitigate our exposure to interest rate fluctuations on our variable rate debt. The collar establishes a range where we will pay the counterparty if the three-month LIBOR rate falls below the established floor rate of 1.5%, and the counterparty will pay us if the three-month LIBOR rate exceeds the ceiling rate of 3.3%. The collar settles quarterly through the termination date of September 30, 2022. No payments or receipts are exchanged on the interest rate collar contracts unless interest rates rise above or fall below the contracted ceiling or floor rates. During the three-months ended July 4, 2020, the three-month LIBOR rate fell below the established floor, which required an immaterial payment to the counterparty.

Changes in the interest rate collar fair value are recorded in interest expense as the collar does not qualify for hedge accounting. At July 4, 2020, the fair value of the interest rate collar contract was $(4.2) million and is included in "other current liabilities" on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets. The fair value of the interest rate collar is a Level 2 fair value measurement, based on quoted prices of similar items in active markets.
Equity Investment in Affiliate

The Company holds a 50% equity interest in Micro Bird Holdings, Inc. (“Micro Bird”), and accounts for Micro Bird under the equity method of accounting. The carrying amount of the equity method investment is adjusted for the Company’s proportionate share of net earnings and losses and any dividends received. At July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019, the carrying value of the Company's investment was $11.9 million and $11.1 million, respectively.

In recognizing the Company’s 50% portion of Micro Bird net income, the Company recorded $0.8 million and $1.2 million in Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliate for the nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively. Summarized unaudited financial information for these periods for Micro Bird is as follows:
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Revenues
$
58,883

 
$
86,364

Gross profit
7,318

 
9,961

Operating income
1,557

 
3,717

Net income
1,103

 
2,409


 
4. Debt

On May 7, 2020, the Company entered into a Second Amendment which amended the Credit Agreement, dated as of December 12, 2016 (the “Credit Agreement”, as amended by that certain First Amendment to Credit Agreement, dated as of September 13, 2018 (the “First Amendment”), and as further amended by the Second Amendment, the “Amended Credit Agreement”). The Second Amendment provided

10


for an aggregate lender commitment of $41.9 million of additional revolving commitments bringing the total revolving commitments to $141.9 million. The revolving commitments under the Amended Credit Agreement mature on September 13, 2023, which is the fifth anniversary of the effective date of the First Amendment. The interest rate pricing grid remained unchanged, but the LIBOR floor was amended from 0% to 0.75%. We incurred $0.9 million in fees related to the amendment. The fees were capitalized to other assets on the Consolidated Balance Sheets and are amortized on a straight-line basis to interest expense until maturity of the agreement.
Term debt consisted of the following at the dates indicated:
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
September 28, 2019
2023 term loan, net of deferred financing costs of $2,458 and $3,124, respectively
$
176,367

 
$
183,126

Less: current portion of long-term debt
9,900

 
9,900

Long-term debt, net of current portion
$
166,467

 
$
173,226



Term loans are recognized on the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at the unpaid principal balance, and are not subject to fair value measurement; however, given the variable rates on the loans, the Company estimates that the unpaid principal balance approximates fair value. If measured at fair value in the financial statements, the term loans would be classified as Level 2 in the fair value hierarchy. At July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019, $178.8 million and $186.3 million, respectively, were outstanding on the term loans.

At July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019, the stated interest rates on the term loans were 2.8% and 4.4%, respectively. At July 4, 2020 and September 28, 2019, the weighted-average annual effective interest rates for the term loans were 4.1% and 5.0%, respectively, which includes amortization of the deferred financing costs.

At July 4, 2020, $45.0 million in borrowings were outstanding on the Revolving Credit Facility and $6.9 million of Letters of Credit were outstanding; therefore, the Company would have been able to borrow $90.0 million on the revolving line of credit.

Interest expense on all indebtedness was $2.4 million and $3.4 million for the three months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively, and $10.0 million and $10.3 million for the nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively.

The schedule of remaining principal payments through maturity for total debt is as follows:
(in thousands of dollars)
Year
 
Principal Payments
2020
 
$
2,475

2021
 
9,900

2022
 
14,850

2023
 
196,600

Total remaining principal payments
 
$
223,825



5. Income Taxes

Income tax provisions for interim periods are based on estimated annual income tax rates, adjusted to reflect the effects of any significant infrequent or unusual items which are required to be discretely recognized within the current interim period. The effective tax rates in the periods presented are largely based upon the forecast pre-tax earnings mix and allocation of certain expenses in various taxing jurisdictions where the Company conducts its business, primarily the United States. In periods where our operating income approximates or is equal to break-even, the effective tax rates for quarter-to-date and full-year periods may not be meaningful due to discrete period items.

On March 27, 2020 the President of the United States signed the Coronavirus Aid, Relief and Economic Security Act ("CARES Act") into law. While the CARES Act has broad income tax implications for many companies, it did not have a material impact on our reported income tax accounts.

Three Months

The effective tax rate for the three-month period ended July 4, 2020 was 70.1%, which differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21%. The difference is mainly due to discrete period tax expense from prior year tax return adjustments and normal tax rate items, such as the benefit from federal and state tax credits (net of valuation allowance), which were partially offset by net non-deductible compensation expenses and other tax adjustments.

11



The effective tax rate for the three-month period ended June 29, 2019 was 19.1%, which differed from the statutory federal tax rate of 21%. The difference is mainly due to normal tax rate benefit items, such as federal and state tax credits (net of valuation allowance), which were partially offset by non-deductible share-based compensation expenses and other tax adjustments.

Nine Months

The effective tax rate for the nine-month period ended July 4, 2020 was 38.8% and differed from the statutory federal tax rate of 21%. The difference is mainly due to a net discrete period tax benefit from share-based compensation expenses, but also due to normal tax rate items, such as the benefit from federal and state tax credits (net of valuation allowance), which were partially offset by net non-deductible compensation expenses and other tax adjustments.

The effective tax rate for the nine-month period ended June 29, 2019 was 19.7% and differed from the statutory federal income tax rate of 21%. The difference is mainly due to normal tax rate benefit items, primarily federal and state tax credits (net of valuation allowance), which were partially offset by non-deductible share-based compensation expenses and other tax adjustments.

6. Guarantees, Commitments and Contingencies

Litigation

At July 4, 2020, the Company had a number of product liability and other cases pending. Management believes that, considering the Company’s insurance coverage and its intention to vigorously defend its positions, the ultimate resolution of these matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial statements.

Environmental

The Company is subject to a variety of environmental regulations relating to the use, storage, discharge and disposal of hazardous materials used in its manufacturing processes. Failure by the Company to comply with present and future regulations could subject it to future liabilities. In addition, such regulations could require the Company to acquire costly equipment or to incur other significant expenses to comply with environmental regulations. The Company is currently not involved in any material environmental proceedings and therefore management believes that the resolution of pending environmental matters will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial statements.

Guarantees

In the ordinary course of business, we may provide guarantees for certain transactions entered into by our dealers. At July 4, 2020, we had a $3.0 million guarantee outstanding which relates to a guarantee of indebtedness for a term loan with remaining maturity up to 2.5 years. The $3.0 million represents the estimated maximum amount we would be required to pay upon default of all guaranteed indebtedness, and we believe the likelihood of required performance to be remote. At July 4, 2020, $0.3 million was included in other current liabilities on our Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets for the estimated fair value of the guarantee.    

Lease Commitments

We have operating and finance leases for office and/or warehouse space and for equipment. Our leases have remaining terms of 4.4 to 7.4 years.

7. Segment Information

We manage our business in two operating segments: (i) the Bus segment, which includes the manufacturing and assembly of buses to be sold to a variety of customers across the United States, Canada and in international markets; and (ii) the Parts segment, which consists primarily of the purchase of parts from third parties to be sold to dealers within the Company’s network. The tables below present segment net sales and gross profit for the periods presented:

Net sales
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Bus (1)
$
180,592

 
$
292,166

 
$
554,061

 
$
626,441

Parts (1)
8,589

 
16,608

 
43,749

 
48,901

Segment net sales
$
189,181

 
$
308,774

 
$
597,810

 
$
675,342

 
(1) Parts segment revenue includes $0.8 million and $1.0 million for the three months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively, and $3.2 million and $2.5 million for the nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019, respectively, related to inter-segment sales of parts that was eliminated by the Bus segment upon consolidation.

Gross profit
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Bus
$
18,079

 
$
35,996

 
$
50,884

 
$
69,653

Parts
3,003

 
5,786

 
15,667

 
17,193

Segment gross profit
$
21,082

 
$
41,782

 
$
66,551

 
$
86,846




12


The following table is a reconciliation of segment gross profit to consolidated income (loss) before income taxes for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Segment gross profit
$
21,082

 
$
41,782

 
$
66,551

 
$
86,846

Adjustments:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Selling, general and administrative expenses
(17,793
)
 
(20,996
)
 
(58,146
)
 
(61,197
)
Interest expense
(2,406
)
 
(3,369
)
 
(9,961
)
 
(10,241
)
Interest income
27

 

 
27

 
9

Other income (expense), net
181

 
(410
)
 
555

 
(1,034
)
Income (loss) before income taxes
$
1,091

 
$
17,007

 
$
(974
)
 
$
14,383



Sales are attributable to geographic areas based on customer location and were as follows for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
United States
$
175,433

 
$
286,499

 
$
544,176

 
$
629,668

Canada
13,429

 
21,639

 
49,331

 
43,499

Rest of world
319

 
636

 
4,303

 
2,175

Total net sales
$
189,181

 
$
308,774

 
$
597,810

 
$
675,342



8. Revenue

The following table disaggregates revenue by product category for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Diesel buses
$
88,299

 
$
135,246

 
$
278,698

 
$
335,553

Alternative fuel buses (1)
80,975

 
141,939

 
245,766

 
260,340

Other (2)
11,583

 
15,486

 
30,931

 
32,061

Parts
8,324

 
16,103

 
42,415

 
47,388

Net sales
$
189,181

 
$
308,774

 
$
597,810

 
$
675,342

 
(1) Includes buses sold with any fuel source other than diesel (e.g. gasoline, propane, CNG, electric).
(2) Includes shipping and handling revenue, extended warranty income, surcharges, chassis, and bus shell sales.


13


9. Earnings Per Share

The following table presents the earnings per share computation for the periods presented:
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands except for share data)
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Numerator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Net income
$
1,286

 
$
14,601

 
$
244

 
$
12,708

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Denominator:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Weighted-average common shares outstanding
27,027,731

 
26,451,107

 
26,784,404

 
26,449,751

Weighted-average dilutive securities, restricted stock
50,769

 
94

 
135,792

 
29,149

Weighted-average dilutive securities, warrants

 
150,292

 

 
178,290

Weighted-average dilutive securities, stock options
1,515

 
118,617

 
60,284

 
131,116

Weighted-average shares and dilutive potential common shares
27,080,015

 
26,720,110

 
26,980,480

 
26,788,306

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Earnings per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic earnings per share
$
0.05

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.01

 
$
0.48

Diluted earnings per share
$
0.05

 
$
0.55

 
$
0.01

 
$
0.47

 
(1) Potentially dilutive securities representing 0.4 million and 0.3 million shares of common stock were excluded from the computation of diluted earnings per share for the three and nine months ended July 4, 2020, respectively, as their effect would have been anti-dilutive.

10. Accumulated Other Comprehensive Loss

The following table provides information on changes in accumulated other comprehensive loss for the periods presented:
 
 
Three Months Ended
 
Nine Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
 
Defined Benefit Pension Plan
 
Total
 
Defined Benefit Pension Plan
 
Total
July 4, 2020
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning Balance
 
$
(55,501
)
 
$
(55,501
)
 
$
(56,154
)
 
$
(56,154
)
Amounts reclassified from other comprehensive loss and included in earnings
 
430

 
430

 
1,289

 
1,289

Total other comprehensive income, before taxes
 
430

 
430

 
1,289

 
1,289

Income tax expense
 
(103
)
 
(103
)
 
(309
)
 
(309
)
Ending Balance July 4, 2020
 
$
(55,174
)
 
$
(55,174
)
 
$
(55,174
)
 
$
(55,174
)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
June 29, 2019
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Beginning Balance
 
$
(37,379
)
 
$
(37,379
)
 
$
(38,427
)
 
$
(38,427
)
Amounts reclassified from other comprehensive loss and included in earnings
 
689

 
689

 
2,068

 
2,068

Total other comprehensive income, before taxes
 
689

 
689

 
2,068

 
2,068

Income tax expense
 
(165
)
 
(165
)
 
(496
)
 
(496
)
Ending Balance June 29, 2019
 
$
(36,855
)
 
$
(36,855
)
 
$
(36,855
)
 
$
(36,855
)



14


Item 2. Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations.

The following discussion and analysis of financial condition and results of operations of the Company should be read in conjunction with the Company’s unaudited financial statements for the three and nine months ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019 and related notes appearing in Part I, Item 1 of this Report. Our actual results may not be indicative of future performance. This discussion and analysis contains forward-looking statements and involves numerous risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, those discussed or incorporated by reference in the sections of this Report titled “Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements” and “Risk Factors”. Actual results may differ materially from those contained in any forward-looking statements. Certain monetary amounts, percentages and other figures included in this Report have been subject to rounding adjustments. Accordingly, figures shown as totals in certain tables may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the figures that precede them, and figures expressed as percentages in the text may not total 100% or, as applicable, when aggregated, may not be the arithmetic aggregation of the percentages that precede them.

We refer to the fiscal year ended September 28, 2019 as “fiscal 2019”. We refer to the quarter ended July 4, 2020 as the “third quarter of fiscal 2020” and we refer to the quarter ended June 29, 2019 as the “third quarter of fiscal 2019”. The third quarters of fiscal 2020 and 2019 both included 13 weeks. The nine month periods in fiscal 2020 and 2019 included 40 and 39 weeks, respectively.

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

This Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q (this “Report”) of Blue Bird Corporation (“Blue Bird” or the “Company”) contains forward-looking statements intended to qualify for the safe harbors from liability established by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Except as otherwise indicated by the context, references in this Report to “we,” “us” and “our” are to the consolidated business of the Company. All statements in this Report, including those made by the management of the Company, other than statements of historical fact, are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on management’s estimates, projections and assumptions as of the date hereof and include the assumptions that underlie such statements. Forward-looking statements may contain words such as “may,” “will,” “should,” “could,” “would,” “expect,” “plan,” “estimate,” “project,” “forecast,” “seek,” “target,” “anticipate,” “believe,” “estimate,” “predict,” “potential” and “continue,” the negative of these terms, or other comparable terminology. Examples of forward-looking statements include statements regarding the Company’s future financial results, research and development results, regulatory approvals, operating results, business strategies, projected costs, products, competitive positions, management’s plans and objectives for future operations, and industry trends. These forward-looking statements relate to expectations for future financial performance, business strategies or expectations for our business. Specifically, forward-looking statements may include statements relating to:

the future financial performance of the Company;
negative changes in the market for Blue Bird products;
expansion plans and opportunities;
challenges or unexpected costs related to manufacturing;
future impacts from the novel coronavirus pandemic known as "COVID-19", and any other pandemics, public health crises, or epidemics, on capital markets, manufacturing and supply chain abilities, consumer and customer demand, school system operations, workplace conditions, and any other unexpected impacts, which could include, among other effects:
disruption in global financial and credit markets;
supply shortages and supplier financial risk, especially from our single-source suppliers impacted by the pandemic;
negative impacts to manufacturing operations or the supply chain from shutdowns or other disruptions in operations;
negative impacts on capacity and/or production in response to changes in demand due to the pandemic, including possible cost containment actions;
financial difficulties of our customers impacted by the pandemic;
reductions in market demand for our products due to the pandemic; and
potential negative impacts of various actions taken by federal, state and/or local governments in response to the pandemic.

These forward-looking statements are based on information available as of the date of this Report (or, in the case of forward-looking statements incorporated herein by reference, as of the date of the applicable filed document), and current expectations, forecasts and assumptions, and involve a number of judgments, risks and uncertainties. Accordingly, forward-looking statements should not be relied upon as representing our views as of any subsequent date, and we do not undertake any obligation to update forward-looking statements to reflect events or circumstances after the date they were made, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as may be required under applicable securities laws. As a result of a number of known and unknown risks and uncertainties, our actual results or performance may be materially different than those expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements.


15


Any expectations based on these forward-looking statements are subject to risks and uncertainties and other important factors, including those discussed in the reports we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”), specifically the sections titled “Risk Factors” and “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in the Company’s 2019 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on December 12, 2019. Other risks and uncertainties are and will be disclosed in the Company’s prior and future SEC filings. The following information should be read in conjunction with the financial statements included in the Company’s 2019 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on December 12, 2019.

Available Information

We are subject to the reporting and information requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and as a result are obligated to file annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy statements, and other information with the SEC. We make these filings available free of charge on our website (http://www.blue-bird.com) as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file them with, or furnish them to, the SEC. Information on our website does not constitute part of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. In addition, the SEC maintains a website (http://www.sec.gov) that contains our annual, quarterly, and current reports, proxy and information statements, and other information we electronically file with, or furnish to, the SEC.

Executive Overview

Blue Bird is the leading independent designer and manufacturer of school buses. Our longevity and reputation in the school bus industry have made Blue Bird an iconic American brand. We distinguish ourselves from our principal competitors by dedicating our focus to the design, engineering, manufacture and sale of school buses, and related parts. As the only principal manufacturer of chassis and body production specifically designed for school bus applications, Blue Bird is recognized as an industry leader for school bus innovation, safety, product quality/reliability/durability, efficiency, and lower operating costs. In addition, Blue Bird is the market leader in alternative to diesel fuel applications with its propane-powered, gasoline-powered, compressed natural gas (“CNG”)-powered, and all-electric-powered school buses.

Blue Bird sells its buses and parts through an extensive network of United States and Canadian dealers that, in their territories, are exclusive to Blue Bird on Type C and Type D school buses. Blue Bird also sells directly to major fleet operators, the United States Government, state governments, and authorized dealers in a number of foreign countries.

Impact of COVID-19 on Our Business

During our third fiscal quarter of 2020, the novel coronavirus known as "COVID-19" continued to spread throughout the world, perpetuating a global pandemic. The pandemic had triggered a significant downturn in global commerce as early as February 2020 and the challenging market conditions are expected to continue for an extended period of time. In early April, in an effort to contain the spread of COVID-19, maintain the well-being of our employees and stakeholders, address the reduced demand from our customers and be responsive and efficient with supply chain constraints, we closed our manufacturing facilities for two weeks and requested our office employees to work from home. In late April, we successfully restarted manufacturing operations and have continued to manufacture buses since that time without further material disruption. While we have not experienced any pervasive COVID-19 illnesses to date, if we were to experience some form of outbreak within our facilities, we would take all appropriate measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, which could include another temporary halt in production.
The pandemic has resulted, and is likely to continue to result, in significant economic disruption and has adversely affected our business. It will continue to adversely impact our business for the remainder of our fiscal year 2020 and perhaps beyond. Significant uncertainty exists concerning the magnitude of the impact and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on the overall U.S and global economy. While the global market downturn, closures and limitations on movement are expected to be temporary, the duration of any demand reductions, production and supply chain disruptions, and related financial impacts, cannot be estimated at this time.
The full impacts from COVID-19 on the Company's financial results in fiscal year 2020 are uncertain as we continue to monitor and assess the level of future customer demand, the ability of school boards to make timely decisions, the ability of suppliers to resume and maintain operations, the ability of our employees to continue to work, and our ability to maintain continuous production for the remaining portion of our fiscal year. A prolonged economic downturn would likely have a material adverse impact on our sales and financial results beyond fiscal 2020. See PART II, Item 1A. Risk Factors, of this Quarterly Report for a discussion of the material risks we believe we face particularly related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
The Company has taken actions to control spending and improve liquidity, including minor headcount rationalization and an increase in the revolving credit facility from $100.0 million to $141.9 million with a Second Amendment to the Credit Agreement. Further detail and discussion of this amendment can be found in the "Liquidity and Capital Resources" section of this Item 2. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q. Even with adequate liquidity, we are evaluating and considering further actions to reduce costs and spending across our organization to be responsive to potential

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longer-term impacts of business interruption from the pandemic. Our actions may include reducing hiring activities, limiting discretionary spending, limiting spending on capital investment projects or other steps necessary to preserve adequate liquidity. We will continue to actively monitor the situation and may need to take further actions required by federal, state or local authorities or enact measures we determine are in the best interests of our employees, customers, suppliers and shareholders. For further details and discussion about our liquidity, refer to the following "Liquidity and Capital Resources" section of this Item 2. "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" of this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q.

Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates, Recent Accounting Pronouncements

The preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Blue Bird evaluates its estimates on an ongoing basis, based on historical experience and on various other assumptions that are believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Application of these accounting policies involves the exercise of judgment and use of assumptions as to future uncertainties and, as a result, actual results could differ from these estimates.

The Company’s accounting policies that we believe are the most critical to aid in fully understanding and evaluating our reported financial results are described in the Company’s 2019 Form 10-K, filed with the SEC on December 12, 2019 under the caption “ Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations – Critical Accounting Policies and Estimates,” which description is incorporated herein by reference. Our senior management has reviewed these critical accounting policies and related disclosures and determined that there were no significant changes in our critical accounting policies during the nine months ended July 4, 2020, except as follows:

Amortization of Deferred Pension Losses

Historically, the Company has amortized deferred losses from our frozen defined benefit pension plan accounted for under ASC 715, Compensation - Retirement Benefits, over the expected remaining employment period of the participants who remained employed with the Company. ASC 715 states that if all or almost all of a plan's participants are inactive, the average remaining life expectancy of the inactive participants shall be used to amortize the unrecognized net gain or loss instead of the average remaining service period of active plan participants. In the first quarter of 2020, the ratio of active (employed) to inactive participants in our plan declined to less than 10%, a figure we believe meets the definition of almost all participants as inactive. Accordingly, we have changed the amortization period from approximately seven years in 2019 to approximately 23 years in 2020. Future years will be determined based on the participant data at that time.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

See Note 2 of Notes to Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements (Unaudited) included in Part I, Item 1 of this Report for a discussion of new and recently adopted accounting pronouncements.

Factors Affecting Our Revenues

Our revenues are driven primarily by the following factors:

Property tax revenues. Property tax revenues are one of the major sources of funding for school districts, and therefore new school buses. Property tax revenues are a function of land and building prices, relying on assessments of property value by state or county assessors and millage rates voted by the local electorate.
Student enrollment and delivery mechanisms for learning. Increases or decreases in the number of school bus riders have a direct impact on school district demand. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic and evolving protocols for social distancing and public health concerns, the future form of educational delivery is uncertain, and increased remote learning could reasonably be expected to decrease the number of school bus riders.
Revenue mix. We are able to charge more for certain of our products (e.g., Type C propane-powered school buses, Type D buses, and buses with higher option content) than other products. The mix of products sold in any fiscal period can directly impact our revenues for the period.
Strength of the dealer network. We rely on our dealers, as well as a small number of major fleet operators, to be the direct point of contact with school districts and their purchasing agents. An effective dealer is capable of expanding revenues within a given school district by matching that district’s needs to our capabilities, offering options that would not otherwise be provided to the district.

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Pricing. Our products are sold to school districts throughout the United States and Canada. Each state and each Canadian province has its own set of regulations that governs the purchase of products, including school buses, by their school districts. We and our dealers must navigate these regulations, purchasing procedures, and the districts’ specifications in order to reach mutually acceptable price terms. Pricing may or may not be favorable to us, depending upon a number of factors impacting purchasing decisions.
Buying patterns of major fleets. Major fleets regularly compete against one another for existing accounts. Fleets are also continuously trying to win the business of school districts that operate their own transportation services. These activities can have either a positive or negative impact on our sales, depending on the brand preference of the fleet that wins the business. Major fleets also periodically review their fleet sizes and replacement patterns due to funding availability as well as the profitability of existing routes. These actions can impact total purchases by fleets in a given year.
Seasonality. Historically, our sales have been subject to seasonal variation based on the school calendar with the peak season during our third and fourth fiscal quarters. Sales during the third and fourth fiscal quarters were typically greater than the first and second fiscal quarters due to the desire of municipalities to have any new buses that they order available to them at the beginning of the new school year. With the COVID-19 pandemic impact on school systems and the uncertainty surrounding in-person schooling schedules and duration, seasonality has become unpredictable. Seasonality and variations from historical seasonality have impacted the comparison of results between fiscal periods.

Factors Affecting Our Expenses and Other Items

Our expenses and other line items on our unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations are principally driven by the following factors:

Cost of goods sold. The components of our cost of goods sold consist of material costs (principally powertrain components, steel and rubber, as well as aluminum and copper), labor expense, and overhead. Our cost of goods sold may vary from period to period due to changes in sales volume, efforts by certain suppliers to pass through the economics associated with key commodities, design changes with respect to specific components, design changes with respect to specific bus models, wage increases for plant labor, productivity of plant labor, delays in receiving materials and other logistical problems, and the impact of overhead items such as utilities.
Selling, general and administrative expenses. Our selling, general and administrative expenses include costs associated with our selling and marketing efforts, engineering, centralized finance, human resources, purchasing, information technology services, and other administrative matters and functions. In most instances, other than direct costs associated with sales and marketing programs, the principal component of these costs is salary expense. Changes from period to period are typically driven by the number of our employees, as well as by merit increases provided to experienced personnel.

Interest expense. Our interest expense relates to costs associated with our debt instruments and reflects both the amount of indebtedness and the interest rate that we are required to pay on our debt. Interest expense also includes unrealized gains or losses from interest rate hedges, if any, as well as expenses related to debt guarantees, if any.
Income taxes. We make estimates of the amounts to recognize for income taxes in each tax jurisdiction in which we operate. In addition, provisions are established for withholding taxes related to the transfer of cash between jurisdictions and for uncertain tax positions taken.
Other income (expense), net. This includes periodic pension expense as well as gains or losses on foreign currency, if any. Other immaterial amounts not associated with operating expenses may also be included here.
Equity in net income of non-consolidated affiliate. We include in this line item our 50% share of net income or loss from our investment in Micro Bird, our unconsolidated Canadian joint venture.

Key Non-GAAP Financial Measures We Use to Evaluate Our Performance

This filing includes the following non-GAAP financial measures: “Adjusted EBITDA”, “Adjusted EBITDA Margin”, and “Free Cash Flow.” Management views these metrics as a useful way to look at the performance of our operations between periods and to exclude decisions on capital investment and financing that might otherwise impact the review of profitability of the business based on present market conditions.

Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income prior to interest income, interest expense including the component of lease expense (which is presented as a single operating expense in selling, general and administrative expenses in our GAAP financial statements) that represents interest expense on lease liabilities, income taxes, depreciation and amortization including the component of lease expense (which is presented as a single operating expense in selling, general and administrative expenses in our GAAP financial statements) that represents amortization charges on right-of-use lease assets, and disposals, as adjusted to add back certain charges that we may record each year,

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such as stock-compensation expense, as well as non-recurring charges such as (i) significant product design changes; (ii) transaction related costs; (iii) discrete expenses related to major cost cutting initiatives; or (iv) costs directly attributed to the COVID-19 pandemic. We believe these expenses and non-recurring charges are not considered an indicator of ongoing company performance. We define Adjusted EBITDA margin as Adjusted EBITDA as a percentage of net sales. Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin are not measures of performance defined in accordance with GAAP. The measures are used as a supplement to GAAP results in evaluating certain aspects of our business, as described below.

We believe that Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin are useful to investors in evaluating our performance because the measures consider the performance of our operations, excluding decisions made with respect to capital investment, financing, and other non-recurring charges as outlined in the preceding paragraph. We believe the non-GAAP metrics offer additional financial metrics that, when coupled with the GAAP results and the reconciliation to GAAP results, provide a more complete understanding of our results of operations and the factors and trends affecting our business.

Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin should not be considered as alternatives to net income as an indicator of our performance or as alternatives to any other measure prescribed by GAAP as there are limitations to using such non-GAAP measures. Although we believe that Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin may enhance an evaluation of our operating performance based on recent revenue generation and product/overhead cost control because they exclude the impact of prior decisions made about capital investment, financing, and other expenses, (i) other companies in Blue Bird’s industry may define Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin differently than we do and, as a result, they may not be comparable to similarly titled measures used by other companies in Blue Bird’s industry, and (ii) Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA margin exclude certain financial information that some may consider important in evaluating our performance.

We compensate for these limitations by providing disclosure of the differences between Adjusted EBITDA and GAAP results, including providing a reconciliation to GAAP results, to enable investors to perform their own analysis of our operating results.

Our measure of “Free Cash Flow” is used in addition to and in conjunction with results presented in accordance with GAAP and free cash flow should not be relied upon to the exclusion of GAAP financial measures. Free cash flow reflects an additional way of viewing our liquidity that, when viewed with our GAAP results, provides a more complete understanding of factors and trends affecting our cash flows. We strongly encourage investors to review our financial statements and publicly filed reports in their entirety and not to rely on any single financial measure.

We define free cash flow as total cash provided by/used in operating activities minus cash paid for fixed assets and acquired intangible assets. We use free cash flow, and ratios based on the free cash flow, to conduct and evaluate our business because, although it is similar to cash flow from operations, we believe it is a more conservative measure of cash flow since purchases of fixed assets and intangible assets are a necessary component of ongoing operations. In limited circumstances in which proceeds from sales of fixed or intangible assets exceed purchases, free cash flow would exceed cash flow from operations. However, since we do not anticipate being a net seller of fixed or intangible assets, we expect free cash flow to be less than operating cash flows.

Our Segments

We manage our business in two operating segments, which are also our reportable segments: (i) the Bus segment, which involves the design, engineering, manufacture and sales of school buses and extended warranties; and (ii) the Parts segment, which includes the sales of replacement bus parts. Financial information is reported on the basis that it is used internally by the chief operating decision maker (“CODM”) in evaluating segment performance and deciding how to allocate resources to segments. The President and Chief Executive Officer of the Company has been identified as the CODM. Management evaluates the segments based primarily upon revenues and gross profit.


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Consolidated Results of Operations for the Three Months Ended July 4, 2020 and June 29, 2019:
 
 
Three Months Ended
(in thousands of dollars)
 
July 4, 2020
 
June 29, 2019
Net sales
 
$
189,181

 
$
308,774

Cost of goods sold
 
168,099

 
266,992

Gross profit
 
$
21,082

 
$