Last10K.com

Aemetis, Inc (AMTX) SEC Filing 10-K Annual Report for the fiscal year ending Friday, December 31, 2021

Aemetis, Inc

CIK: 738214 Ticker: AMTX

  EXHIBIT 99.1

 

 

External Investor Relations Contact:

Kirin Smith

PCG Advisory Group

(646) 863-6519

ksmith@pcgadvisory.com

 

Company Contact:

                                                     Todd Waltz

                                   Chief Financial Officer

                                                               (408) 213-0925

                                      twaltz@aemetis.com

 

Aemetis Reports 2021 Fourth Quarter and Year-End Results

Year over year revenues increase 28% by $46 million

 

CUPERTINO, Calif. – March 10, 2022 –

Aemetis, Inc. (NASDAQ: AMTX), a renewable natural gas and renewable fuels company focused on below zero carbon intensity products, today announced its financial results for the three and twelve months ended December 31, 2021.

 

“Revenues for 2021 increased 28% compared to 2020 due to increased demand for low carbon transportation fuels and as the economy continued to rebound from COVID-19 disruptions,” said Todd Waltz, Chief Financial Officer of Aemetis.  “Revenues during 2021 increased to $212 million compared to $166 million during 2020. Property acquired for carbon intensity reduction projects were $30.5 million for 2021 as our engineering and construction teams moved forward with the initiatives outlined in our Five-Year Plan,” added Waltz.

 

“We are pleased with the milestones accomplished during 2021 and early 2022, including the acquisition of the 125-acre Riverbank Industrial Complex for our sustainable aviation fuel and renewable diesel plant, as well as signing $2.5 billion of off-take agreements with major airlines and $3.2 billion with a leading travel stop chain,” said Eric McAfee, Chairman and CEO of Aemetis.  “The Aemetis Biogas RNG project progressed with construction on the next phase of 15 dairy digesters, completing construction of a substantial portion of our 32-mile biogas pipeline extension, building the biogas conditioning hub and completing the utility gas pipeline interconnection unit.  We also received a drilling study from Baker Hughes confirming the feasibility of injecting more than two million metric tons per year of CO2 for sequestration in the unique formations under our two biofuels plant sites in California.  Importantly, we recently closed two credit facilities with an aggregate availability of up to $100 million to fund the completion of all of the carbon reduction projects at the Keyes ethanol plant and provide all of the funding prior to project financing for the jet/diesel plant and the two carbon sequestration wells. We invite investors to review the updated Aemetis Corporate Presentation and the Aemetis Investor Presentation on the Aemetis home page prior to the earnings call.”

 

Today, Aemetis will host an earnings review call at 11:00 a.m. Pacific time (PT).

 

Live Participant Dial In (Toll Free): +1-888-506-0062 entry code 395788

Live Participant Dial In (International): +1-973-528-0011 entry code 395788

Webcast URL:  https://www.webcaster4.com/Webcast/Page/2211/44782

 

For the presentation and details on the call, please visit

http://www.aemetis.com/investors/conference-calls/

 

 
1

 

 

Financial Results for the Three Months Ended December 31, 2021

 

Revenues were $64.4 million for the fourth quarter of 2021, compared to $37.3 million for the fourth quarter of 2020. The selling price of ethanol increased from $1.60 per gallon during the fourth quarter of 2020 to $3.36 per gallon during the fourth quarter of 2021. The delivered corn price rose from an average of $5.61 per bushel during the fourth quarter of 2020 to $7.23 per bushel during the fourth quarter of 2021. Our California Ethanol and Dairy Natural Gas segments accounted for all of the reported consolidated gross profit in both periods.

 

Gross profit for the three months ended December 31, 2021 was $12.7 million, compared to a gross loss of $3.4 million during the same period in 2020. The gross profit increase was attributable to stronger ethanol and wet distillers grain pricing during the fourth quarter of 2021 compared to the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased to $7.5 million during the fourth quarter of 2021, compared to $4.3 million during the fourth quarter of 2020, principally due to a $2.5 million non-cash, share based compensation charge.

 

Operating profit was $5.2 million for the fourth quarter of 2021, compared to an operating loss of $7.7 million during the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

Net loss was $881 thousand for the fourth quarter of 2021, compared to a net loss of $14.6 million for the fourth quarter of 2020. 

 

Cash at the end of the fourth quarter of 2021 was $7.8 million, compared to $592 thousand at the end of the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

Financial Results for the Twelve Months Ended December 31, 2021

 

Revenues were $212 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to $166 million for the same period in 2020. The increase in revenue was primarily attributable to increases in the sales price for ethanol in California from $1.84 per gallon during 2020 to $2.72 per gallon as demand for ethanol increased as recovery from COVID-19 disruptions continued. 

 

Gross profit for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 was $7.9 million, compared to $11.0 million of gross profit during the same period in 2020, primarily due to the stronger margin associated with high-grade alcohol sales coupled with the lower corn price during the year ended December 31, 2020 in our California Ethanol segment and lower gross margin contribution from our India Biodiesel segment during 2021.

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses increased to $23.7 million during the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to $16.9 million during the same period in 2020, driven principally from a charge for stock-based compensation, property insurance, and professional services.

 

Operating loss increased to $15.8 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, compared to an operating loss of $6.1 million for the same period in 2020.

 

 
2

 

 

Interest expense was $24.1 million during the year ended December 31, 2021, excluding accretion and other expense of Series A preferred units in our Aemetis Biogas LLC subsidiary, compared to interest expense of $26.4 million during the year ended December 31, 2020.  Additionally, our Aemetis Biogas LLC subsidiary recognized $7.7 million of accretion in connection with preference payments on its preferred stock during the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $4.7 million during the same period in 2020.

 

Net loss was $47.1 million for the twelve months ended December 31, 2021 compared to a net loss of $36.7 million during the same period in 2020.

 

Cash at the end of the fourth quarter of 2021 increased to $7.8 million compared to $592 thousand at the end of 2020.  Investments in our ultra-low carbon initiatives increased property, plant and equipment by $30.5 million while debt repayments of $55.5 million were made during 2021.  These activities and others were funded with proceeds from equity offerings of $103.6 million.

 

About Aemetis

 

Aemetis has a mission to transform renewable energy with below zero carbon intensity transportation fuels. Aemetis has launched the Carbon Zero production process to decarbonize the transportation sector using today’s infrastructure.

 

Aemetis Carbon Zero products include zero-carbon fuels that can "drop-in" to be used in airplanes, truck, and ship fleets. Aemetis low-carbon fuels have substantially reduced carbon intensity compared to standard petroleum fossil-based fuels across their lifecycle.  

 

Headquartered in Cupertino, California, Aemetis is a renewable natural gas, renewable fuel and biochemicals company focused on the acquisition, development and commercialization of innovative technologies that replace petroleum-based products and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Founded in 2006, Aemetis has completed Phase 1 and is expanding a California biogas digester network and pipeline system to convert dairy waste gas into Renewable Natural Gas. Aemetis owns and operates a 65 million gallon per year ethanol production facility in California’s Central Valley near Modesto that supplies about 80 dairies with animal feed. Aemetis also owns and operates a 50 million gallon per year production facility on the East Coast of India producing high quality distilled biodiesel and refined glycerin for customers in India and Europe.  Aemetis is developing the Carbon Zero sustainable aviation fuel (SAF) and renewable diesel fuel biorefineries in California to utilize distillers corn oil and other renewable oils to produce low carbon intensity renewable jet and diesel fuel using cellulosic hydrogen from waste orchard and forest wood, while pre-extracting cellulosic sugars from the waste wood to be processed into high value cellulosic ethanol at the Keyes plant. Aemetis holds a portfolio of patents and exclusive technology licenses to produce renewable fuels and biochemicals.  For additional information about Aemetis, please visit aemetis.com.

 

 
3

 

 

NON-GAAP FINANCIAL INFORMATION

 

We have provided non-GAAP measures as a supplement to financial results based on GAAP. A reconciliation of the non-GAAP measures to the most directly comparable GAAP measures is included in the accompanying supplemental data. Adjusted EBITDA is defined as net income/(loss) plus (to the extent deducted in calculating such net income) interest expense, gain on extinguishment, income tax expense, intangible and other amortization expense, accretion and other expenses of Series A preferred units, depreciation expense, and share-based compensation expense.

 

Adjusted EBITDA is not calculated in accordance with GAAP and should not be considered as an alternative to net income/(loss), operating income or any other performance measures derived in accordance with GAAP or to cash flows from operating, investing or financing activities as an indicator of cash flows or as a measure of liquidity. Adjusted EBITDA is presented solely as a supplemental disclosure because management believes that it is a useful performance measure that is widely used within the industry in which we operate. In addition, management uses Adjusted EBITDA for reviewing financial results and for budgeting and planning purposes. Adjusted EBITDA measures are not calculated in the same manner by all companies and, accordingly, may not be an appropriate measure for comparison between companies.

 

Safe Harbor Statement

 

This news release contains forward-looking statements, including statements regarding our assumptions, projections, expectations, targets, intentions or beliefs about future events or other statements that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements in this news release include, without limitation, statements related to our five-year growth plan, development of our sustainable aviation fuel and renewable diesel plant, construction of our Biogas RNG project, development of our carbon sequestration projects and development of our waste wood ethanol and biogas businesses in North America.  Words or phrases such as “anticipates,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “showing signs,” “targets,” “view,” “will likely result,” “will continue” or similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on current assumptions and predictions and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties.  Actual results or events could differ materially from those set forth or implied by such forward-looking statements and related assumptions due to certain factors, including, without limitation, competition in the ethanol, biodiesel and other industries in which we operate, commodity market risks including those that may result from current weather conditions, financial market risks, customer adoption, counter-party risks, risks associated with changes to federal policy or regulation, and other risks detailed in our reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, including our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2021 and in our subsequent filings with the SEC. We are not obligated, and do not intend, to update any of these forward-looking statements at any time unless an update is required by applicable securities laws.

 

 

(Tables follow)

 

 
4

 

 

AEMETIS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS

(In thousands, except per share data, unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

Year ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Revenues

 

$ 64,363

 

 

$ 37,330

 

 

$ 211,949

 

 

$ 165,557

 

Cost of goods sold

 

 

51,677

 

 

 

40,702

 

 

 

204,010

 

 

 

154,532

 

Gross profit (loss)

 

 

12,686

 

 

 

(3,372 )

 

 

7,939

 

 

 

11,025

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Research and development expenses

 

 

22

 

 

 

38

 

 

 

88

 

 

 

213

 

Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

 

7,454

 

 

 

4,334

 

 

 

23,676

 

 

 

16,882

 

Operating profit (loss)

 

 

5,210

 

 

 

(7,744 )

 

 

(15,825 )

 

 

(6,070 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate expense

 

 

5,234

 

 

 

5,987

 

 

 

20,136

 

 

 

22,943

 

Amortization expense

 

 

876

 

 

 

823

 

 

 

3,921

 

 

 

3,401

 

Accretion of Series A preferred

 

 

(210 )

 

 

586

 

 

 

7,718

 

 

 

4,673

 

Gain on debt extinguishment

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,134 )

 

 

-

 

Other expense

 

 

326

 

 

 

155

 

 

 

809

 

 

 

548

 

Loss before income taxes

 

 

(1,016 )

 

 

(15,295 )

 

 

(47,275 )

 

 

(37,635 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Income tax benefit

 

 

(135 )

 

 

(713 )

 

 

(128 )

 

 

(976 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss

 

$ (881 )

 

$ (14,582 )

 

$ (47,147 )

 

$ (36,659 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Net loss per common share

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

$ (0.03 )

 

$ (0.67 )

 

$ (1.54 )

 

$ (1.74 )

Diluted

 

$ (0.03 )

 

$ (0.67 )

 

$ (1.54 )

 

$ (1.74 )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Weighted average shares outstanding

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic

 

 

33,246

 

 

 

21,845

 

 

 

30,682

 

 

 

21,012

 

Diluted

 

 

33,246

 

 

 

21,845

 

 

 

30,682

 

 

 

21,012

 

 

 
5

 

 

AEMETIS, INC.

CONSOLIDATED CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS

(In thousands, unaudited)

 

 

 

Year ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Assets

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current assets:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$ 7,751

 

 

$ 592

 

Accounts receivable

 

 

1,574

 

 

 

1,821

 

Inventories

 

 

5,126

 

 

 

3,969

 

Prepaid and other current assets

 

 

6,242

 

 

 

2,301

 

Total current assets

 

 

20,693

 

 

 

8,683

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Property, plant and equipment, net

 

 

135,101

 

 

 

109,880

 

Other assets

 

 

5,037

 

 

 

6,576

 

Total assets

 

$ 160,831

 

 

$ 125,139

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Liabilities and stockholders' deficit

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Current liabilities:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accounts payable

 

$ 16,415

 

 

$ 20,739

 

Current portion of long term debt

 

 

8,192

 

 

 

44,974

 

Short term borrowings

 

 

14,586

 

 

 

14,541

 

Mandatorily redeemable Series B convertible preferred stock

 

 

3,806

 

 

 

3,252

 

Accrued property taxes and other liabilities

 

 

22,331

 

 

 

18,729

 

Total current liabilities

 

 

65,330

 

 

 

102,235

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total long term liabilities

 

 

215,739

 

 

 

207,648

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stockholders' deficit:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Series B convertible preferred stock

 

 

1

 

 

 

1

 

Common stock

 

 

33

 

 

 

23

 

Additional paid-in capital

 

 

205,305

 

 

 

93,426

 

Accumulated deficit

 

 

(321,227 )

 

 

(274,080 )

Accumulated other comprehensive loss

 

 

(4,350 )

 

 

(4,114 )

Total stockholders' deficit

 

 

(120,238 )

 

 

(184,744 )

Total liabilities and stockholders' deficit

 

$ 160,831

 

 

$ 125,139

 

 

 
6

 

 

RECONCILIATION OF ADJUSTED EBITDA TO NET INCOME / (LOSS) 

(In thousands, unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended

December 31,

 

 

Year ended

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Net loss attributable to Aemetis, Inc.

 

$ (881 )

 

$ (14,582 )

 

$ (47,147 )

 

$ (36,659 )

Adjustments:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest expense

 

 

6,110

 

 

 

6,810

 

 

 

24,057

 

 

 

26,344

 

Depreciation expense

 

 

1,342

 

 

 

1,379

 

 

 

5,448

 

 

 

4,894

 

Accretion of Series A preferred

 

 

(210 )

 

 

586

 

 

 

7,718

 

 

 

4,673

 

Share-based-compensation

 

 

2,527

 

 

 

169

 

 

 

3,928

 

 

 

995

 

Intangibles and other expense

 

 

11

 

 

 

12

 

 

 

46

 

 

 

48

 

Gain on debt extinguishment

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,134 )

 

 

 

 

Income tax benefit

 

 

(135 )

 

 

(713 )

 

 

(128 )

 

 

(976 )

Total adjustments

 

 

9,645

 

 

 

8,243

 

 

 

39,935

 

 

 

35,978

 

Adjusted EBITDA

 

$ 8,764

 

 

$ (6,339 )

 

$ (7,212 )

 

$ (681 )

 

PRODUCTION AND PRICE PERFORMANCE

(unaudited)

 

 

 

Three months ended

 

 

Year ended

 

 

 

December 31,

 

 

December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

Ethanol and high grade alcohol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gallons sold (in millions)

 

 

15.2

 

 

 

15.4

 

 

 

59.8

 

 

 

60.3

 

Average sales price/gallon

 

$ 3.36

 

 

$ 1.60

 

 

$ 2.72

 

 

$ 1.84

 

Percent of nameplate capacity

 

 

111 %

 

 

112 %

 

 

109 %

 

 

112 %

WDG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tons sold (in thousands)

 

 

105

 

 

 

101

 

 

 

404

 

 

 

393

 

Average sales price/ton

 

$ 103

 

 

$ 90

 

 

$ 103

 

 

$ 81

 

Delivered Cost of Corn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bushels ground (in millions)

 

 

5.4

 

 

 

5.3

 

 

 

20.9

 

 

 

21.1

 

Average delivered cost/bushel

 

$ 7.23

 

 

$ 5.61

 

 

$ 7.52

 

 

$ 5.05

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MMBtu sold

 

 

13,361

 

 

 

9,388

 

 

 

53,041

 

 

 

9,388

 

Biodiesel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metric tons sold (in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.7

 

 

 

0.5

 

 

 

16.0

 

Average sales price/metric ton

 

$ -

 

 

$ 879

 

 

$ 1,024

 

 

$ 863

 

Percent of nameplate capacity

 

 

0 %

 

 

5 %

 

 

1 %

 

 

10 %

 

 
7

 


The following information was filed by Aemetis, Inc (AMTX) on Thursday, March 10, 2022 as an 8K 2.02 statement, which is an earnings press release pertaining to results of operations and financial condition. It may be helpful to assess the quality of management by comparing the information in the press release to the information in the accompanying 10-K Annual Report statement of earnings and operation as management may choose to highlight particular information in the press release.

 

 

 UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

———————

FORM 10-K

———————

 

ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

 

For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021

Commission file number:  000-51354

 

AEMETIS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware

 

26-1407544

(State or other jurisdiction of

 incorporation or organization)

 

(I.R.S. Employer

 Identification Number)

 

20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 700

Cupertino, CA 95014

(Address of principal executive offices)

 

Registrant’s telephone number (including area code):  (408) 213-0940

 

Securities registered under Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act:

 

Common Stock, Par Value $0.001

(Title of class)

 

Title of each class of registered securities

Trading Symbol

Name of each exchanges on which registered

Common Stock, $0.001 par value

AMTX

NASDAQ

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.  Yes ☐    No

 

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.  Yes ☐    No

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☑      No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files). Yes ☑ No ☐

 

Indicate by check mark if disclosure of delinquent filers pursuant to Item 405 of Regulation S-K (§229.405 of this chapter) is not contained herein, and will not be contained, to the best of registrant’s knowledge, in definitive proxy or information statements incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K or any amendment to this Form 10-K.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company.  See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.  (Check one):

 

Large accelerated filer

 

Accelerated filer

Non-accelerated filer

(Do not check if a smaller reporting company)

Smaller reporting company

Emerging growth company

 

 

 

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes    No ☑

 

The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common equity held by non-affiliates of the registrant was approximately $302.0 Million as of June 30, 2021 based on the average bid and asked price on the NASDAQ Global Market reported for such date.  This calculation does not reflect a determination that certain persons are affiliates of the registrant for any other purpose.

 

The number of shares outstanding of the registrant’s Common Stock on February 28, 2022 was 33,826,392 shares.

 

DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE

 

Portions of the Proxy Statement for the Registrant’s 2022 Annual Meeting of Stockholders which will be filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission with in 120 days after the end of the Registrants fiscal year ended December 31, 2021, are incorporated by reference in Part III of this Form 10-K.

  

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Page

 

PART I

Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1.  Business

 

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

 

 

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 2.  Properties

 

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures

 

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

PART II

 

 

 

 

 

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

 

31

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

 

 

32

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

 

32

 

 

 

 

 

Item 7A. Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosure about Market Risk

 

 

43

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 8.  Financial Statements and Supplementary Data

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9.  Changes in and Disagreements with Accountants on Accounting and Financial Disclosure

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9A.  Controls and Procedures

 

 

44

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 9B.  Other Information

 

 

45

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART III

 

 

 

 

 

Item 10.  Directors, Executive Officers and Corporate Governance

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 11.  Executive Compensation

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 12.  Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management and Related Stockholder Matters

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 13.  Certain Relationships and Related Transactions, and Director Independence

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

Item 14.  Principal Accounting Fees and Services

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART IV

 

 

 

 

 

Item 15.  Exhibits and Financial Statement Schedules

 

 

47

 

 

 

 

 

 

Index to Financial Statements

 

 

55

 

 

 

 

 

 

Signatures

 

 

97

 

 

 
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Table of Contents

 

PART I

 

SPECIAL NOTE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

On one or more occasions, we may make forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K, including statements regarding our assumptions, projections, expectations, targets, intentions or beliefs about future events or other statements that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements in this Annual Report on Form 10-K include, without limitation, statements regarding management’s plans; trends in market conditions with respect to prices for inputs for our products versus prices for our products; our ability to leverage approved feedstock pathways; our ability to leverage our location and infrastructure; our ability to incorporate lower cost, non‑food advanced biofuels feedstock at the Keyes plant; our ability to adopt value‑add by-product processing systems; our ability to expand into alternative markets for biodiesel and its by-products, including continuing to expand our sales into international markets; our ability to maintain and expand strategic relationships with suppliers; our ability to continue to develop new and to maintain and protect new and existing intellectual property rights; our ability to adopt, develop and commercialize new technologies; our ability to refinance our senior debt on more commercial terms or at all; our ability to continue to fund operations and our future sources of liquidity and capital resources; our ability to sell additional notes under our EB‑5 note program and our expectations regarding the release of funds from escrow under our EB-5 note program; our ability to improve margins; and our ability to raise additional capital. Words or phrases such as “anticipates,” “may,” “will,” “should,” “believes,” “estimates,” “expects,” “intends,” “plans,” “predicts,” “projects,” “targets,” “will likely result,” “will continue” or similar expressions are intended to identify forward looking statements. These forward-looking statements are based on current assumptions and predictions and are subject to numerous risks and uncertainties. Actual results or events could differ materially from those set forth or implied by such forward-looking statements and related assumptions due to certain factors, including, without limitation, the risks set forth under the caption “Risk Factors” below, which are incorporated herein by reference as well as those business risks and factors described elsewhere in this report and in our other filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”).

 

We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.  

 

We obtained the market data used in this report from internal company reports and industry publications. Industry publications generally state that the information contained in those publications has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable, but their accuracy and completeness are not guaranteed, and their reliability cannot be assured.  Although we believe market data used in this Form 10‑K is reliable, it has not been independently verified.

 

Unless the context requires otherwise, references to “we,” “us,” “our,” and “the Company” refer specifically to Aemetis, Inc. and its subsidiaries.

 

Item 1.  Business

 

General

 

Founded in 2006 and headquartered in Cupertino, California, Aemetis, Inc. (collectively with its subsidiaries on a consolidated basis, “Aemetis,” the “Company,” “we,” “our” or “us”) is an international renewable fuels and byproducts company focused on the acquisition, development and commercialization of innovative negative carbon intensity products and technologies that replace traditional petroleum-based products and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (“GHG”).  We recognize three reportable segments which include “California Ethanol,” “Dairy Renewable Natural Gas,” and “India Biodiesel.”  We have other operating segments, which we determined not to be reportable segments, collectively represented by the “All Other” category. For revenue and other information regarding our operating segments, see Note 12 - Segment Information, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

 

In 2006, we incorporated in Nevada.  In December 2021, we reincorporated in Delaware.  We believe the reincorporation is a progression in the growth and development of the Company. The reincorporation moves us to a more accessible jurisdiction for debt financing and other transactions.

 

We own and operate a 65 million gallon per year ethanol production facility located in Keyes, California (the “Keyes Plant”). In addition to low carbon renewable fuel ethanol, the Keyes Plant produces Wet Distillers Grains (“WDG”), Distillers Corn Oil (“DCO”), and Condensed Distillers Solubles (“CDS”), all of which are sold as animal feed to local dairies and feedlots. In the fourth quarter of 2021, an ethanol zeolite membrane dehydration system was installed, and is in process of being commissioned at the Keyes Plant. The installation is a key first step in the electrification of the Keyes Plant, which will significantly reduce the use of petroleum based natural gas as process energy.  The electrification, along with the future installation of a two-megawatt zero carbon intensity solar microgrid system and a mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) system will greatly reduce GHG emissions and decreases the carbon intensity of fuel produced at the Keyes Plant, allowing us to realize a higher price for the ethanol we produce and sell.

 

 
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During 2018, Aemetis Biogas, LLC (“ABGL”) was formed to construct bio-methane anaerobic digesters at local dairies near the Keyes Plant, many of whom also purchase WDG produced at the Keyes Plant. Our renewable natural gas segment, ABGL, has completed Phase 1 of our California biogas digester network and pipeline system that converts waste dairy methane gas into Dairy Renewable Natural Gas (“RNG”) and is now executing Phase 2 construction projects. The digesters are connected via an underground private pipeline owned by ABGL to a gas cleanup and compression unit being built at the Keyes Plant to produce RNG. During the third quarter of 2020, ABGL completed construction of the first two dairy digesters along with four miles of pipeline that carries bio-methane from the dairies to the Keyes Plant. Upon receiving the bio-methane from the dairies, impurities are removed, and the bio-methane is converted to negative carbon intensity RNG where it will be either injected into the statewide PG&E gas utility pipeline, supplied as compressed RNG that will service local trucking fleets, or used as renewable process energy at the Keyes Plant.

 

The next phase, involving construction of ten dairy digesters, is planned for completion in 2022. When completed, our dairy digesters are expected to produce dairy renewable natural gas for use in trucks and buses to displace petroleum-based diesel fuel. The total planned 52 dairies in our Dairy Renewable Natural Gas segment are expected to be operating by Q4 of 2025 and are expected to capture more than 1.4 million MMBtu of dairy methane and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. 

 

During the first quarter of 2021, we announced our “Carbon Zero” biofuels production plants designed to produce biofuels, including sustainable aviation fuel (“SAF”) and diesel fuel utilizing renewable hydrogen and non-edible renewable oils sourced from our existing biofuels plants and other sources. The first plant to be built in Riverbank, California, “Carbon Zero 1”, is expected to utilize hydroelectric and other renewable power available onsite to produce 90 million gallons per year of SAF, renewable diesel, and other byproducts. The plant is expected to supply the aviation and truck markets with ultra-low carbon renewable fuels to reduce GHG emissions and other pollutants associated with conventional petroleum-based fuels. By producing ultra-low carbon renewable fuels, the Company expects to capture higher value D3 Renewable Identification Numbers (“RINs”) and California’s Low Carbon Fuel Standard (“LCFS”) credits. D3 RINs have a higher value in the marketplace than D6 RINs due to D3 RINs’ relative scarcity and mandated pricing formula from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”).  Carbon Zero 1 is included in the All Other category and determined not to be a reportable segment.

 

In 2021, the Company signed a 10-year, 250-million-gallon blended fuel (containing SAF) offtake agreement and a 10-year, 450-million-gallon renewable diesel supply agreement with an industry-leading travel stop company.

 

On April 1, 2021, we established Aemetis Carbon Capture, Inc. to build Carbon Capture Sequestration (“CCS”) projects to generate LCFS and IRS 45Q credits by injecting CO₂ into wells which are monitored for emissions to ensure the long-term sequestration of carbon underground. California’s Central Valley has been identified as the state’s most favorable region for large-scale CO₂ injection projects due to the subsurface geologic formation that retains gases. The CCS projects are included in the All Other category and determined not to be a reportable segment.

 

During 2021, a Stanford University study concluded that more than 2 million metric tonnes (MT) per year of CO₂ can be removed from the atmosphere and injected safely into the earth at ethanol plant sites in California. The study estimated that 1.0 million MT per year of CO₂ can be sequestered in the saline formations located deep underground at or near the Keyes Plant site. The study also noted that up to 1.4 million MT per year of CO₂ should be injectable at or near the Aemetis Riverbank site due to the favorable permeability of the saline formation and other factors. The conclusions from geologic formation and pre-drilling studies confirms the feasibility of our plans to construct two CO₂ injections wells at or near the Aemetis biofuels sites. We have completed the Front End Loading engineering and are now working on the Front End Engineering Design and obtaining permits for the carbon sequestration projects. Each MT of CO₂ is expected to generate approximately $200 per MT from the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard and $50 per MT of IRS 45Q tax credit.  Legislation is pending in Congress to increase the federal tax credit to $80 per MT of CO₂ and to provide billions of dollars of grants and loans to finance CCS projects in the U.S.

 

We operate a research and development laboratory to develop efficient conversion technologies using waste feedstocks to produce biofuels and biochemicals. We are continuing to develop a biomass-to-fuel technology to build a carbon zero production facility. The research and development laboratory is included in the All Other category and determined not to be a reportable segment.

 

We also own and operate the Kakinada Plant with a nameplate capacity of 150 thousand metric tons per year, or about 50 million gallons per year, producing high quality distilled biodiesel and refined glycerin for customers in India and Europe. We believe the Kakinada Plant is one of the largest biodiesel production facilities in India on a nameplate capacity basis. The Kakinada Plant is capable of processing a variety of vegetable oils and animal fat waste feedstocks into biodiesel that meet international product standards. The Kakinada Plant also distills the crude glycerin byproduct from the biodiesel refining process into refined glycerin, which is sold to the pharmaceutical, personal care, paint, adhesive and other industries.

 

 
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Table of Contents

 

Strategy

 

Key elements of our strategy include:

 

California Ethanol

 

Diversify and expand revenue and cash flow by continuing to develop and adopt value-added by-product processing systems and optimize other systems in our existing plants.  In April 2012, we installed a DCO extraction unit at the Keyes Plant and began extracting corn oil for sale into the livestock feed market.  During 2014, we installed a second oil extraction system to further improve corn oil yields from this process. During late 2017, we entered into agreements to sell substantially all of the CO₂ produced at the Keyes Plant to Messer Gas, which built a liquid CO₂ plant adjacent to the Keyes Plant that was operational in the second quarter of 2020.  We have plans to install a mechanical vapor recovery (“MVR”) system that allows for the compression of process vapor to steam resulting in a significant reduction of natural gas consumption.  Additionally, we are developing the Aemetis Integrated Solar Microgrid Systems (AIMS) with battery backup that allows for the displacement of natural gas electricity with zero carbon intensity electricity, which is expected to begin construction at the Keyes Plant in the second quarter of 2022.  We continue to evaluate and, as allowed by available financing and free cash flow from operations, adopt additional value-added processes that decrease costs and increase the value of the ethanol, WDG, DCO, CDS, and CO₂ produced at the Keyes Plant.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

Leverage our position as owner/operator of dairy digesters and connected pipeline to expand the network thereby increasing revenues and profitability.  In December 2018, we leveraged our relationship with California’s Central Valley dairy farmers by signing leases and raising funds to construct dairy digesters that collect bio-methane and pipelines that convey bio-methane to our Keyes Plant.  We have constructed our first two digesters, installed eleven miles of pipeline, and commenced operations of the initial pipeline and digesters in the third quarter of 2020.  In addition, we have signed agreements with over 25 additional dairies to construct additional dairy digesters. We plan on progressing our business plan by continuing to expand the dairy digesters and pipeline network.

 

India Biodiesel

 

Capitalize on recent policy changes by the Government of India.  We plan to continue to pursue the traditional bulk, fleet, industrial, retail, and transportation biodiesel markets in India, which we believe have become more attractive as a result of potential changes to government tax structures and policies, as well as new marketing channels that may open as a result of changes to government policy changes.   The rationalization of indirect taxation by the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (the “GST”), the introduction of biodiesel sales under government oil marketing company (“Government Oil Marketing Company”) contracts and the execution of contracts with major oil consumers are expected to drive revenue and margins in our India Biodiesel segment.

 

Pursue tender offers from Government Oil Marketing Companies.   In 2019, under the Indian government mandate of mixing biodiesel with diesel, the Kakinada Plant won the tender to supply biodiesel to Government Oil Marketing Companies such as Hindustan Petroleum, Bharat Petroleum, and Indian Oil Corporation and began supplying biodiesel in May 2019. These tenders open every six months, soliciting bids for the next six month period. The Company did not participate in tenders during 2021 due to low OMC offer price, coupled with very high feedstock prices as a result of COVID-19. We plan to pursue these tender offers made by the Government Oil Marketing Companies on economically reasonable terms.

 

Diversify our feedstocks from India.  We designed our Kakinada Plant with the capability to produce biodiesel from multiple feedstocks.  In 2009, we began to produce biodiesel from non-refined palm oil (“NRPO”). Between 2014 and 2019, we further diversified our feedstock to include animal oils and fats, which we used for the production of biodiesel to be sold into the European markets, refined, bleached & deodorized Palm Stearin, crude palm stearin, and RBD palm stearin. The byproduct of using high fat RBD palm stearin and crude palm stearin is Palm Fatty Acid Distiller (“PFAD”), which can be further processed into biodiesel and sold, or sold directly into the market starting in the third quarter of 2019. Additionally, the Kakinada Plant is capable of producing biodiesel from used cooking oil (“UCO”); however, the importation of UCO is not currently allowed in India, and as a result, we are looking for a local supply source of UCO to expand our feedstock diversity. In 2018, we completed a pretreatment unit at the Kakinada Plant to convert up to 5% high free fatty acid (“FFA”) feedstocks into oil that can be used to produce biodiesel, which was further upgraded in 2019 to convert up to 20% high FFA feedstocks, both of which are available at lower cost than our traditional feedstocks. During 2021, the Company, after receiving approval from the Pollution Control Board of India for use of Refined Animal Tallow for production of biodiesel, began procuring Refined Animal Tallow. The Indian biodiesel industry is requesting the Indian government to allow the export of biodiesel to other countries. The Company is exploring the export of Animal Tallow based biodiesel to California to capture LCFS credits.

 

 
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Table of Contents

 

Develop and commercially deploy technologies to produce high-margin products. We plan to continue investing in the conversion of lower quality, waste oils into higher value biofuels, including renewable diesel.  Additionally, we continue to evaluate improvements to the throughput capacity and efficiency of the plant.  We plan to invest in those areas that allow for more efficient and higher throughput for the processing of biodiesel and refined glycerin.  The technologies for these conversion process may be licensed from third parties or internally developed.

 

Evaluate and pursue technology acquisition opportunities.  We intend to evaluate and pursue opportunities to acquire technologies and processes that result in accretive earnings opportunities as financial resources and business prospects make the acquisition of these technologies and processes advisable. In addition, we may also seek to acquire companies, or enter into licensing agreements or form joint ventures with companies that offer prospects for the adoption of accretive earnings business opportunities.

 

Other Initiatives

 

Leverage technology for the development and production of additional advanced biofuels and renewable chemicals. We continue to evaluate new technology, develop technologies under our existing patents and conduct research and development to produce low or negative carbon intensity advanced biofuels from renewable feedstocks. Our objective is to continue to commercialize our portfolio of technologies and expand the adoption of these advanced biofuels and bio-chemicals technologies.

 

We hold certain rights to technologies for the conversion of orchard, forest, dairy, and construction and demolition waste wood into low carbon renewable fuel.  We intend to utilize this technology to produce renewable hydrogen for use in the production of SAF and diesel fuel at the Riverbank Carbon Zero 1 facility using agricultural biomass waste abundantly available from orchard waste wood in Californias Central Valley. Our planned first phase has an estimated 90 million gallons per year of nameplate capacity. We intend to expand production facilities to build additional plants in California to utilize the estimated 1.6 million tons of annual waste orchard wood in Central California, as well as other waste wood feedstocks.

 

Acquire, license our technologies to, or joint venture with other ethanol and biodiesel plants.  There are approximately 200 ethanol plants that are operational in the U.S., as well as biofuels plants in Brazil, Argentina, India and elsewhere in the world that could be upgraded to expand revenues and improve their cash flow using technology commercially deployed or licensed by us.  After developing and commercially demonstrating technologies at the Keyes Plant, Kakinada Plant and the Riverbank Facility, we will evaluate on an opportunistic basis the benefit of acquiring ownership stakes in other biofuel production facilities and entering into joint venture or licensing agreements with other ethanol, renewable diesel or renewable SAF facilities.

 

Evaluate and pursue technology acquisition opportunities.  We intend to evaluate and pursue opportunities to acquire technologies and processes that result in accretive value opportunities as financial resources and business prospects make the acquisition of these technologies and processes advisable. In addition, we may also seek to acquire companies, enter into licensing agreements or form joint ventures with companies that offer prospects for the adoption of technologies that would be accretive to earnings.

 

Additionally, we continue to evaluate technologies from our existing and planned operations for the development of the property in Goodland, Kansas.

 

 
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2021 Highlights

 

California Ethanol

 

During 2021, we produced five products: denatured fuel ethanol, WDG, DCO, CO₂, and CDS. During the first quarter of 2020, we transitioned from selling 100% of the ethanol we produce pursuant to a purchase agreement with J.D. Heiskell (“J.D. Heiskell Purchase Agreement”), to a model where 100% of the ethanol is sold directly to Kinergy Marketing LLC (“Kinergy”). We terminated the Ethanol Marketing Agreement with Kinergy as of September 30, 2021. Effective October 1, 2021, we entered into Fuel Ethanol Purchase and Sale Agreement with Murex LLC. Since May 2020, the ethanol stored in our finished goods tank is 100% owned by Aemetis. WDG continues to be sold to A.L.Gilbert and DCO is sold to other customers under the J.D.Heiskell Purchase Agreement. Smaller amounts of CDS were sold to various local third parties. We began selling CO₂ to Messer in the second quarter of 2020. We began selling high-grade alcohol for sanitizer in March 2020 directly to various customers throughout the West Coast and we also produced and sold Aemetis hand sanitizer under Aemetis Health Products, Inc. California Ethanol revenue is dependent on the price of ethanol, high-grade alcohol, WDG, CDS, and DCO.

 

The following table sets forth information about our production and sales of ethanol and high-grade alcohol and WDG in 2021, 2020, and 2019:

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

2021 vs 2020 %

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 Change

 

Ethanol and High-Grade Alcohol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gallons Sold (in millions)

 

 

59.8

 

 

 

60.3

 

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

-0.8%
Average Sales Price/Gallon

 

$2.72

 

 

$1.84

 

 

$1.77

 

 

 

47.8%
WDG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tons Sold (in thousands)

 

 

404

 

 

 

393

 

 

 

428

 

 

 

2.8%
Average Sales Price/Ton

 

$103

 

 

$81

 

 

$81

 

 

 

27.2%

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

The following table sets forth information about our production and sales of Dairy Renewable Natural Gas in 2021, 2020, and 2019:

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

2021 vs 2020 %

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 Change

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MMBtu intercompany sales

 

 

53,041

 

 

 

9,388

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

465.0%

 

India Biodiesel

 

In 2021, we primarily produced two products at the Kakinada Plant: biodiesel and refined glycerin produced from further processing of the crude glycerin produced as a by‑product of the production of biodiesel. After the 2019 pretreatment unit upgrade, we can convert high-FFA oil into a renewable oil feedstock that that may be converted into biodiesel and sold to biodiesel market plants in India or exported to foreign plants to use for the production of biodiesel, renewable diesel and/or jet fuel. The byproduct of processing high-FFA oil into biodiesel is PFAD, which can be processed further into biodiesel or sold directly into the market.

 

The following table sets forth information about our production and sales of biodiesel and refined glycerin in 2021, 2020, and 2019:

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

2021 vs 2020 %

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Change

 

Biodiesel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        Tons sold (1)

 

 

455

 

 

 

15,987

 

 

 

46,971

 

 

 

-97.2%

        Average Sales Price/Ton

 

$1,024

 

 

$863

 

 

$904

 

 

 

18.7%

Refined Glycerin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

        Tons sold

 

 

130

 

 

 

1,440

 

 

 

5,173

 

 

 

-91.0%

       Average Sales Price/Ton

 

$956

 

 

$814

 

 

$543

 

 

17.4

%

 

(1)     1 metric ton is equal to 1,000 kilograms (approximately 2,204 pounds).

 

 
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Competition

 

California Ethanol – According to the U.S. Energy Information Agency (the “EIA”), there were approximately 200 commercial ethanol production facilities in the U.S. with a combined nameplate production of approximately 17.5 billion gallons per year as of January 1, 2021. A May 2021 annual U.S. ethanol production forecast, by the Renewable Fuels Association, was approximately 16.4 billion gallons.  The production of ethanol is a commodity-based business where producers compete on the basis of price. We sell ethanol into the Northern California market. However, since insufficient production capacity exists in California to supply the state’s total fuel ethanol consumption (in excess of 1.5 billion gallons annually), we compete with ethanol transported into California from Midwestern producers. Similarly, our co-products, principally WDG and DCO, are sold into local California markets and compete with DDG and corn oil imported into the California markets as well as with alternative feed products.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – Dairy renewable natural gas competes with petroleum based natural gas for the value of the gas molecule and competes with other biofuels for qualifying volumes of renewable biofuel volumes under the federal Renewable Fuel Standard and the California Low Carbon Fuel Standard.  When used as a component of the energy inputs at our Keyes plant, the dairy renewable natural gas results in a lower pathway score, allowing us to sell ethanol into the market with the more valuable carbon attributes, and competing on the same basis as our California ethanol.

 

India Biodiesel – With respect to biodiesel sold as fuel, we compete primarily with the producers of petroleum diesel, consisting of the three Government Oil Marketing Companies:  Indian Oil Corporation, Bharat Petroleum and Hindustan Petroleum, and two private oil companies:  Reliance Petroleum and Essar Oil, all of whom have significantly larger market shares than we do and control a significant share of the distribution network.  These competitors also purchase our product for blending and further sales to their customers.  We compete primarily on the basis of price, quality and reliable delivery, since our plant can produce distilled biodiesel and has historically been a more reliable and high-quality supplier than some other biodiesel producers in India. 

 

With respect to biodiesel sold directly to fleets and other customers, we supply logistics companies that operate fleets of trucks, ocean port facilities with extensive trucking activities, beverage distributors, cement ready-mix suppliers, mining companies, infrastructure companies, and other companies that use diesel for transportation.

 

With respect to crude and refined glycerin, we compete with other glycerin producers and refiners selling products into the personal care, paints and adhesive markets primarily on the basis of price and product quality.

 

Customers

 

California Ethanol – During the first quarter of 2020, we transitioned from selling 100% of the ethanol we produce to J.D. Heiskell to selling the ethanol directly to Kinergy. Since May 2020, the ethanol stored in our finished goods tank is 100% owned by Aemetis. We terminated the Ethanol Marketing Agreement with Kinergy as of September 30, 2021. Effective October 1, 2021, we entered into Fuel Ethanol Purchase and Sale Agreement with Murex LLC, who markets 100% of our fuel ethanol. WDG continues to be sold to A.L.Gilbert and DCO is sold to other customers under the J.D.Heiskell Purchasing Agreement. Smaller amounts of CDS were sold to various local third parties. We began selling CO₂ to Messer Gas in the second quarter of 2020. In response to the global COVID-19 pandemic, we began selling high-grade alcohol for sanitizer in March 2020 directly to various customers throughout the West Coast and we also produced and sold Aemetis hand sanitizer under the Aemetis Health Products, Inc. California Ethanol revenue is dependent on the price of ethanol, high-grade alcohol, WDG, CDS, and DCO.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – During 2021, we sold 100% of the biogas produced to the California Ethanol plant for use in the production of ethanol.  The capability to interconnect with the regional pipeline in order to sell to a broader range of customers and to dispense fuel through a RNG station at or near the California Ethanol plant is in development.

 

India Biodiesel – During 2021, we derived 67%, 18%, and 15% of our sales from biodiesel, refined glycerin, and other sales respectively. One biodiesel customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated India Biodiesel segment revenues at 66%  and one refined glycerin customer accounted for 16% of our consolidated India Biodiesel segment revenues in 2021. During 2020, we derived 87%, 8%, and 5% of our sales from biodiesel, refined glycerin, and other sales, respectively. Two of our biodiesel customers accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated India Biodiesel segment revenues at 42% and 26%. None of our refined glycerin customers accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated India Biodiesel segment revenues in 2020.

 

 
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Pricing

 

California Ethanol – Revenue is dependent on the price of ethanol, WDG, high-grade alcohol, and DCO. Ethanol pricing is influenced by local and national inventory levels, local and national ethanol production, imported ethanol, corn prices and gasoline demand, and is determined pursuant to a marketing agreement with a single fuel marketing customer and is generally based on daily and monthly pricing for ethanol delivered to the San Francisco Bay Area, California, as published by Oil Price Information Service (“OPIS”), as well as quarterly contracts negotiated by our marketing customer with local fuel blenders. The price for WDG is influenced by the price of corn, the supply and price of distillers dried grains, and demand from the local dairy and feed markets and determined monthly pursuant to a marketing agreement with A.L. Gilbert and is generally determined in reference to the local price of dried distillers’ grains and other comparable feed products. High-grade alcohol pricing is based on the supply and demand restrictions in the current market. Our revenue is further influenced by the price of natural gas, our decision to operate the Keyes Plant at various capacity levels, conduct required maintenance, and respond to biological processes affecting output.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – Revenue is dependent on the price of petroleum natural gas, the price of alternative sources of renewable gas in the market, the value of environmental attributes and the method for selling the gas. Renewable natural gas pricing is influenced by local and national inventory levels, local and national gas production, petroleum production, and value of the related environmental attributes.  Further pricing is determined by the method of distribution, with each of the uses (replacement of natural gas at the California Ethanol plant, sell through the natural gas pipeline, or sell directly through renewable natural gas stations) providing separate pricing options. 

 

India Biodiesel – In India, the price of biodiesel is based on the price of petroleum diesel, which floats with changes in the price determined by the international markets. In 2019, India changed to a daily dynamic pricing model where diesel prices are changed on daily basis by the Government Oil Marketing Companies. Biodiesel sold into Europe is based on the spot market price, but a recent Indian government ban on exports closed this market for the Company for the time being. We sell our biodiesel primarily to Government Oil Marketing Companies, transport companies, resellers, distributors and private refiners on an as-needed basis.  We have no long-term sales contracts.  Our biodiesel pricing is related to the price of petroleum diesel, and the increase in the price of petroleum diesel is expected to favorably impact the profitability of our India operations.

 

Raw Materials and Suppliers

 

California Ethanol – We entered into a Corn Procurement and Working Capital Agreement with J.D. Heiskell in March 2011, which we amended in May 2020 (the “Heiskell Supply Agreement”). Under the Heiskell Supply Agreement, we agreed to procure number two yellow dent corn from J.D. Heiskell, with the ability to obtain corn from other sources subject to certain conditions. However, in 2020 and 2021, all our corn supply was purchased from J.D. Heiskell pursuant to the Heiskell Supply Agreement.  Title to the corn and risk of loss pass to us when the corn is deposited into our weigh scale.  The agreement is automatically renewed for additional one-year terms. The current term is set to expire on December 31, 2022, with automatic renewals for additional one-year terms.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – Biogas is produced by anerobic digesters located on property that Aemetis leases from dairy operators.  We construct and own the dairy digester and pipeline that connects the digesters together and feeds this gas to our gas clean up unit at our California Ethanol plant.  Our dairy leases include a manure supply agreement with the dairy where the digester is located.  Generally, these leases are for 20-25 years with options to renew and are based upon the value of environmental attributes and the size of the dairy.

 

India Biodiesel – In 2021 and 2020, a significant amount of our biodiesel was derived from processing refined palm stearin, which was sourced locally. The byproduct of using high fat RBD/crude palm stearin is PFAD, which can be processed further into biodiesel or sold directly as a product into the market starting in the third quarter of 2019. During 2021, the Company, after receiving approval from the Pollution Control Board of India for use of Refined Animal Tallow for production of biodiesel, began procuring Refined Animal Tallow. The Indian biodiesel industry is requesting the Indian government to allow the export of biodiesel to other countries. The Company is exploring the export of Animal Tallow based biodiesel to California to capture LCFS credits. In addition to feedstock, the Kakinada Plant requires quantities of methanol and chemical catalysts for use in the biodiesel production process.  These chemicals are also readily available and sourced from a number of suppliers surrounding the Kakinada Plant.  We are not dependent on sole source or limited source suppliers for any of our raw materials or chemicals.

 

Sales and Marketing

 

California Ethanol – During the first quarter of 2020, we transitioned from selling the ethanol we produce to J.D. Heiskell pursuant to the J.D. Heiskell Purchase Agreement, to a model where the ethanol is sold directly to our fuel marketing customers. We own the ethanol stored in our finished goods tank. WDG continues to be sold to A.L. Gilbert and DCO is sold to other customers under the J.D. Heiskell Purchase Agreement. Smaller amounts of CDS were sold to various local third parties. We began selling CO₂ to Messer Gas in the second quarter of 2020. We began selling high-grade alcohol in March 2020 directly to various customers throughout the West Coast and we also produced and sold Aemetis hand sanitizer through our subsidiary, Aemetis Health Products, Inc., in the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

 
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In March 2011, we entered into a WDG Purchase and Sale Agreement with A.L. Gilbert, pursuant to which A.L. Gilbert agreed to market, on an exclusive basis, all of the WDG we produce. The current term is set to expire on December 31, 2022 with automatic one-year renewals.

 

In October 2010, we entered into an exclusive marketing agreement with Kinergy to market and sell our ethanol.  Our marketing agreement with Kinergy was terminated as of September 30, 2021, and, effective October 1, 2021, we entered into Fuel Ethanol Purchase and Sale Agreement with Murex LLC, who now markets 100% of our fuel ethanol. The initial term of our agreement with Murex ends on October 31, 2023, with automatic one-year renewals thereafter.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – During 2021, we sold 100% of the biogas produced to the California Ethanol plant for use in the production of ethanol.  The capability to interconnect with the regional pipeline in order to sell to a broader range of customers and to dispense fuel through a RNG station directly to end-users at or near the California Ethanol plant is in development.

 

India Biodiesel - We sell our biodiesel and refined glycerin to (i) end-users utilizing our own sales force and independent sales agents, (ii) brokers who resell the product to end-users and (iii) Government Oil Marketing Companies.  We pay a sales commission on sales arranged by independent sales agents.

 

Commodity Risk Management Practices

 

California Ethanol – The cost of corn and the price of ethanol are volatile and the correlation of the pricing of these commodities form the basis for the profit margin at our Keyes Plant.  We are, therefore, exposed to commodity price risk.  Our risk management strategy is to operate in the physical market by purchasing corn and selling ethanol on a daily basis at the then prevailing market price.  We monitor these prices daily to test for an overall positive variable contribution margin. We periodically explore and utilize methods of mitigating the volatility of our commodity prices. Due to market volatility as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021 and 2020, we sold our WDG on a month-to-month basis to better manage commodity and pricing risk.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – The cost of leasing and operating dairy digesters is dependent on the size of the dairy and the value of the environmental attributes.  The price of renewable natural gas is volatile and uncorrelated with the cost of feedstock. We therefore are exposed to ongoing and substantial commodity price risk for our supply of dairy natural gas.    Our risk management strategy is to arrange for the payment to dairy operators based, in part, upon the value of the environmental attributes in order to reduce this lack of market correlation.  We monitor these prices daily to test for an overall positive variable contribution margin. We periodically explore and utilize methods of mitigating the volatility of our commodity prices.

 

India Biodiesel – The cost of crude or refined palm stearin and the price of biodiesel are volatile and are generally uncorrelated. We therefore are exposed to ongoing and substantial commodity price risk at our Kakinada plant.  Our risk management strategy is to produce biodiesel in India only when we believe we can generate positive gross margins and to idle the Kakinada Plant during periods of low or negative gross margins.  Additionally, we are pursuing relationships with large oil companies and trading partners pursuant to which we may match the procurement of feedstocks with the production of biofuels for sales that provide a fixed margin. 

 

In addition, to minimize our commodity risk, we modified the processes within our facility to utilize lower cost crude palm stearin and palm based products with high FFA content, which enables us to reduce our feedstock costs.  The price of our biodiesel is generally indexed to the local price of petroleum diesel, which floats with changes in the price determined by the international markets.

 

We have in the past, and we may in the future, use forward purchase contracts and other hedging strategies. However, the extent to which we engage in these risk management strategies may vary substantially from time to time depending on market conditions and other factors.

 

Research and Development

 

Our research and development efforts consist of developing, evaluating, and commercializing technologies and expanding the production of SAF, renewable diesel fuel, and other renewable bio-chemicals in the United States and India. The objective of this development activity is to bring efficient conversion technologies using waste feedstocks to produce biofuels and biochemicals on a large-scale, commercial basis.  Some of our innovations are protected by issued or pending patents.  We are developing additional technology and expect to file additional patents that will further strengthen our intellectual property portfolio.  We expect to continue to file and protect patents related to our business and future plans.

 

 
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In 2018, in cooperation with a federally funded agency, we secured a grant from the California Energy Commission to optimize and demonstrate the effectiveness of ionic liquids technologies for breaking down biomass to produce SAF and renewable diesel fuel.  After completion of technology development and pilot testing, this technology may be applied to the Carbon Zero production plants to commercialize this technology by converting the below zero carbon feedstocks such as waste wood and agricultural waste and renewable energy such as solar, RNG, biogas into energy dense liquid renewable fuels. A patent was awarded for this technology for the production of below zero carbon renewable fuel.

 

Patents and Trademarks

 

We filed a number of trademark applications within the U.S.  We do not consider the success of our business, as a whole, to be dependent on these trademarks.  In addition, we hold nine awarded patents in the United States.  Our patents cover processes to break down plant biomass and a technology to convert carbon chain chemical structures.  We intend to develop, maintain and secure further intellectual property rights and pursue new patents to expand upon our current patent base.

 

We have acquired exclusive rights to patented technology in support of the development and commercialization of our products, and we also rely on trade secrets and proprietary technology in developing potential products.  We continue to place significant emphasis on securing global intellectual property rights and we are pursuing new patents to expand upon our strong foundation for commercializing products in development.

 

We have received, and may receive in the future, claims of infringement of other parties’ proprietary rights.  See “Item 3. Legal Proceedings”.  Infringement or other claims could be asserted or prosecuted against us in the future, which could harm our business.  Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming, result in costly litigation and diversion of technical and management personnel, cause delays in the development of our products, or require us to develop non-infringing technology or enter into royalty or licensing arrangements.  Such royalty or licensing arrangements, if required, may require us to license back our technology or may not be available on terms acceptable to us, or at all.

 

In 2018, in cooperation with a federally funded agency, we secured a grant from the California Energy Commission to optimize and demonstrate the effectiveness of ionic liquids technologies for breaking down biomass to produce SAF and renewable diesel fuel.  After completion of technology development and pilot testing, this technology may be applied to the Carbon Zero production plants to commercialize this technology by converting the below zero carbon feedstocks such as waste wood and agricultural waste and renewable energy such as solar, RNG, biogas into energy dense liquid renewable fuels. A patent was awarded for this technology for the production of below zero carbon renewable fuel.

 

In January 2021, a U.S. patent was awarded for our exclusively licensed technology for the production of below zero carbon renewable fuel. This license enabled us to launch the “Carbon Zero” production plants that are designed to convert below zero carbon feedstocks such as waste wood and agricultural waste and renewable energy such as solar, RNG, and biogas into energy dense liquid renewable fuels. These renewable fuels can be utilized in hybrid electric cars or other electric engines which may create a below zero carbon greenhouse gas footprint across the entire life cycle of the fuel based on the Argonne National Laboratory’s GREET model, the leading lifecycle analysis measurement tool.

 

Environmental and Regulatory Matters

 

California Ethanol and Dairy Renewable Natural Gas – The final volumes requirements are set forth below and represent continued growth over historic levels. The final percentage standards meet or exceed the volume targets specified by Congress for total renewable fuel, biomass-based diesel and advanced biofuel.  As of January 31, 2022, the EPA had not issued final Renewable Fuel Volume Requirements for calendar years 2020, 2021, and 2022, indicating that the Agency was extending the deadline for compliance until further notice.

 

 

 

Renewable Fuel Volume Requirements for 2018-2022

 

Year 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020*

 

 

2021*

 

 

2022*

 

Cellulosic biofuel (million gallons)

 

 

288

 

 

 

418

 

 

 

510

 

 

 

620

 

 

 

770

 

Biomass-based diesel (billion gallons)

 

 

2.1

 

 

 

2.1

 

 

 

2.43

 

 

 

2.43

 

 

 

2.76

 

Advanced biofuel (billion gallons)

 

 

4.29

 

 

 

4.92

 

 

 

4.63

 

 

 

5.20

 

 

 

5.77

 

Renewable fuel (billion gallons)

 

 

19.29

 

 

 

19.92

 

 

 

17.13

 

 

 

18.52

 

 

 

20.77

 

 

Source: Environmental Protection Agency

*Proposed volume requirements

 

 
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We are subject to federal, state and local environmental laws, regulations and permit conditions, including those relating to the discharge of materials into the air, water and ground, the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, and the health and safety of our employees.  These laws, regulations and permits may, from time to time, require us to incur significant capital costs.  These include, but are not limited to, testing and monitoring plant emissions, and where necessary, obtaining and maintaining mitigation processes to comply with regulations.  They may also require us to make operational changes to limit actual or potential impacts to the environment.  A significant violation of these laws, regulations, permits or license conditions could result in substantial fines, criminal sanctions, permit revocations and/or facility shutdowns.  In addition, environmental laws and regulations change over time, and any such changes, more vigorous enforcement policies or the discovery of currently unknown conditions may require substantial additional environmental expenditures.

 

We are also subject to potential liability for the investigation and cleanup of environmental contamination at each of the properties that we own or operate and at off-site locations where we arrange for the disposal of hazardous wastes.  If significant contamination is identified at our properties in the future, costs to investigate and remediate this contamination as well as costs to investigate or remediate associated damage could be significant.  If any of these sites are subject to investigation and/or remediation requirements, we may be responsible under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (“CERCLA”) or other environmental laws for all or part of the costs of such investigation and/or remediation, and for damage to natural resources.  We may also be subject to related claims by private parties alleging property damage or personal injury due to exposure to hazardous or other materials at or from such properties.  While costs to address contamination or related third-party claims could be significant, based upon currently available information, we are not aware of any such material contamination or third-party claims.  Based on our current assessment of the environmental and regulatory risks, we have not accrued any-amounts for environmental matters as of December 31, 2021 and 2020.  The ultimate costs of any liabilities that may be identified or the discovery of additional contaminants could materially adversely impact our results of operation or financial condition.

 

In addition, the production and transportation of our products may result in spills or releases of hazardous substances, which could result in claims from governmental authorities or third parties relating to actual or alleged personal injury, property damage, or damage to natural resources.  We maintain insurance coverage against some, but not all, potential losses caused by our operations.  Our general and umbrella liability policy coverage includes, but is not limited to, physical damage to assets, employer’s liability, comprehensive general liability, automobile liability and workers’ compensation.  We do not carry environmental insurance.  We believe that our insurance is adequate for our industry, but losses could occur for uninsurable or uninsured risks or in amounts in excess of existing insurance coverage.  The occurrence of events which result in significant personal injury or damage to our property, natural resources or third parties that is not covered by insurance could have a material adverse impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our air emissions are subject to the federal Clean Air Act, and similar state laws, which generally require us to obtain and maintain air emission permits for our ongoing operations as well as for any expansion of existing facilities or any new facilities.  Obtaining and maintaining those permits requires us to incur costs, and any future more stringent standards may result in increased costs and may limit or interfere with our operating flexibility.  These costs could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.  Because other ethanol manufacturers in the U.S. are and will continue to be subject to similar laws and restrictions, we do not currently believe that our costs to comply with current or future environmental laws and regulations will adversely affect our competitive position with other U.S. ethanol producers.  However, because ethanol is produced and traded internationally, these costs could adversely affect us in our efforts to compete with foreign producers who are not subject to such stringent requirements.

 

 
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New laws or regulations relating to the production, disposal or emission of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases may require us to incur significant additional costs with respect to ethanol plants that we build or acquire.  We currently conduct our North American commercial activities exclusively in California. Climate change and reduction legislation is a topic of consideration by the U.S. Congress and California State Legislature, which may significantly impact the biofuels industry’s emissions regulations, as will the RFS, California’s LCFS, and other potentially significant changes in existing transportation fuels regulations.

 

India Biodiesel - We are subject to national, state and local environmental laws, regulations and permits, including with respect to the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, and the health and safety of our employees.  These laws may require us to make operational changes to limit actual or potential impacts to the environment.  A violation of these laws, regulations or permits can result in substantial fines, natural resource damages, criminal sanctions, permit revocations and/or facility shutdowns.  In addition, environmental laws and regulations (and interpretations thereof) change over time, and any such changes, more vigorous enforcement policies or the discovery of currently unknown conditions may require substantial additional environmental expenditures.

 

Employees

 

At December 31, 2021, we had a total of 158 employees, comprised of 14 full-time employees in our corporate offices, 42 full-time equivalent employees at the Keyes Plant, 5 full-time Aemetis Biogas employees, 3 full-time employees at the Riverbank site, and 94 full-time equivalent employees in India.

 

We believe that our employees are highly skilled, and our success will depend in part upon our ability to retain our employees and attract new qualified employees, many of whom are in great demand. We have never had a work stoppage or strike, and no employees are presently represented by a labor union or covered by a collective bargaining agreement. We believe relations with our employees are positive.

 

Available Information

 

We file reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). We make available on our website under “Investor” free of charge, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports as soon as reasonably practicable after we electronically file such materials with or furnish them to the SEC. Our website address is www.aemetis.com. Our website address is provided as an inactive textual reference only, and the contents of that website are not incorporated in or otherwise to be regarded as part of this report. You can also read and copy any materials we file with the SEC at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 100 F Street, NE, Washington, DC 20549. You may also obtain additional information about the operation of the Public Reference Room by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. In addition, the SEC maintains an Internet site (www.sec.gov) that contains reports, proxy and information statements, and other information regarding issuers that file electronically with the SEC, including us.

 

Item 1A.  Risk Factors

 

We operate in an evolving industry that presents numerous risks beyond our control that are driven by factors that cannot be predicted.  Should any of the risks described in this section or in the documents incorporated by reference in this report actually occur, our business, results of operations, financial condition, or stock price could be materially and adversely affected.  Investors should carefully consider the risk factors discussed below, in addition to the other information in this report, before making any investment in our securities.

 

Risks Related to our Overall Business

 

We are currently not profitable and historically, we have incurred significant losses.  If we incur continued losses, we may have to curtail our operations, which may prevent us from successfully operating and expanding our business.

 

Historically, we have relied upon cash from debt and equity financing activities to fund substantially all of the cash requirements of our activities.  As of December 31, 2021, we had an accumulated deficit of approximately $321.2 million.  For our fiscal years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019, we reported a net loss of $47.1 million, $36.7 million, and $39.5 million respectively. We may incur losses for an indeterminate period of time and may not achieve consistent profitability.  We expect to rely on cash on hand, cash, if any, generated from our operations, borrowing availability, if any, under our lines of credit and proceeds from future financing activities, if any, to fund all of the cash requirements of our business.  In some market environments, we may have limited access to incremental financing, which could defer or cancel growth projects, reduce business activity or cause us to default on our existing debt agreements if we are unable to meet our payment schedules. An extended period of losses or negative cash flow may prevent us from successfully operating and expanding our business.  

 

 
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Our indebtedness, preference payments, and interest expense could limit cash flow and adversely affect operations and our ability to make full payment on outstanding debt.

 

For the year ended December 31, 2021, we recognized $27.9 million in interest rate expense and accretion of Series A preferred units (excludes debt related fees and amortization expense). Our high levels of interest expense pose potential risks such as:

 

 

·

Any cash flows after covering the operations if any, equity raises if any, and any EB-5 funding are used to pay principal and interest on debt, thereby reducing the funds available for working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions, research and development and other general corporate purposes;

 

·

Any Biogas cash flows are used to pay dividends and redeem Series A preferred shares by reducing the funds available to use by us for operations.

 

·

Insufficient cash flows from operations may force us to sell assets, or seek additional capital, which we may not be able to accomplish on favorable terms, if at all; and

 

·

The level of indebtedness may make us more vulnerable to economic or industry downturns.

 

Our business is dependent on external financing and cash from operations to service debt and provide future growth.

 

The adoption of new technologies at our ethanol and biodiesel plants, the development of the Riverbank Carbon Zero 1 Facility and bio-methane digesters at local dairies near our Keyes Plant, and our working capital requirements are financed in part through debt or debt-like facilities.  We may need to seek significant additional financing to continue or grow our operations and to develop our business. However, generally unfavorable credit market conditions may make it difficult to obtain necessary capital or additional debt financing on commercially viable terms or at all.  If we are unable to pay our debt, we may be forced to delay or cancel capital expenditures, sell assets, restructure our indebtedness, seek additional financing, or file for bankruptcy protection.  Debt levels or debt service requirements may limit our ability to borrow additional capital, make us vulnerable to increases in prevailing interest rates, subject our assets to liens, limit our ability to adjust to changing market conditions, or place us at a competitive disadvantage to our competitors.  Should we be unable to generate enough cash from our operations or secure additional financing to fund our operations and debt service requirements, we may be required to postpone or cancel growth projects, reduce our operations, or may be unable to meet our debt repayment schedules.  Any one of these events would likely have a material adverse effect on our operations and financial position.

 

There can be no assurance that our existing cash flow from operations will be sufficient to sustain operations and to the extent that we are dependent on credit facilities to fund operations or service debt, there can be no assurances that we will be successful at securing funding from our senior lender or significant shareholders. Should we require additional financing, there can be no assurances that the additional financing will be available on terms satisfactory to us.  Our ability to identify and enter into commercial arrangements with feedstock suppliers in India depends on maintaining our operations agreement with Gemini Edibles and Fats India Private Limited (“Gemini”) and Secunderabad Oils Limited (“SOL”).  If we are unable to maintain this strategic relationship, our business may be negatively affected.  In addition, the ability of Gemini and SOL to continue to provide us with working capital depends in part on the financial strength of them and their banking relationships.  If Gemini and SOL are unable or unwilling to continue to provide us with working capital, our business may be negatively affected.  Our ability to enter into commercial arrangements with feedstock suppliers in California depends on maintaining our operations agreement with J.D. Heiskell, who is currently providing us with working capital for our Keyes Plant.  If we are unable to maintain this strategic relationship, our business may be negatively affected.  In addition, the ability of J.D. Heiskell to continue to provide us with working capital depends in part on the financial strength of J.D. Heiskell and its banking relationships.  If J.D. Heiskell is unable or unwilling to continue to provide us with working capital, our business may be negatively affected.  Our consolidated financial statements do not include any adjustments to the classification or carrying values of our assets or liabilities that might be necessary as a result of the outcome of this uncertainty.

 

We may be unable to repay or refinance our Third Eye Capital Notes upon maturity.

 

Under our note facilities with Third Eye Capital, we owe approximately $122.4 million, excluding debt discounts, as of December 31, 2021.  Our indebtedness and interest payments under these note facilities are currently substantial and may adversely affect our cash flow, cash position and stock price.  The current maturity date of these notes is April 2023, as the renewal has been executed subsequent to year end. We have been able to extend our indebtedness in the past, but we may not be able to continue to extend the maturity of these notes.  We may not have sufficient cash available at the time of maturity to repay this indebtedness.  We have default covenants that may accelerate the maturities of these notes.  We may not have sufficient assets or cash flow available to support refinancing these notes at market rates or on terms that are satisfactory to us.  If we are unable to extend the maturity of the notes or refinance on terms satisfactory to us, we may be forced to refinance on terms that are materially less favorable, seek funds through other means such as a sale of some of our assets or otherwise significantly alter our operating plan, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, if we are unable to amend our current note purchase agreement with Third Eye Capital, our ability to pay dividends could be restrained.

 

 
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We are dependent upon our working capital agreements with J.D. Heiskell, Gemini Edibles and Fats India Private Limited and Secunderabad Oils Limited. 

 

Our ability to operate our Keyes Plant depends on maintaining our working capital agreement with J.D. Heiskell, and our ability to operate the Kakinada Plant depends on maintaining our working capital agreements with Gemini and SOL. The Heiskell Agreement provides for an initial term of one year with automatic one-year renewals; provided, however, that J.D. Heiskell may terminate the agreement by notice 30 days prior to the end of the initial term or any renewal term.  The current term extends through December 31, 2022.  In addition, the agreement may be terminated at any time upon an event of default, such as payment default, bankruptcy, acts of fraud or material breach under one of our related agreements with J.D. Heiskell.  The Gemini and SOL agreement may be terminated at any time by either party upon written notice.  If we are unable to maintain these strategic relationships, we will be required to locate alternative sources of working capital and corn or milo supply, which we may be unable to do in a timely manner or at all.  If we are unable to maintain our current working capital arrangements or locate alternative sources of working capital, our ability to operate our plants will be negatively affected.

 

Our results from operations are primarily dependent on the spread between the feedstock and energy we purchase and the fuel, animal feed and other products we sell.

 

The results of our ethanol production business in the U.S. are significantly affected by the spread between the cost of the corn and natural gas that we purchase and the price of the ethanol, WDG and DCO that we sell. Similarly, in India our biodiesel business is primarily dependent on the price difference between the costs of the feedstock we purchase (principally NRPO and crude glycerin) and the products we sell (principally distilled biodiesel and refined glycerin).  The markets for ethanol, biodiesel, WDG, DCO and glycerin are highly volatile and subject to significant fluctuations.  Any decrease in the spread between prices of the commodities we buy and sell, whether as a result of an increase in feedstock prices or a reduction in ethanol or biodiesel prices, would adversely affect our financial performance and cash flow and may cause us to suspend production at either of our plants.

 

As of December 31, 2021 we became an “accelerated filer” and are therefore subject to the auditor attestation requirement in the assessment of our internal control over financial reporting.

 

Because the worldwide market value of our common stock held by non-affiliates exceeded $75 million (but was less than $700 million), as of the last business day of our fiscal quarter ended June 30, 2021, we are an “accelerated filer” as defined by SEC rule. Additionally, we are no longer a “smaller reporting company” as of December 31, 2021. Therefore, we are now subject to the requirement that we include in this Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2021, the auditor’s attestation report on assessment of our internal control over financial reporting pursuant to Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If we do not have a sufficient history for us and our independent registered public accounting firm to test and evaluate our new processes and controls, we may be unable to obtain an unqualified attestation report from our independent registered public accounting firm required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. If our independent registered public accounting firm is not able to render an unqualified attestation, it could result in lost investor confidence in the accuracy, reliability, and completeness of our financial reports. We expect that our status as an accelerated filer and compliance with these increased requirements will require management to expend additional time while also condensing the time frame available to comply with certain requirements, which may further increase our legal and financial compliance costs.

 

The price of ethanol is volatile and subject to large fluctuations, and increased ethanol production may cause a decline in ethanol prices or prevent ethanol prices from rising, either of which could adversely impact our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.

 

The market price of ethanol is volatile and subject to large fluctuations. The market price of ethanol is dependent upon many factors, including the supply of ethanol and the demand for gasoline, which is in turn dependent upon the price of petroleum, which is also highly volatile and difficult to forecast.  Fluctuations in the market price of ethanol may cause our profitability or losses to fluctuate significantly.  In addition, domestic ethanol production capacity increased significantly in the last decade.  Demand for ethanol may not increase commensurately with increases in supply, which could lead to lower ethanol prices. Demand for ethanol could be impaired due to a number of factors, including regulatory developments and reduced gasoline consumption. Reduced gasoline consumption has occurred in the past and could occur in the future as a result of increased gasoline or oil prices.

 

 
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                Decreasing gasoline prices may negatively impact the selling price of ethanol which could reduce our ability to operate profitably.

 

The price of ethanol tends to change in relation to the price of gasoline. If the price of gasoline decreases in the future, in correlation to the decrease in the price of gasoline, the price of ethanol may decrease. Decreases in the price of ethanol reduce our revenue. Our profitability depends on a favorable spread between our corn and natural gas costs and the price we receive for our ethanol. If ethanol prices fall during times when corn and/or natural gas prices are high, we may not be able to operate profitably.

 

We may be unable to execute our business plan.

 

The value of our long-lived assets is based on our ability to execute our business plan and generate sufficient cash flow to justify the carrying value of our assets.  Should we fall short of our cash flow projections, we may be required to write down the value of these assets under accounting rules and further reduce the value of our assets.  We can make no assurances that future cash flows will develop and provide us with sufficient cash to maintain the value of these assets, thus avoiding future impairment to our asset carrying values.  As a result, we may need to write down the carrying value of our long-lived assets.

 

In addition, we intend to modify or adapt third party technologies at the Keyes Plant and at the Kakinada Plant to accommodate alternative feedstocks and improve operations.  After we design and engineer a specific integrated upgrade to either or both plants to allow us to produce products other than their existing products, we may not receive permission from the regulatory agencies to install the process at one or both plants.  Additionally, even if we are able to install and begin operations of an integrated advanced fuels and/or bio-chemical plant, we cannot assure you that the technology will work and produce cost effective products because we have never designed, engineered nor built this technology into an existing bio-refinery.  Similarly, our plans to develop the Riverbank Carbon Zero 1 Facility, construct a bio-methane digester, pipeline and gas cleanup system near our Keyes plan, the integrated microgrid, the MVR project, or the Mitsubishi dehydration system at the Keyes Plant may not be successful as a result of financing, issues in the design or construction process, or our ability to sell liquid CO₂ at cost effective prices or achieve the anticipated energy savings.  Any inability to execute our business plan may have a material adverse effect on our operations, financial position, ability to pay dividends, and ability to continue as a going concern.

 

We may not be able to recover the costs of our substantial investments in capital improvements and additions, and the actual cost of such improvements and additions may be significantly higher than we anticipate.

 

Our strategy calls for continued investment in capital improvements and additions. For example, we are currently developing “Carbon Zero” biofuels production plants designed to produce biofuels, including renewable jet and renewable diesel fuel utilizing hydrogen and non-edible renewable oils.  We are also building carbon capture sequestration wells to generate low-carbon fuel standard credits by injecting CO₂ into sequestration wells that are monitored for emissions to ensure the long-term sequestration of carbon underground, developing the Carbon Zero 1 Ethanol Facility in Riverbank, CA to utilize the licensed Technologies to convert local California surplus biomass into ultra-low carbon renewable ethanol. We are also constructing a network of biogas digesters, pipelines and gas cleanup systems near our Keyes Plant to convert dairy waste gas into renewable bio-methane and evaluating the Goodland facility in Goodland, KS for construction of an additional ethanol facility. The construction of these capital improvements and additions involves numerous regulatory, environmental, political and legal uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control and may require the expenditure of significant amounts of capital, which may exceed our estimates and we may require significant debt or equity financing. These projects may not be completed at the planned cost, on schedule or at all due to unavailability of needed financing. The construction of new ethanol and other biofuel facilities is subject to construction cost overruns due to labor costs, costs of equipment and materials such as steel, labor shortages or weather or other delays, inflation or other factors, which could be material. In addition, the construction of these facilities is typically subject to the receipt of approvals and permits from various regulatory agencies. Those agencies may not approve the projects in a timely manner, if at all, or may impose restrictions or conditions on the projects that could potentially prevent a project from proceeding, lengthen its expected completion schedule and/or increase its anticipated cost. Moreover, our revenues and cash flows may not increase immediately upon the expenditure of funds on a particular project. For instance, if we expand an existing facility or construct a new facility, the construction may occur over an extended period of time, and we may not receive any material increases in revenues or cash flows until the project is completed. As a result, the new facilities may not be able to achieve our expected investment return, which could adversely affect our results of operations.

 

 We are dependent on, and vulnerable to any difficulties of, our principal suppliers and customers.

 

We buy all of the feedstock for the Keyes Plant from one supplier, J.D. Heiskell.  Under the Heiskell Supply Agreement, we are only permitted to purchase feedstock from other suppliers upon the satisfaction of certain conditions.  In addition, we have contracted to sell all of the WDG, CDS, and corn oil we produce at the Keyes Plant to J.D. Heiskell.  J.D. Heiskell, in turn, sells all WDG and syrup produced to A.L. Gilbert.  We sell the majority of our fuel ethanol production to one customer, Murex LLC (“Murex”), through individual sales transactions.  If J.D. Heiskell were to fail to deliver adequate feedstock to the Keyes Plant or fail to purchase all the contracted product we produce, if Murex were to fail to purchase the majority of the ethanol we produce, if A.L. Gilbert were to fail to purchase all of the WDG and syrup we produce, or if any of them were otherwise to default on our agreements with them or fail to perform as expected, we may be unable to find replacement suppliers or purchasers, or both, in a reasonable time or on favorable terms, any of which could materially adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.

 

 
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We may not receive the funds we expect under our EB-5 program.

 

Our EB-5 Phase I program allows for the issuance of up to 72 subordinated convertible promissory notes, each in the amount of $0.5 million due and payable four years from the date of the note for a total aggregate principal amount of up to $36.0 million. As of December 31, 2021, $35.5 million have been raised through the EB-5 program and have been released from escrow and $0.5 million remain to be funded to escrow. Additionally, the USCIS could deny approval of the loans, and then we would not receive some or all of the subscribed funds.  If the USCIS takes longer to approve the release of funds in escrow, or does not approve the loans at all, it would have a material adverse effect on our cash flows available for operations, and thus could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations. As of December 31, 2021, $36.6 million of principal and unpaid interest was outstanding on the EB-5 Notes under the EB-5 Phase I funding.

 

On October 16, 2016, we launched our EB-5 Phase II program, allowing for the issuance of up to 100 subordinated convertible promissory notes, on substantially similar terms and conditions as those issued under our EB-5 Phase I program, for a total aggregate principal amount of up to $50.8 million. On November 21, 2019, the minimum investment was raised from $500,000 per investor to $900,000 per investor.  As of December 31, 2021, $4.0 million have been raised through the EB-5 Phase II program and have been released from escrow.  As of December 31, 2021, $4.1 million of principal and unpaid interest was outstanding on the EB-5 Notes under the EB-5 Phase II funding.

 

There can be no assurance that we will be able to successfully raise additional funds under our EB-5 Phase II program or that such funds, if raised, will be approved by USCIS. If we are unable to raise, receive approval for, or receive any funds under our EB-5 Phase II program, our business may be negatively affected.

 

We face competition for our bio-chemical and transportation fuels products from providers of petroleum-based products and from other companies seeking to provide alternatives to these products, many of whom have greater resources and experience than we do, and if we cannot compete effectively against these companies, we may not be successful.

 

Our renewable products compete with both the traditional, largely petroleum-based bio-chemical and fuels products that are currently being used in our target markets and with the alternatives to these existing products that established enterprises and new companies are seeking to produce.  The oil companies, large chemical companies and well-established agricultural products companies with whom we compete are much larger than we are, and have, in many cases, well developed distribution systems and networks for their products.

 

In the transportation fuels market, we compete with independent and integrated oil refiners, advanced biofuels companies, traditional biofuel companies and biodiesel companies. Refiners compete with us by selling traditional fuel products and some are also pursuing hydrocarbon fuel production using non-renewable feedstocks, such as natural gas and coal, as well as processes using renewable feedstocks, such as vegetable oil and biomass. We also expect to compete with companies that are developing the capacity to produce diesel and other transportation fuels from renewable resources in other ways.

 

With the emergence of many new companies seeking to produce chemicals and fuels from alternative sources, we may face increasing competition from alternative fuels and chemicals companies. As they emerge, some of these companies may be able to establish production capacity and commercial partnerships to compete with us. If we are unable to establish production and sales channels that allow us to offer comparable products at attractive prices, we may not be able to compete effectively with these companies.

 

We also face competition from international suppliers. Ethanol can be imported into the United States duty-free from some countries, which may undermine the domestic ethanol industry.  Currently, international suppliers produce ethanol primarily from sugar cane and as such, production costs for ethanol in these countries can be significantly less than those in the United States and the import of lower price or lower carbon value ethanol from these countries may reduce the demand for domestic ethanol and depress the price at which we sell our ethanol.

 

The high concentration of our sales within the ethanol production industry could result in a significant reduction in sales and negatively affect our profitability if demand for ethanol declines.

 

We expect our U.S. operations to be substantially focused on the production of ethanol and its co-products for the foreseeable future. We may be unable to shift our business focus away from the production of ethanol to other renewable fuels or competing products. Accordingly, an industry shift away from ethanol or the emergence of new competing products may reduce the demand for ethanol, which could materially and adversely affect our sales and profitability.

 

 
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Our operations are subject to environmental, health, and safety laws, regulations, and liabilities.

 

Our operations are subject to various federal, state and local environmental laws, and regulations, including those relating to the discharge of materials into the air, water and ground, the generation, storage, handling, use, transportation and disposal of hazardous materials, access to and impacts on water supply, and the health and safety of our employees.  In addition, our operations and sales in India subject us to risks associated with foreign laws, policies and regulations.  Some of these laws and regulations require our facilities to operate under permits or licenses that are subject to renewal or modification.  These laws, regulations and permits can require expensive emissions testing and pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit actual or potential impacts to the environment. Violations of these laws, regulations or permit, or license conditions can result in substantial fines, natural resource damages, criminal sanctions, permit revocations and facility shutdowns.  We may not be at all times in compliance with these laws, regulations, permits or licenses or we may not have all permits or licenses required to operate our business.  We may be subject to legal actions brought by environmental advocacy groups and other parties for actual or alleged violations of environmental laws, permits or licenses. As we enter into new markets such as USP alcohol and hand sanitizer, we may be subject to several regulations and health and safety laws by TTB and Food and Drug Administration (‘FDA”). Failure to comply with these health and safety laws, our license to sell these products may be revoked and we may be subject to certain penalties.  In addition, we may be required to make significant capital expenditures on an ongoing basis to comply with increasingly stringent environmental laws, regulations, and permit and license requirements.

 

We may be liable for the investigation and cleanup of environmental contamination at our facilities and at off-site locations where we arrange for the disposal of hazardous substances.  If hazardous substances have been or are disposed of or released at sites that undergo investigation or remediation by regulatory agencies, we may be responsible under CERCLA or other environmental laws for all or part of the costs of investigation and remediation, and for damage to natural resources.  We also may be subject to related claims by private parties alleging property damage and personal injury due to exposure to hazardous or other materials at or from those properties. Some of these matters may require us to expend significant amounts for investigation, cleanup or other costs.

 

New laws, new interpretations of existing laws, increased governmental enforcement of environmental laws or other developments could require us to make additional significant expenditures.  Continued government and public emphasis on environmental issues can be expected to result in increased future investments for environmental controls at our production facilities.  Environmental laws and regulations applicable to our operations now or in the future, more vigorous enforcement policies and discovery of currently unknown conditions may require substantial expenditures that could have a negative impact on our results of operations and financial condition.

 

Our business is affected by greenhouse gas and climate change regulation.

 

Emissions of carbon dioxide resulting from manufacturing ethanol are subject to permit requirements.  Climate change continues to attract considerable attention globally. Numerous proposals have been made and could continue to be made at the international, federal, state and local levels to monitor and limit existing emissions of GHG, including carbon dioxide, as well as to restrict or eliminate future emissions. At this stage, it is not possible to accurately estimate either a timetable for implementation of any future regulations or our future compliance costs relating to implementation. Under the 2015 Paris Agreement, parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change agreed to undertake ambitious efforts to reduce GHG emissions and strengthen adaptation to the effects of climate change. In February 2021, the U.S. recommitted to the Agreement after having withdrawn in August 2017.

 

In the U.S., the EPA promulgated federal GHG regulations under the Clean Air Act affecting certain sources. The EPA issued mandatory GHG reporting requirements, requirements to obtain GHG permits for certain industrial plants and GHG performance standards for some facilities. Although the EPA recently scaled back certain GHG requirements, addressing climate change is a stated priority of President Biden and as such additional regulations and legislation are likely to be forthcoming at the U.S. federal or state level that could result in increased operating costs for compliance, or required acquisition or trading of emission allowances. Additionally, demand for the products we produce may be reduced.

 

If new laws or regulations are passed relating to the production, disposal or emissions of carbon dioxide, we may be required to incur significant costs to comply with such new laws or regulations. Compliance with future legislation may require us to take action unknown to us at this time that could be costly, and require the use of working capital, which may or may not be available, preventing us from operating as planned, which may have a material adverse effect on our operations and cash flow.

 

The operations at our Keyes Plant will result in the emission of CO₂ into the atmosphere.  In March 2010, the EPA released its final regulations on the RFS.  We believe the EPA’s final RFS regulations grandfather the Keyes Plant emission levels at its current capacity.

 

 
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A change in government policies may cause a decline in the demand for our products.

 

The domestic ethanol industry is highly dependent upon a myriad of federal and state regulations and legislation, and any changes in legislation or regulation could adversely affect our results of operations and financial position.  Other federal and state programs benefiting ethanol generally are subject to U.S. government obligations under international trade agreements, including those under the World Trade Organization Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures, and may be the subject of challenges, in whole or in part.  Growth and demand for ethanol and biodiesel is largely driven by federal and state government mandates or blending requirements, such as the RFS, which was implemented pursuant to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (the “EISA”). The RFS program sets annual quotas for the quantity of renewable fuels (such as ethanol) that must be blended into motor fuels consumed in the United States. However, legislation aimed at reducing or eliminating the renewable fuel use required by the RFS has been introduced in the United States Congress. Any change in government policies could have a material adverse effect on our business and the results of our operations.

 

Waivers of the RFS minimum levels of renewable fuels included in gasoline or of the requirements by obligate parties to comply with the regulations could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.  Under the Energy Policy Act, the U.S. Department of Energy, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy, may waive the renewable fuels mandate with respect to one or more states if the Administrator of the EPA determines that implementing the requirements would severely harm the economy or the environment of a state, a region or the nation, or that there is inadequate supply to meet the requirement.  Additionally, the EPA has exercised the authority to waive the requirements of the RFS for certain small refiners.  Any waiver of the RFS with respect to one or more states would reduce demand for ethanol and could cause our results of operations to decline and our financial condition to suffer.  Further activity by the EPA to waive the requirements for small refiners could cause softening of pricing in the industry and cause our results of operations to similarly decline.

 

A critical state program is California's LCFS, which is designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with transportation fuels used in California by ensuring that the fuel sold meets declining targets for such emissions. The regulation quantifies lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions by assigning a CI score to each transportation fuel based on that fuel’s lifecycle assessment. Each petroleum fuel provider, generally the fuel’s producer or importer (the “Regulated Party”), is required to ensure that the overall CI score for its fuel pool meets the annual carbon intensity target for a given year. A Regulated Party’s fuel pool can include gasoline, diesel, and their blend stocks and substitutes. This obligation is tracked through credits and deficits. Fuels with a CI score lower than the annual standard earn a credit, and fuels that are higher than the standard result in a deficit. Credits can be traded. Any changes to California’s LCFS could cause our results of operations, particularly in ethanol and biogas, to decline and cause our financial condition to suffer.

 

Concerns regarding the environmental impact of biofuel production could affect public policy which could impair our ability to operate at a profit and substantially harm our revenues and operating margins.

 

Under the EISA, the EPA is required to produce a study every three years of the environmental impacts associated with current and future biofuel production and use, including effects on air and water quality, soil quality and conservation, water availability, energy recovery from secondary materials, ecosystem health and biodiversity, invasive species and international impacts. Should such EPA triennial studies, or other analyses find that biofuel production and use has resulted in, or could in the future result in, adverse environmental impacts, such findings could also negatively impact public perception and acceptance of biofuel as an alternative fuel, which also could result in the loss of political support. To the extent that state or federal laws are modified or public perception turns against biofuels, use requirements such as RFS and LCFS may not continue, which could materially harm our ability to operate profitably.

 

We may encounter unanticipated difficulties in converting the Keyes Plant to accommodate alternative feedstocks, new chemicals used in the fermentation and distillation process or new mechanical production equipment.

 

In order to improve the operations of the Keyes Plant and execute on our business plan, we intend to modify the Keyes Plant to accommodate alternative feedstocks and new chemical and/or mechanical production processes, including an integrated microgrid, an MVR distillation system,  the Mitsubishi dehydration system and other technologies.  We may not be able to successfully implement these modifications, and they may not function as we expect them to. These modifications may cost significantly more to complete than our estimates.  The Keyes Plant may not operate at nameplate capacity once the changes are complete.  If any of these risks materialize, they could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.

 

Aemetis has entered into new markets for alcohol, including the sanitizer market and other industrial alcohol segments. These new markets, along with existing transportation/energy markets Aemetis already serves, are highly volatile and have significant risk associated with current market conditions.

 

We have limited experience in marketing and selling high grade alcohol and hand sanitizer. As such, we may not be able to compete successfully with existing or new competitors in supplying high-grade alcohol to potential customers. We may not be able to reach USP grade alcohol to compete further in the high-grade alcohol and hand sanitizer market. If we are unable to establish production and sales channels that allow us to offer comparable products at attractive prices, we may not be able to compete effectively in the market. Furthermore, there can be no assurance that our high-grade alcohol business will ever generate significant revenues or maintain profitability. The failure to do so could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

 
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We could be adversely affected by violations of the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

 

Our operations in countries outside the United States, including our operations in India, are subject to anti-corruption laws and regulations, including restrictions imposed by the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the “FCPA”). The FCPA and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We operate in parts of the world that have experienced governmental corruption to some degree and, in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-corruption laws may conflict with local customs and practices.

 

Our employees and agents interact with government officials on our behalf, including interactions necessary to obtain licenses and other regulatory approvals necessary to operate our business. These interactions create a risk that actions may occur that could violate the FCPA or other similar laws.

 

Although we have policies and procedures designed to promote compliance with local laws and regulations as well as U.S. laws and regulations, including the FCPA, there can be no assurance that all of our employees, consultants, contractors and agents will abide by our policies. If we are found to be liable for violations of the FCPA or similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions, either due to our own acts or out of inadvertence, or due to the acts or inadvertence of others, we could suffer from criminal or civil penalties which could have a material and adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.

 

A substantial portion of our assets and operations are located in India, and we are subject to regulatory, economic and political uncertainties in India.

 

Certain of our principal operating subsidiaries are incorporated in India, and substantial portions of our assets are located in India. We intend to continue to develop and expand our facilities in India.  The Indian government has exercised and continues to exercise significant influence over many aspects of the Indian economy. India’s government has traditionally maintained an artificially low price for certain commodities, including diesel fuel, through subsidies, but has recently begun to reduce such subsidies, which benefits us.  We cannot assure you that liberalization policies will continue. Various factors, such as changes in the current federal government, could trigger significant changes in India’s economic liberalization and deregulation policies and disrupt business and economic conditions in India generally and our business in particular.  In particular, the Indian government’s 2018 National Biofuels Policy stated a plan to increase Biodiesel blending to 5% of the diesel market, equal to more than 1.2 billion gallons per year. We cannot assure you that this policy will continue, nor can we assure you that we will continue to be able to procure biodiesel supply contracts with the Indian state-owned oil marketing companies through the public tender process. Our financial performance may be adversely affected by any such changes or other changes to the general economic conditions and economic and fiscal policy in India, including changes in exchange rates and controls, interest rates and taxation policies, as well as social stability and political, economic or diplomatic developments affecting India in the future.

 

Currency fluctuations between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations.

 

A substantial portion of our revenues is denominated in Indian rupees. We report our financial results in U.S. dollars. The exchange rates between the Indian rupee and the U.S. dollar have changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future.  We do not currently engage in any formal currency hedging of our foreign currency exposure, and our results of operations may be adversely affected if the Indian rupee fluctuates significantly against the U.S. dollar.

 

We could be subject to strict restrictions on the movement of cash and the exchange of foreign currencies which could limit our access to cash held in our Indian subsidiary to fund our U.S. operations or otherwise make investments where needed.

 

Our Indian operations could be subject to strict restrictions on the movement of cash and the exchange of foreign currencies, which would limit our ability to use this cash across our global operations. For instance, cash and cash equivalents were $7.8 million at December 31, 2021, of which $6.6 million was held in our North American entities and $1.2 million was held in our Indian subsidiary. Cash held in our Indian subsidiary may not otherwise be available for servicing debt obligations, potential investment or use for operations in the United States. Moreover, even if we were to repatriate this cash back to the United States for use in U.S. investments, this cash could be subject to additional withholding taxes. Due to various methods by which cash could be repatriated to the United States in the future, the amount of taxes attributable to the cash is dependent on circumstances existing if and when remittance occurs. Due to the various methods by which such earnings could be repatriated in the future, it is not practicable to determine the amount of applicable taxes that would result from such repatriation. In addition, Indian regulations may impose restrictions on the movement and exchange of foreign currencies which could further limit our ability to use such funds for repayment of debt, operations or capital or other strategic investments. Our inability to access our cash where and when needed could impede our ability to service our debt obligations, make investments and support our operations.

 

 
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We are a holding company and there are significant limitations on our ability to receive distributions from our subsidiaries.

 

We conduct substantially all of our operations through subsidiaries and are dependent on cash distributions, dividends or other intercompany transfers of funds from our subsidiaries to finance our operations. Our subsidiaries have not made significant distributions to us and may not have funds available for dividends or distributions in the future.  The ability of our subsidiaries to transfer funds to us will be dependent upon their respective abilities to achieve sufficient cash flows after satisfying their respective cash requirements, including subsidiary-level debt service on their respective credit agreements. Our current credit agreement, the Third Eye Capital Note Purchase Agreement, as amended from time to time, as described in the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements, requires us to obtain the prior consent of Third Eye Capital, as the Administrative Agent of the Note holders, to make cash distributions or any intercompany fund transfers. The ability of our Indian operating subsidiary to transfer funds to us is restricted by Indian laws and may be adversely affected by U.S. federal income tax laws.  Under Indian laws, our capital contributions, or future capital contributions, to our Indian operation cannot be remitted back to the U.S. Remittance of funds by our Indian subsidiary to us may subject us to significant tax liabilities under U.S. federal income tax laws.

 

Our Chief Executive Officer has outside business interests that could require time and attention.

 

Eric McAfee, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, has outside business interests which include his ownership of McAfee Capital.  Although Mr. McAfee’s employment agreement requires that he devote reasonable business efforts to our company and prohibits him from engaging in any competitive employment, occupational and consulting services, this agreement also permits him to devote time to his outside business interests consistent with past practice.  As a result, these outside business interests could interfere with Mr. McAfee’s ability to devote time to our business and affairs.

 

Our ability to utilize our NOL carryforwards may be limited.

 

Under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (the “Code”), a corporation is generally allowed a deduction in any taxable year for net operating losses (“NOL”) carried over from prior taxable years. As of December 31, 2021, we had U.S. federal NOL carryforwards of approximately $201.0 million and state NOL carryforwards of approximately $252.0 million.  As of December 31, 2021, the federal NOL’s of $201.0 million and the state NOL’s of $252.0 million expire on various dates between 2027 and 2041.  Due to the 2017 U.S. Tax Reform, U.S. federal NOLs post 2017 in the amount of $12.0 million have no expiration date.

 

The Section 163(j) excess interest expense carryover does not expire (similar to NOL’s).  However, the Section 163j excess interest expense carryover is subject to allowed amounts and the Section 382 change of ownership rules, similar to NOL’s and tax credits. The annual computation for how much interest expense allowed includes the prior year interest carry over plus current year interest. The amount allowed is generally 30% (law was modified for 2019 and 2020 to 50% due to COVID) of adjusted taxable income before the interest. Due to the ongoing interest expense every year, our ability may be limited just to continue to carry forward the interest expense to next year.

 

Our ability to deduct these NOL carryforwards against future taxable income could be limited if we experience an “ownership change,” as defined in Section 382 of the Code.  In general, an ownership change may result from one or more transactions increasing the aggregate ownership of certain persons (or groups of persons) in our stock by more than 50 percentage points over a testing period (generally three years).  Future direct or indirect changes in the ownership of our stock, including sales or acquisitions of our stock by certain stockholders and purchases and issuances of our stock by us, some of which are not in our control, could result in an ownership change.  Any resulting limitation on the use of our NOL carryforwards could result in the payment of taxes above the amounts currently estimated and could have a negative effect on our future results of operations and financial position.

 

                Non-U.S. stockholders of our common stock, in certain situations, could be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the gain from the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common stock.

 

Our Keyes Plant (which constitutes a U.S. real property interest for purposes of determining whether we are a U.S. real property holding corporation (a “USRPHC”) under the Foreign Investment in Real Property Tax Act (“FIRPTA”)), currently accounts for a significant portion of our assets. The value of our Keyes Plant relative to our real property located outside of the United States and other assets used in our trade or business may be uncertain and may fluctuate over time. Therefore, we may be, now or at any time while a non-U.S. stockholder owns our common stock, a USRPHC. If we are a USRPHC, certain non-U.S. stockholders may be subject to U.S. federal income tax on gain from the disposition of our stock under FIRPTA, in which case such non-U.S. stockholders would also be required to file U.S. federal income tax returns with respect to such gain. Whether the FIRPTA provisions apply depends on the stock that a non-U.S. stockholder owns and whether, at the time such non-U.S. stockholder disposes of our common stock, such common stock is regularly traded on an established securities market within the meaning of the applicable U.S. Treasury regulations. Non-U.S. stockholders should consult with their own tax advisors concerning the U.S. federal income tax consequences of the sale, exchange or other disposition of our common stock.

 

 
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We are subject to covenants and other operating restrictions under the terms of our debt, which may restrict our ability to engage in some business transactions.

 

Our debt facilities contain covenants restricting our ability, among others, to:

 

 

·

incur additional debt;

 

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make certain capital expenditures;

 

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incur or permit liens to exist;

 

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enter into transactions with affiliates;

 

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guarantee the debt of other entities, including joint ventures;

 

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pay dividends;

 

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merge or consolidate or otherwise combine with another company; and

 

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transfer, sell or lease our assets.

 

These restrictions may limit our ability to engage in business transactions that may be beneficial to us or may restrict our ability to execute our business plan.

 

We may be subject to liabilities and losses that may not be covered by insurance.

 

Our employees and facilities are subject to the hazards associated with producing ethanol and biodiesel.  Operating hazards can cause personal injury and loss of life, damage to, or destruction of, property, plant and equipment and environmental damage.  We maintain insurance coverage in amounts, against the risks that we believe are consistent with industry practice, and maintain an active safety program.  However, we could sustain losses for uninsurable or uninsured risks, or in amounts in excess of existing insurance coverage.  Events that result in significant personal injury or damage to our property or to property owned by third parties or other losses that are not fully covered by insurance could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial position.

 

Insurance liabilities are difficult to assess and quantify due to unknown factors, including the severity of an injury, the determination of our liability in proportion to other parties, the number of incidents not reported and the effectiveness of our safety program.  If we were to experience insurance claims or costs above our coverage limits or that are not covered by our insurance, we might be required to use working capital to satisfy these claims rather than to maintain or expand our operations.  To the extent that we experience a material increase in the frequency or severity of accidents or workers’ compensation claims, or unfavorable developments on existing claims, our operating results and financial condition could be materially and adversely affected.

 

The widespread outbreak of an illness, pandemic (such as COVID-19) or any other public health crisis may have material adverse effects on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.

 

The spread of COVID-19 has caused global business disruptions beginning in January 2020, including disruptions in the energy and natural gas industry. The COVID-19 pandemic has negatively impacted the global economy, disrupted global supply chains, reduced global demand of goods and services, and created significant volatility and disruption of financial and commodity markets. The extent of the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on our operational and financial performance, including our ability to execute our business strategies and projects in the expected time frame, continues to be uncertain and depends on various factors, including the demand for ethanol, WDG, CDS and DCO, the availability of personnel, equipment and services critical to our ability to operate our properties and the impact of potential governmental restrictions on travel, transports and operations. We continue to monitor federal, state, and local government recommendations and have made modifications to our normal operations as a result of COVID-19.  The degree to which the COVID-19 pandemic or any other public health crisis adversely impacts our results will depend on future developments, which are highly uncertain and cannot be predicted, including, but not limited to, the duration and spread of the outbreak, appearance of variants, its severity, the actions to contain the virus or treat its impact, its impact on the economy and market conditions, and how quickly and to what extent normal economic and operating conditions can resume. Therefore, the degree of the adverse financial impact cannot be reasonably estimated at this time.

 

We have facilities located in California and India, and the employees working in those facilities may be at greater risk for exposure to and for contracting COVID-19. The spread of COVID-19 in these locations may result in our employees being forced to work from home or missing work if they or a member of their family contract COVID-19. Additionally, the spread of COVID-19 may result in economic downturns in the markets in which we sell our products and lead to reduced demand for gasoline in such markets, each of which may impair demand for ethanol, harm our operations and negatively impact our financial condition.

 

 
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Our mergers, acquisitions, partnerships, and joint ventures may not be as beneficial as we anticipate.

 

We have increased our operations through mergers, acquisitions, partnerships and joint ventures and intend to continue to explore these opportunities in the future. For example, in December 2020, we announced an investment in Nevo Motors, Inc. pursuant to a Strategic Electric Vehicle Production Facilities Agreement that will utilize our current and future manufacturing facilities and fueling stations, as well as renewable natural gas and electricity produced by us.  The anticipated benefits of these transactions might take longer to realize than expected and these may never be fully realized, or even realized at all.  Furthermore, partnerships and joint ventures generally involve restrictive covenants on the parties involved, which may limit our ability to manage these agreements in a manner that is in our best interest.  Future mergers, acquisitions, partnerships, and joint ventures may involve the issuance of debt or equity, or a combination of the two, as payment for or financing of the business or assets involved, which may dilute ownership interest in our business.  Any failure to adequately evaluate and address the risks of and execute on our mergers, acquisitions, partnerships, and joint ventures could have an adverse material effect on our business, results of operations, and financial condition.  In connection with such acquisitions and strategic transactions, we may incur unanticipated expenses, fail to realize anticipated benefits, have difficulty incorporating the acquired businesses, our management may become distracted from our core business, and we may disrupt relationships with current and new employees, customers and vendors, incur significant debt, or have to delay or not proceed with announced transactions.  The occurrence of any of these events could have an adverse effect on our business.

 

EdenIQ’s attempt to terminate and failure to close the EdenIQ Merger, and litigation pertaining to the EdenIQ Merger, may negatively impact our business and operations.

 

On August 31, 2016, the Company filed a lawsuit in the Superior Court of California, County of Santa Clara against EdenIQ and its CEO, Brian D. Thome. The lawsuit is based on EdenIQ’s wrongful termination of a merger agreement (the “Merger Agreement”) that would have effectuated the merger of the Company and EdenIQ (the “EdenIQ Merger”). The relief sought includes specific performance of the merger agreement and monetary damages, as well as punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, and costs. By way of its cross-complaint, EdenIQ sought monetary damages, punitive damages, injunctive relief, attorneys’ fees and costs.  All of the claims asserted by both the Company and EdenIQ have been denied or dismissed.  In February 2019, the Company and EdenIQ each filed motions seeking reimbursement of attorney fees and costs associated with the litigation. On July 24, 2019, the court awarded EdenIQ a portion of the fees and costs it had sought in the amount of approximately $6.2 million and the Company recorded these fees in 2019. The Company’s ability to amend its claims and present its claims to the court or a jury could materially affect the court’s decision to award EdenIQ its fees and costs. In addition to further legal motions and a potential appeal of the Court’s summary judgment order, the Company plans to appeal the court’s award of EdenIQ’s fees and costs. However, we cannot predict the outcome of such appeal. Such appeal may also create a distraction for our management team and board of directors and require time and attention. Any litigation relating to the EdenIQ Merger could adversely impact our ability to execute our business plan, our financial condition and results of operations.

 

Our business may be significantly disrupted upon the occurrence of a catastrophic event or cyberattack.

 

Our Keyes and Kakinada Plants are highly automated and they rely extensively on the availability of our network infrastructure and internal technology systems. The failure of our systems due to a catastrophic event, such as an earthquake, fire, flood, tsunami, weather event, telecommunications failure, power failure, cyberattack or war, could adversely impact our business, results of operations and financial condition.  We have developed disaster recovery plans and maintain backup systems in order to reduce the potential impact of a catastrophic event. However, there can be no assurance that these plans and systems would enable us to return to normal business operations.

 

Our network infrastructure and internal technology systems may also be subject to other risks such as computer viruses, physical or electronic vandalism or other similar disruptions that could cause system interruptions and loss of critical data. Cybersecurity threats and incidents can range from uncoordinated individual attempts to gain unauthorized access to our networks and systems to more sophisticated and targeted measures directed at us or our third-party service providers. Despite the implementation of cybersecurity measures including access controls, data encryption, vulnerability assessments, employee training, continuous monitoring, and maintenance of backup and protective systems, our network infrastructure and internal technology systems may still be vulnerable to cybersecurity threats and other electronic security breaches. While we have taken reasonable efforts to protect ourselves, and to date, we have not experienced any material breaches or material losses related to cyberattacks, we cannot assure that any of our security measures would be sufficient in the future.

 

Adverse weather conditions, including as a result of climate change, may adversely affect the availability, quality and price of agricultural commodities and agricultural commodity products, as well as our operations and operating results.

 

Adverse weather conditions have historically caused volatility in the agricultural commodity industry and consequently in our operating results by causing crop failures or significantly reduced harvests, which may affect the supply and pricing of the agricultural commodities that we sell and use in our business and negatively affect the creditworthiness of agricultural producers who do business with us, including corn, feed and dairy producers.

 

 
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Severe adverse weather conditions, such as hurricanes or severe storms, may also result in extensive property damage, extended business interruption, personal injuries and other loss and damage to us. Our operations also rely on dependable and efficient transportation services. A disruption in transportation services, as a result of weather conditions or otherwise, may also significantly adversely impact our operations.

 

Additionally, the potential physical impacts of climate change are uncertain and may vary by region. These potential effects could include changes in rainfall patterns, water shortages, changing sea levels, changing storm patterns and intensities, and changing temperature levels that could adversely impact our costs and business operations, the location, costs and competitiveness of global agricultural commodity production and related storage and processing facilities and the supply and demand for agricultural commodities. These effects could be material to our results of operations, liquidity or capital resources. 

 

We may be unable to protect our intellectual property.

 

We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade name, confidentiality agreements, and other contractual restrictions on disclosure to protect our intellectual property rights.  We also enter into confidentiality agreements with our employees, consultants, and corporate partners, and control access to and distribution of our confidential information.  These measures may not preclude the disclosure of our confidential or proprietary information.  Despite efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy or otherwise obtain and use our proprietary information.  Monitoring unauthorized use of our confidential information is difficult, and we cannot be certain that the steps we have taken to prevent unauthorized use of our confidential information, particularly in foreign countries where the laws may not protect proprietary rights as fully as in the U.S., will be effective.

 

Companies in our industry aggressively protect and pursue their intellectual property rights.  From time to time, we receive notices from competitors and other operating companies, as well as notices from “non-practicing entities,” or NPEs, that claim we have infringed upon, misappropriated or misused other parties’ proprietary rights.  Our success and future revenue growth will depend, in part, on our ability to protect our intellectual property.  It is possible that competitors or other unauthorized third parties may obtain, copy, use or disclose our technologies and processes, or confidential employee, customer or supplier data.  Any of our existing or future patents may be challenged, invalidated or circumvented.

 

We may not be able to successfully develop and commercialize our technologies, which may require us to curtail or cease our research and development activities.

 

Since 2007, we have been developing patent-pending enzyme technology to enable the production of ethanol from a combination of starch and cellulose, or from cellulose alone. In July 2011, we acquired Zymetis, Inc., a biochemical research and development firm, with several patents pending and in-process R&D utilizing the Z-microbe™ to produce renewable chemicals and advanced fuels from renewable feedstocks.  In December 2018, the Company wrote off $0.9 million of patents associated with the Z-microbeTM and enzymatic processes to facilitate the degradation of certain plant biomass as the Company no longer plans to commercially develop the technologies itself and to free up resources to pursue other methods. In 2018, in cooperation with a federally funded agency, we secured a grant from the California Energy Commission to optimize and demonstrate the effectiveness of ionic liquids technologies for breaking down biomass to produce ethanol. To date, we have not completed a large-scale commercial prototype of our technology and are uncertain at this time when completion of a commercial scale prototype or commercial scale production will occur.  Commercialization risks include economic financial feasibility at commercial scale, availability of funding to complete large-scale commercial plant, ability of ionic liquids to function at commercial scale and market acceptance of product.

 

Technological advances and changes in production methods in the biomass-based biofuel industry and renewable chemical industry could render our plants obsolete and adversely affect our ability to compete.

 

It is expected that technological advances in biomass-based biofuel production methods will continue to occur and new technologies for biomass-based diesel production may develop. Advances in the process of converting oils and fats into biodiesel and renewable diesel, including co-processing, could allow our competitors to produce advanced biofuels more efficiently and at a substantially lower cost. New standards or production technologies may require us to make additional capital investments in, or modify, plant operations to meet these standards. If we are unable to adapt or incorporate technological advances into our operations, our production facilities could become less competitive or obsolete. Further, it may be necessary for us to make significant expenditures to acquire any new technology and retrofit our plants in order to incorporate new technologies and remain competitive. In order to execute our strategy to expand into the production of renewable chemicals, additional advanced biofuels, next generation feedstocks and related renewable products, we may need to acquire licenses or other rights to technology from third parties. We can provide no assurance that we will be able to obtain such licenses or rights on favorable terms. If we are unable to obtain, implement or finance new technologies, our production facilities could be less efficient than our competitors, and our ability to sell biomass-based diesel may be harmed, negatively impacting our revenues and profitability.

 

 
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Disruption in the supply chain could materially adversely affect our business.

 

We rely on our suppliers for our business, from feedstocks to materials for our infrastructure projects. Future delays or interruptions in the supply chain due to the COVID-19 pandemic could expose us to the various risks which would likely significantly increase our costs and/or impact our operations or business plans including:

 

 

·

we or our suppliers may have excess or inadequate inventory of feedstocks for operation of our plants;

 

·

we may face delays in construction or development of our infrastructure projects;

 

·

we may not be able to timely procure parts or equipment to upgrade, replace, or repair our plants and technology system; and

 

our suppliers may encounter financial hardships unrelated to our demand, which could inhibit their ability to fulfill our orders and meet our requirements.

 

Failure to remediate a material weakness in, or inherent limitations associated with, internal accounting controls could result in material misstatements in our financial statements.

 

Our management has identified a material weakness in our internal control over financial reporting related to our complex business transactions processes. See “Item 9A. Controls and Procedures”. A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of the company’s annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. As a result, management has concluded that, due to such material weakness, our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective as of December 31, 2021.

 

Our efforts to improve our internal controls are ongoing; however, there are inherent limitations in all control systems and no evaluation of controls can provide absolute assurance that all deficiencies have been detected. If we are unable to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting, or after having remediated such material weakness, fail to maintain the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting or our disclosure controls and procedures, we could lose investor confidence in the accuracy and completeness of our financial reports, the market price of our common stock could decline, and we could be subject to regulatory  scrutiny, civil or criminal penalties or litigation. Continued or future failure to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting could also result in financial statements that do not accurately reflect our financial condition or results of operations and may also restrict our future access to the capital markets. There can be no assurance that we will not conclude in the future that this material weakness continues to exist or that we will not identify any significant deficiencies or other material weaknesses that will impair our ability to report our financial condition and results of operations accurately or on a timely basis.

 

Risks related to ownership of our stock

 

If the trading price of our common stock fails to comply with the continued listing requirements of NASDAQ, we could face possible delisting. NASDAQ delisting could materially adversely affect the market for our shares.

 

On January 31, 2020 we received a letter from the Listing Qualifications Department of the Nasdaq Stock Market (“Nasdaq”) indicating that, based upon the closing bid price of our common stock for the last 30 consecutive business days, we did not meet the minimum bid price of $1.00 per share required for continued listing on The NASDAQ Global Market pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(a)(1). We were provided with a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or July 29, 2020, to regain our compliance with the minimum bid price requirement.

 

On February 11, 2020 we received a letter from Nasdaq indicating that, based upon the most recent publicly held shares information and the closing bid price of the Company’s common stock for the last 30 consecutive business days, we did not meet the minimum market value of publicly held shares (“MVPHS”) of $15,000,000 required for continued listing on The Nasdaq Global Market pursuant to Nasdaq Listing Rule 5450(b)(3)(C). We were provided with a compliance period of 180 calendar days, or August 10, 2020, to regain our compliance with the MVPHS requirement.

 

On August 11, 2020 and August 12, 2020 we received notices from Nasdaq that we had regained compliance with Listing Rules 5450(b)(3)(C) and 5450(a)(1), respectively. Despite Nasdaq now considering this matter closed, there can be no assurance that we will be able to remain in compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or with other Nasdaq listing requirements in the future. If we are unable to remain in compliance with the minimum bid price requirement or with any of the other continued listing requirements, Nasdaq may take steps to delist our common stock, which could have adverse results, including, but not limited to, a decrease in the liquidity and market price of our common stock, loss of confidence by our employees and investors, loss of business opportunities, and limitations in potential financing options.

 

 
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If our common stock loses its listed status on the NASDAQ Global Market and we are not successful in obtaining a listing on another exchange, our common stock would likely trade on the over-the-counter market. If our common stock were to trade on the over-the-counter market, selling our common stock could be more difficult because smaller quantities of our common stock would likely be bought and sold, transactions could be delayed, and security analysts’ coverage of us may be reduced. In addition, in the event our common stock is delisted, broker-dealers have certain regulatory burdens imposed upon them, which may discourage broker-dealers from effecting transactions in our common stock, further limiting the liquidity of our common stock. These factors could result in lower prices and larger spreads in the bid and ask prices for our common stock.

 

                We do not intend to pay dividends.

 

We have not paid any cash dividends on any of our securities since inception and we do not anticipate paying any cash dividends on any of our securities in the foreseeable future.

 

                Our principal shareholders hold a substantial amount of our common stock.

 

Eric A. McAfee, our Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board, beneficially owns 8.5% of our outstanding common stock.  In addition, the other members of our Board and management, in the aggregate, excluding Mr. McAfee, beneficially own approximately 1.1% of our common stock. As a result, these shareholders, acting together, will be able to influence many matters requiring shareholder approval, including the election of directors and approval of mergers and acquisitions and other significant corporate transactions.  See “Security Ownership of Certain Beneficial Owners and Management.”  The interests of these shareholders may differ from yours and this concentration of ownership enables these shareholders to exercise influence over many matters requiring shareholder approval, may have the effect of delaying, preventing or deterring a change in control, deprive you of an opportunity to receive a premium for your securities as part of a sale of the company and may affect the market price of our securities.

 

                The conversion of convertible securities and the exercise of outstanding options and warrants to purchase our common stock could substantially dilute your investment and reduce the voting power of your shares, impede our ability to obtain additional financing and cause us to incur additional expenses.

 

Our Series B convertible preferred stock is convertible into our common stock.  As of December 31, 2021, there were 1.3 million shares of our Series B convertible Preferred Stock outstanding, convertible into 127,506 shares of our common stock on a 10 to 1 ratio.  Certain of our financing arrangements, such as our EB-5 notes are convertible into shares of our common stock at fixed prices.  Additionally, there are outstanding warrants and options to acquire our common stock issued to employees and directors.  As of December 31, 2021, there were outstanding warrants and options to purchase 3.8 million shares of our common stock. 

 

Such securities allow their holders an opportunity to profit from a rise in the market price of our common stock such that conversion of the securities will result in dilution of the equity interests of our common stockholders.  The terms on which we may obtain additional financing may be adversely affected by the existence and potentially dilutive impact of our outstanding convertible and other promissory notes, Series B convertible preferred stock, options and warrants. In addition, holders of our outstanding promissory notes and certain warrants have registration rights with respect to the common stock underlying those notes and warrants, the registration of which involves substantial expense.

 

Our certificate of incorporation designates the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware as the sole and exclusive forum for certain types of actions and proceedings that may be initiated by our stockholders, which could limit our stockholders’ ability to obtain a favorable judicial forum for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees.

 

Our certificate of incorporation provides that, with certain limited exceptions, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware will be the sole and exclusive forum for any stockholder to bring (i) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (ii) any action asserting a claim of breach of fiduciary duty owed by any director or officer of the Company owed to us or our stockholders, creditors or other constituents, (iii) any action asserting a claim against us or any director or officer of the Company arising pursuant to any provision of the Delaware General Corporation Law or our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, or (iv) any action asserting a claim against the Company or any director or officer of the Company governed by the internal affairs doctrine. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in shares of our capital stock is deemed to have received notice of and consented to the foregoing provisions. This choice of forum provision may limit a stockholder’s ability to bring a claim in a judicial forum that it finds favorable for disputes with us or our directors, officers or other employees, which may discourage such lawsuits against us and our directors, officers and employees. Alternatively, if a court were to find this choice of forum provision inapplicable to, or unenforceable in respect of, one or more of the specified types of actions or proceedings, we may incur additional costs associated with resolving such matters in other jurisdictions, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition or results of operations.

 

 
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Provisions in our certificate of incorporation and bylaws may inhibit a takeover of us, which could limit the price investors might be willing to pay in the future for our common stock and could entrench management.

 

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws contain provisions that may discourage unsolicited takeover proposals that stockholders may consider to be in their best interests. Our board of directors is divided into three classes, each of which will generally serve for a term of three years with only one class of directors being elected in each year. As a result, at a given annual meeting only a minority of the board of directors may be considered for election. Since our “staggered board” may prevent our stockholders from replacing a majority of our board of directors at any given annual meeting, it may entrench management and discourage unsolicited stockholder proposals that may be in the best interests of stockholders. Moreover, our board of directors has the ability to designate the terms of and issue new series of preferred stock, which could be used to dilute the stock ownership of a potential hostile acquirer. Although we have opted out of the anti-takeover provisions under Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, we have adopted anti-takeover provisions that are substantially similar to such provisions, which could delay or prevent a change of control. Together these provisions may make more difficult the removal of management and may discourage transactions that otherwise could involve payment of a premium over prevailing market prices for our securities.

 

General Risk Factors

 

Our stock price is highly volatile, which could result in substantial losses for investors purchasing shares of our common stock and in litigation against us.

 

The market price of our common stock has fluctuated significantly in the past and may continue to fluctuate significantly in the future. The market price of our common stock may continue to fluctuate in response to one or more of the following factors, many of which are beyond our control:

 

 

·

fluctuations in the market prices of ethanol and its co-products including WDG and corn oil;

 

·

the cost of key inputs to the production of ethanol, including corn and natural gas;

 

·

the volume and timing of the receipt of orders for ethanol from major customers;

 

·

competitive pricing pressures;

 

·

our ability to produce, sell and deliver ethanol on a cost-effective and timely basis;

 

·

the announcement, introduction and market acceptance of one or more alternatives to ethanol;

 

·

losses resulting from adjustments to the fair values of our outstanding warrants to purchase our common stock;

 

·

changes in market valuations of companies similar to us;

 

·

stock market price and volume fluctuations generally;

 

·

regulatory developments or increased enforcement;

 

·

fluctuations in our quarterly or annual operating results;

 

·

additions or departures of key personnel;

 

·

our inability to obtain financing; and

 

·

our financing activities and future sales of our common stock or other securities.

 

The price at which you purchase shares of our common stock may not be indicative of the price that will prevail in the trading market. You may be unable to sell your shares of common stock at or above your purchase price, which may result in substantial losses to you and which may include the complete loss of your investment. In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following periods of high stock price volatility. We may be the target of similar litigation in the future. Securities litigation could result in substantial costs and divert management’s attention and our resources away from our business.

 

Any of the risks described above could have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or the price of our common stock, or both.

 

Our success depends in part on recruiting and retaining key personnel and, if we fail to do so, it may be more difficult for us to execute our business strategy.

 

Our success depends on our continued ability to attract, retain and motivate highly qualified management, manufacturing and scientific personnel, in particular our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Eric McAfee. We maintain key person insurance on our Mr. McAfee as our Chief Executive Officer for purposes of loan compliance, but do not maintain any key person insurance on our other executives. Competition for qualified personnel in the renewable fuel and bio-chemicals manufacturing fields is intense.  Our future success will depend on, among other factors, our ability to retain our current key personnel, and attract and retain qualified future key personnel, particularly executive management.  Failure to attract or retain key personnel could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations.

 

 
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Our operations subject us to risks associated with foreign laws, policies, regulations, and markets.

 

Our sales and manufacturing operations in foreign countries are subject to the laws, policies, regulations, and markets of the countries in which we operate.  As a result, our foreign manufacturing operations and sales are subject to inherent risks associated with the countries in which we operate.  Risks involving our foreign operations include differences or unexpected changes in regulatory requirements, political and economic instability, terrorism and civil unrest, work stoppages or strikes, natural disasters, interruptions in transportation, restrictions on the export or import of technology, difficulties in staffing and managing international operations, variations in tariffs, quotas, taxes, and other market barriers, longer payment cycles, changes in economic conditions in the international markets in which our products are sold, and greater fluctuations in sales to customers in developing countries.  Any inability to effectively manage the risks associated with our foreign operations may have a material adverse effect on our results of operations or financial condition.

 

Operational difficulties at our facilities may negatively impact our business.

 

Our operations may experience unscheduled downtimes due to technical or structural failure, political and economic instability, terrorism and civil unrest, natural disasters, and other operational hazards inherent to our operations.  These hazards may cause personal injury or loss of life, severe damage to or destruction of property, equipment, or the environment, and may result in the suspension of operations or the imposition of civil or criminal penalties.  Our insurance may not be adequate to cover such potential hazards and we may not be able to renew our insurance on commercially reasonable terms or at all.  In addition, any reduction in the yield or quality of the products we produce could negatively impact our ability to market our products.  Any decrease in the quality, reduction in volume, or cessation of our operations due to these hazards would have a material adverse effect on the results of our business and financial condition.

 

Our success depends on our ability to manage the growth of our operations.

 

Our strategy envisions a period of rapid growth that may impose a significant burden on our administrative and operational resources and personnel, which, if not effectively managed, could impair our growth.  The growth of our business will require significant investments of capital and management’s close attention.  If we are unable to successfully manage our growth, our sales may not increase commensurately with capital expenditures and investments.  Our ability to effectively manage our growth will require us to substantially expand the capabilities of our administrative and operational resources and to attract, train, manage and retain qualified management, technicians and other personnel.  In addition to our plans to adopt technologies that expand our operations and product offerings at our biodiesel and ethanol plants, we may seek to enter into strategic business relationships with companies to expand our operations.  If we are unable to successfully manage our growth, we may be unable to achieve our business goals, which may have a material adverse effect on the results of our operations and financial condition.

 

Our business may be subject to natural forces beyond our control.

 

Earthquakes, floods, droughts, tsunamis, and other unfavorable weather conditions may affect our operations.  Natural catastrophes may have a detrimental effect on our supply and distribution channels, causing a delay or preventing our receipt of raw materials from our suppliers or delivery of finished goods to our customers.  In addition, weather conditions may adversely impact the planting, growth, harvest, storage, and general availability of any number of the products we may process at our facilities or sell to our customers.  The severity of these occurrences, should they ever occur, will determine the extent to which and if our business is materially and adversely affected.

 

U.S. tax law changes could materially affect the tax aspects of our business and the industries in which we compete.

 

Continued developments in U.S. tax reform could adversely affect our results of operations and cash flows. It is also possible that provisions of U.S. tax reform could be subsequently amended in a way that is adverse to the Company. Although we believe that our income tax provisions and accruals are reasonable and in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States, and that we prepare our tax filings in accordance with all applicable tax laws, the final determination with respect to any tax audits and any related litigation, could be materially different from our historical income tax provisions and accruals. The results of a tax audit or litigation could materially affect our operating results and cash flows in the periods for which that determination is made. In addition, future period net income may be adversely impacted by litigation costs, settlements, penalties, and interest assessments.

 

 
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Future sales and issuances of rights to purchase common stock by us could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall.

 

We may issue equity or convertible securities in the future.  To the extent, we do so, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution.  We may sell common stock, convertible securities, or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner, we determine from time to time.  If we sell common stock, convertible securities, or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders.

 

Inflation may adversely affect us by increasing costs of our business.

 

Inflation can adversely affect us by increasing costs of feedstock, equipment, materials, and labor. In addition, inflation is often accompanied by higher interest rates. In an inflationary environment, such as the current economic environment, depending on other economic conditions, we may be unable to raise prices of our fuels or products to keep up with the rate of inflation, which would reduce our profit margins. Given the inflation rates in fiscal year 2021, we have experienced, and continue to experience, increases in prices of feedstock, equipment, materials, and labor. Continued inflationary pressures could impact our profitability.

 

Interest rates could change substantially, materially impacting our profitability.

 

Our borrowings expose us to interest rate risk, which could adversely affecting our profitability. We monitor and manage this exposure as part of our overall risk management program, but the changes in interest rates cannot always be predicted, hedged, or offset with price increases to eliminate earnings volatility.

 

Item 1B. Unresolved Staff Comments

 

None.

 

Item 2.  Properties

 

California Ethanol

 

Ethanol Plant in Keyes, CA.  The Keyes Plant is situated on approximately 11 acres of land and contains 25,284 square feet of plant building and structures. The property is located adjacent to the Union Pacific Railroad system to facilitate the transportation of raw materials. Our tangible and intangible assets, including the Keyes Plant, are subject to perfected first liens and mortgages as further described in Note 4. Debt, of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

 

CO₂ Land in Keyes, CA. On December 3, 2018, we acquired 5.32 acres of parcel land next to our Keyes Plant. The leased land is utilized by Messer Gas to receive CO₂ from the Keyes Plant, and produce liquid CO₂ for sale into local markets.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

Dairy Biogas Digesters, Central Valley, CA.  Since 2019, we have entered into arrangements with over 25 dairies in the Central Valley of California to build dairy digesters on the dairies’ land with a term of 25 years with two optional 5-year extensions. ABGL continues to negotiate and sign participation agreements with local dairies and convert those agreements into fully executed leases.

 

We productively utilize the majority of the space in our corporate offices and the ethanol plant facilities.  The agreements with the City of Riverbank (as described below) and the acquisition of GAFI are intended for future expansion and deployment of our SAF and renewable biodiesel fuel technology.

 

India Biodiesel

 

Biodiesel Plant in Kakinada, India.  The Kakinada Plant is situated on approximately 32,000 square meters of land in Kakinada, India.  The property is located 7.5 kilometers from the local seaport with connectivity through a third-party pipeline to the port jetty. The pipeline facilitates the importing of raw materials and exporting of finished products.  

 

India Administrative Office.  On April 2, 2019, we entered into a three-year lease of approximately 1,000 square feet of office space to accommodate our principal administrative, sales and marketing facilities in Hyderabad, India.

 

We productively utilize the majority of the space in these facilities.

 

 
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Other Initiatives

 

Corporate Office. Our corporate headquarters are located at 20400 Stevens Creek Blvd., Suite 700, Cupertino, CA. The Cupertino facility office space consists of 9,238 rentable square feet. We extended the lease in June 2020 for an additional eight years with a new termination date of May 31, 2028. 

 

Carbon Zero 1 Plant in Riverbank, CA. On February 3, 2017, we entered into a lease agreement with City of Riverbank Local Redevelopment Authority for leasing of approximately 71,000 square feet. The space is leased for 5 years with 10 five-year extensions allowed. The space is being utilized to build the Carbon Zero 1 Facility. On December 14, 2021, we entered into a real estate purchase agreements and lease disposition and development agreement with the City of Riverbank. We plan to utilize the purchased and leased properties, located at 5300 Claus Road in the city of Riverbank, California, for the construction of the Carbon Zero 1 Facility. Pursuant to the lease disposition and development agreement, we will serve as the master developer for the development of the leased property to develop, construct, finance, operate and maintain the leased property.  The lease commenced on February 12, 2022 and the term is for fifteen years.

 

Land, Building and Equipment in Goodland, KS.  On December 31, 2019, we exercised our option to acquire all of the capital stock of GAFI, comprising of approximately 93 acres of land, approximately 34,992 square feet of buildings and equipment as part of a partially completed 40 million gallon per year dry-mill ethanol plant.  

 

Item 3.  Legal Proceedings

 

On August 31, 2016, the Company filed a lawsuit in Santa Clara County Superior Court against defendant EdenIQ, Inc. (“EdenIQ”).  The lawsuit was based on EdenIQ’s wrongful termination of a merger agreement that would have effectuated the merger of EdenIQ into a new entity that would be primarily owned by Aemetis.  The lawsuit asserted that EdenIQ had fraudulently induced the Company into assisting EdenIQ to obtain EPA approval for a new technology that the Company would not have done but for the Company’s belief that the merger would occur.  The relief sought included EdenIQ’s specific performance of the merger, monetary damages, as well as punitive damages, attorneys’ fees, and costs.   In response to the lawsuit, EdenIQ filed a cross-complaint asserting causes of action relating to the Company’s alleged inability to consummate the merger, the Company’s interactions with EdenIQ’s business partners, and the Company’s use of EdenIQ’s name and trademark in association with publicity surrounding the merger.  Further, EdenIQ named Third Eye Capital Corporation (“TEC”) as a defendant in a second amended cross-complaint alleging that TEC had failed to disclose that its financial commitment to fund the merger included terms that were not disclosed. By way of its cross-complaint, EdenIQ sought monetary damages, punitive damages, injunctive relief, attorneys’ fees and costs. In November 2018, the claims asserted by the Company were dismissed on summary judgment and the Company filed a motion to amend its claims, which remains pending. In December 2018, EdenIQ dismissed all of its claims prior to trial.  In February 2019, the Company and EdenIQ each filed motions seeking reimbursement of attorney fees and costs associated with the litigation. On July 24, 2019, the court awarded EdenIQ a portion of the fees and costs it had sought in the amount of approximately $6.2 million and the Company recorded these fees based on the court order. The Company has retained appellate counsel to appeal the award. If the appeal is successful, the award may be reduced or eliminated. If the appeal is not successful, the award for this judgment will be increased by approximately $1.8 million to $2.1 million. The parties may also enter into settlement discussions while the appeal is pending and settle the dispute.

 

Item 4.  Mine Safety Disclosures.

 

Not Applicable.

 

 
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PART II

 

Item 5.  Market for Registrant’s Common Equity, Related Stockholder Matters and Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities

 

Market Information

 

Our common stock is traded on the NASDAQ Stock Market under the symbol “AMTX.”  Prior to trading on NASDAQ, between November 15, 2011 and June 5, 2014 our common stock was traded on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol “AMTX.”  Between December 7, 2007 and November 15, 2011, our common stock traded on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol “AEBF.”  Prior to December 7, 2007, our common stock traded on the OTC Bulletin Board under the symbol “MWII.”

 

Shareholders of Record

 

According to the records of our transfer agent, we had 173 stockholders of record as of February 23, 2022.  This figure does not include “street name” holders or beneficial holders of our common stock whose shares are held of record by banks, brokers and other financial institutions.

 

Dividends

 

We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently expect to retain any future earnings for use in the operation and expansion of our business and to reduce our outstanding debt and do not anticipate paying any cash dividends in the foreseeable future.  Information with respect to restrictions on paying dividends is set forth in Note 4. Debt of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements in Part II, Item 8 of this Form 10-K.

 

 
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Performance Graph

 

The graph below compares the cumulative five-year total return to shareholders of our common stock (AMTX) alongside the cumulative total return of the NASDAQ Composite Index (IXIC) and NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index (CELS).

 

The total cumulative return assumes dividends were reinvested at each year-end and is based on an original $100 investment at the respective closing prices on December 31, 2016.  Note that historic stock price performance is not necessarily indicative of future stock price performance.

 

amts_10kimg4.jpg

 

Year Ended December 31

 

2016

 

 

2017

 

 

2018

 

 

2019

 

 

2020

 

 

2021

 

Aemetis, Inc.

 

$100

 

 

$40

 

 

$44

 

 

$60

 

 

$179

 

 

$894

 

NASDAQ Composite Index

 

$100

 

 

$128

 

 

$123

 

 

$167

 

 

$239

 

 

$291

 

NASDAQ Clean Edge Green Energy Index

 

$100

 

 

$131

 

 

$114

 

 

$160

 

 

$451

 

 

$437

 

 

Sales of Unregistered Equity Securities

 

None.

 

Item 6.  Selected Financial Data

 

[Reserved]

 

Item 7.  Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations

 

Our Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations (MD&A) is provided in addition to the accompanying consolidated financial statements and notes to assist readers in understanding our results of operations, financial condition, and cash flows.  MD&A is organized as follows:  

 

 

·

Overview. Discussion of our business and overall analysis of financial and other highlights affecting us, to provide context for the remainder of MD&A.

 

 

 

 

·

Key Performance Indicators. Discussion of our key performance indicators, to provide context for company operations.

 

 

 

 

·

Results of Operations. An analysis of our financial results comparing the twelve months ended December 31, 2021, 2020, and 2019.

 

 

 

 

·

Liquidity and Capital Resources. An analysis of changes in our balance sheets and cash flows and discussion of our financial condition.

 

 

 

 

·

Critical Accounting Estimates. Accounting estimates that we believe are important to understanding the assumptions and judgments incorporated in our reported financial results and forecasts.

 

 
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The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and accompanying notes included elsewhere in this report.  The following discussion contains forward-looking statements that reflect our plans, estimates and beliefs.  Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed in the forward-looking statements.  Factors that could cause or contribute to these differences include those discussed below and elsewhere in this Report, particularly under “Part I, Item 1A.  Risk Factors,” and in other reports we file with the SEC.  All references to years relate to the calendar year ended December 31 of the particular year.

 

This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2021 and 2020 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2021 and 2020. Discussions of 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations" in Part II, Item 7 of the Company's Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Overview

 

Founded in 2006 and headquartered in Cupertino, California, we are an international renewable natural gas, renewable fuels and byproducts company focused on the acquisition, development and commercialization of innovative negative carbon intensity products and technologies that replace traditional petroleum-based products. We operate in three reportable segments “California Ethanol”, “Dairy Renewable Natural Gas”, and “India Biodiesel”. We have other operating segments and they were determined not to be reportable segments, collectively represented by the "All Other" category.

 

We own and operate a 65 million gallon per year ethanol production facility located in Keyes, California (the “Keyes Plant”). In addition to low carbon renewable fuel ethanol, the Keyes Plant produces Wet Distillers Grains (“WDG”), Distillers Corn Oil (“DCO”), and Condensed Distillers Solubles (“CDS”), all of which are sold as animal feed to local dairies and feedlots. In the fourth quarter of 2021, we installed an ethanol zeolite membrane dehydration system and is in process of being commissioned at the Keyes Plant. The installation is a key first step in the electrification of the Keyes Plant, which will significantly reduce the use of petroleum based natural gas as process energy. The electrification, along with the future installation of a two-megawatt zero carbon intensity solar microgrid system and a mechanical vapor recompression (MVR) system will greatly reduce GHG emissions and decreases the carbon intensity of fuel produced at the Keyes Plant, allowing us to realize a higher price for the ethanol produced and sold.

 

During 2018, Aemetis Biogas, LLC (“ABGL”) was formed to construct bio-methane anaerobic digesters at local dairies near the Keyes Plant, many of whom also purchase WDG produced at the Keyes Plant. Our Dairy Renewable Natural Gas segment, ABGL, has completed Phase 1 of our California biogas digester network and pipeline system that converts waste dairy methane gas into Dairy Renewable Natural Gas (“RNG”) and is now executing Phase 2 construction projects. The digesters are connected via an underground private pipeline owned by ABGL to a gas cleanup and compression unit being built at the Keyes Plant to produce RNG. During the third quarter of 2020, ABGL completed construction of the first two dairy digesters along with four miles of pipeline that carries bio-methane from the dairies to the Keyes Plant. Upon receiving the bio-methane from the dairies, impurities are removed, and the bio-methane is converted to negative carbon intensity RNG where it will be either injected into the statewide PG&E gas utility pipeline, supplied as compressed RNG that will service local trucking fleets, or used as renewable process energy at the Keyes Plant.

 

During the first quarter of 2021, we announced our “Carbon Zero” biofuels production plants designed to produce biofuels, including sustainable aviation fuel (“SAF”) and diesel fuel utilizing renewable hydrogen and non-edible renewable oils sourced from existing Aemetis biofuels plants and other sources.  The first plant to be built, in Riverbank, California, “Carbon Zero 1”, is expected to utilize hydroelectric and other renewable power available onsite to produce 90 million gallons per year of SAF, renewable diesel, and other byproducts. The plant is expected to supply the aviation and truck markets with ultra-low carbon renewable fuels to reduce GHG emissions and other pollutants associated with conventional petroleum-based fuels. By producing ultra-low carbon renewable fuels, the Company expects to capture higher value D3 Renewable Identification Numbers (“RINs”) and California’s LCFS credits. D3 RINs have a higher value in the marketplace than D6 RINs due to D3 RINs’ relative scarcity and mandated pricing formula from the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”).

 

 
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On April 1, 2021, we established Aemetis Carbon Capture, Inc. to build Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) projects to generate LCFS and IRS 45Q credits by injecting CO₂ into wells which are monitored for emissions to ensure the long-term sequestration of carbon underground. California’s Central Valley has been identified as the state’s most favorable region for large-scale CO₂ injection projects due to the subsurface geologic formation that absorbs and retains gases.

 

We also own and operate the Kakinada Plant with a nameplate capacity of 150 thousand metric tons per year, or about 50 million gallons per year, producing high quality distilled biodiesel and refined glycerin for customers in India and Europe. We believe the Kakinada Plant is one of the largest biodiesel production facilities in India on a nameplate capacity basis. The Kakinada Plant is capable of processing a variety of vegetable oils and animal fat waste feedstocks into biodiesel that meet international product standards. The Kakinada Plant also distills the crude glycerin byproduct from the biodiesel refining process into refined glycerin, which is sold to the pharmaceutical, personal care, paint, adhesive and other industries.

 

California Ethanol Revenue

 

Our revenue development strategy for California Ethanol segment relies upon supplying ethanol into the transportation fuel market in Northern California and supplying feed products to dairy and other animal feed operations in Northern California. We are actively seeking higher value markets for our ethanol in an effort to improve our overall margins and to add incremental income to the California Ethanol segment, including the development of the Carbon Zero Plants, the expansion of the Biogas Project, and the implementation of the Solar Microgrid System, the installation of the membrane dehydration system and other technologies. We are also actively working with local dairy and feed potential customers to promote the value of our WDG product in an effort to strengthen demand for this product.

 

During 2021, we produced five products at the Keyes Plant: denatured fuel ethanol, WDG, DCO, CO₂, and CDS. During the first quarter of 2020, we transitioned from selling the ethanol we produce to J.D. Heiskell pursuant to the J.D. Heiskell Purchase Agreement, to a model where the ethanol is sold directly to our fuel marketing customers. We own the ethanol stored in our finished goods tank. WDG continues to be sold to A.L. Gilbert and DCO is sold to other customers under the J.D. Heiskell Purchase Agreement. Smaller amounts of CDS were sold to various local third parties. We began selling CO₂ to Messer Gas in the second quarter of 2020. We began selling high-grade alcohol in March 2020 directly to various customers throughout the West Coast and we also produced and sold Aemetis hand sanitizer through our Aemetis Health Products, Inc. subsidiary in the fourth quarter of 2020.

 

California Ethanol revenue is dependent on the price of ethanol, WDG, high-grade alcohol, and DCO. Ethanol pricing is influenced by local and national inventory levels, local and national ethanol production, imported ethanol, corn prices and gasoline demand, and is determined pursuant to a marketing agreement with a single fuel marketing customer and is generally based on daily and monthly pricing for ethanol delivered to the San Francisco Bay Area, California, as published by Oil Price Information Service (“OPIS”), as well as quarterly contracts negotiated by our marketing customer with local fuel blenders. The price for WDG is influenced by the price of corn, the supply and price of distillers dried grains, and demand from the local dairy and feed markets and determined monthly pursuant to a marketing agreement with A.L. Gilbert and is generally determined in reference to the local price of dried distillers’ grains and other comparable feed products. High-grade alcohol pricing is based on the supply and demand restrictions in the current market. Our revenue is further influenced by the price of natural gas, our decision to operate the Keyes Plant at various capacity levels, conduct required maintenance, and respond to biological processes affecting output.

 

Dairy Renewable Natural Gas Revenue

 

In December 2018, we leveraged our relationship with California’s Central Valley dairy farmers by signing leases and raising funds to construct dairy digesters that collect bio-methane and pipelines that convey bio-methane to our Keyes Plant.  We have constructed our first two digesters, four miles of pipeline, and commenced operations in the third quarter of 2020.  In addition, we have signed agreements with over 25 additional dairies to construct additional dairy digesters. Our revenue development strategy for the Dairy Renewable Natural Gas segment relies upon continuing to build out the network of dairy digesters and pipeline in Northern California.

 

India Biodiesel Revenue

 

Our revenue strategy in India is based on continuing to sell biodiesel to our bulk fuel customers, fuel station customers, mining customers, industrial customers and tender offers placed by Government Oil Marketing Companies (“OMCs”) for bulk purchases of fuels. In 2020, the tenders were delayed due to COVID-19, and in 2021 ultimately changed in format to allow for monthly bidding on volumes at a price set by the OMCs on an bi-annual basis. The Company did not participate in tenders during 2021 due to low OMC offer price, coupled with very high feedstock prices as a result of COVID-19. The Company plans to participate in these tenders offers made by the OMCs on economically reasonable terms.

 

 
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Key Performance Indicators (KPI):

 

Aemetis measures performance primarily on the utilization of its plants and the production of products.  For traditional ethanol, the products are ethanol and WDG, measured in millions of gallons sold and tons sold, respectively.  For biodiesel production, the products are biodiesel and refined glycerin, both measured in metric tons sold.  Since our Keyes Plant uses a single feedstock, the delivered quantity and cost of corn is also used as a key performance indicator for this facility, as it indicates high-level profitability of the plant.  Utilization is measured as the production of transportation fuel produced as a percentage of the nameplate capacity, the engineering specification of the plant. Management utilizes these metrics to assess cash generated by each facility on a daily or weekly basis and to make decisions on the appropriate level of operation to balance market demand with plant capabilities and efficiency and allow the investor to understand the major components that comprise revenues within each segment.

 

The following table summarized our KPIs:

 

Production and Price Performance

(Unaudited)

 

 

 

Years ended December 31,

 

 

2021 vs 2020 %

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

 Change

 

Ethanol and High-Grade Alcohol

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gallons Sold (in millions)

 

 

59.8

 

 

 

60.3

 

 

 

64.7

 

 

 

-0.8%
Average Sales Price/Gallon

 

$2.72

 

 

$1.84

 

 

$1.77

 

 

 

47.8%
Percent of nameplate capacity

 

 

109%

 

 

112%

 

 

118%

 

 

-2.7%
WDG

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tons Sold (in thousands)

 

 

404

 

 

 

393

 

 

 

428

 

 

 

2.8%
Average Sales Price/Ton

 

$103

 

 

$81

 

 

$81

 

 

 

27.2%
Delivered Cost of Corn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bushels ground (in millions)

 

 

20.9

 

 

 

21.1

 

 

 

22.7

 

 

 

-0.9%
Average delivered cost / bushel

 

$7.53

 

 

$5.05

 

 

$5.28

 

 

 

49.1%
Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

MMBtu intercompany sales

 

 

53,041

 

 

 

9,388

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

465.0%
Biodiesel

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metric tons sold (in thousands)

 

 

1

 

 

 

16

 

 

 

47

 

 

 

-93.8%
Average Sales Price/Metric ton

 

$1,024

 

 

$863

 

 

$904

 

 

 

18.7%
Percent of Nameplate Capacity

 

 

0%

 

 

9%

 

 

31%

 

 

 

 

Refined Glycerin

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Metric tons sold (in thousands)

 

 

0.1

 

 

 

1.4

 

 

 

5.2

 

 

 

-92.9%
Average Sales Price/Metric ton

 

$956

 

 

$814

 

 

$543

 

 

 

17.4%

 

Results of Operations

 

Year Ended December 31, 2021 Compared to Year Ended December 31, 2020

 

Revenues

 

Our revenues are derived primarily from sales of ethanol, high-grade alcohol, and WDG for California Ethanol, renewable natural gas for Dairy Renewable Natural Gas, and biodiesel and refined glycerin for India Biodiesel.

 

In 2010, we entered into an exclusive marketing agreement with Kinergy to market and sell our ethanol. We terminated the Ethanol Marketing Agreement with Kinergy as of September 30, 2021. Effective October 1, 2021, we entered into the Fuel Ethanol Purchase and Sale Agreement with Murex LLC. Under the terms of the agreement, the initial term matures on October 31, 2023 with automatic one-year renewals thereafter. We entered into an agreement with A.L. Gilbert in 2011 to market and sell our WDG that will expire on December 31, 2022 with automatic renewals for additional one-year terms.  Pursuant to these agreements, our marketing costs for ethanol and WDG are less than 2% of sales.  Substantially all of our India segment revenues during the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020 were from sales of biodiesel and refined glycerin.  

 

 
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Substantially all of our Dairy Renewable Natural Gas segment revenues during the year ended December 31, 2021 were from sales of biogas to the Keyes Plant for use in boilers, which allowed qualification of carbon credits for the ethanol produced in the Keyes Plant.  

 

Revenue

Fiscal Year Ended December 31 (in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

% change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California Ethanol

 

$211,251

 

 

$149,302

 

 

$154,148

 

 

$61,949

 

 

 

41.5%
Dairy Renewable Natural Gas*

 

 

1,445

 

 

 

40

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,405

 

 

 

3512.5%

India Biodiesel

 

 

696

 

 

 

15,795

 

 

 

47,850

 

 

 

(15,099)

 

 

-95.6%
All Other

 

 

2

 

 

 

548

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(546)

 

 

-99.6%
Eliminations

 

 

(1,445)

 

 

(128)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,317)

 

 

1028.9%
Total

 

$211,949

 

 

$165,557

 

 

$201,998

 

 

$46,392

 

 

 

28%

 

*All Dairy Renewable Natural Gas revenue is intercompany.

 

California Ethanol.   For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company generated 77% of revenue from sales of ethanol, 20% from sales of WDG, and 3% from sales of corn oil, CDS, CO₂, and other sales. During the year ended December 31, 2021, plant production averaged 109% of the 55 million gallon per year nameplate capacity. The increase in revenues was due to the increase in price of ethanol per gallon sold to $2.72 for the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to $1.84 for the year ended December 31, 2020, which was partially offset by the decrease in volume of ethanol gallons sold from 60.3 million gallons for the year ended December 31, 2020 to 59.8 million gallons for the year ended December 31, 2021. In the year ended December 31, 2020, 15% of revenue was from sales of high-grade alcohol which was included in ethanol revenues. The average price of WDG increased by 27% to $103 per ton for the year ended December 31, 2021 while WDG sales volume also increased by 3% to 404 thousand tons in the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 393 thousand tons in the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Dairy Natural Gas. During the years ended December 31, 2021, 2020, 2019, we produced and sold 53.0 thousand, 9.4 thousand, and no British thermal units of biogas, respectively to an intercompany party.

 

India Biodiesel.  For the year ended December 31, 2021, the Company generated 67% of revenue from sales of biodiesel, 18% of sales from refined glycerin, and 15% from other sales, compared to 87% of sales from biodiesel, 8% from sales of refined glycerin, and 5% from other sales during the year ended December 31, 2020. The decrease in revenues for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to the year ended December 30, 2020 was due to a 97% decrease in the sales volume of biodiesel to 455 metric tons. The decrease in biodiesel volumes was due to the COVID-19 pandemic and unfavorable feedstock pricing. The average sales price of biodiesel increased to $1,024 for the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to $863 per metric ton in the same period in 2020. Compared to the year ended December 31,2020, the sales volume of refined glycerin decreased by 91% to 130 metric tons while the average price of glycerin increased by 17% to $956 per metric ton for the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

All Other: For the years ended December 31, 2021 and 2020, revenue generated from All Other segment consisted of revenue from sales of hand sanitizer.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

 

Cost of goods sold consists primarily of feedstock, chemicals, direct costs (principally labor and labor related costs) and factory overhead. Depending upon the costs of these inputs in comparison to the sales price of our end products, our gross margins at any given time can vary from positive to negative.  Factory overhead includes direct and indirect costs associated with the plant operations, including the cost of repairs and maintenance, consumables, maintenance, on-site security, insurance, depreciation and inbound freight.

 

Substantially all of our feedstock for California Ethanol is procured by J.D. Heiskell pursuant to the Heiskell Supply Agreement. Title to the corn passes to us when the corn is deposited into our weigh bin and entered into the production process. Our cost of feedstock is established by J.D Heiskell based on the Chicago Board of Trade pricing and includes rail, truck or ship transportation, local basis costs and a handling fee paid to J.D. Heiskell. The credit term of the corn purchased from J.D. Heiskell is one day. Cost of goods sold also includes chemicals, plant overhead and out-bound transportation. Plant overhead includes direct and indirect costs associated with the operation of the Keyes Plant, including the cost of electricity and natural gas, maintenance, insurance, direct labor, depreciation and freight.  Transportation includes the costs of in-bound delivery of corn by rail, inbound delivery of grain by ship, rail, and truck, and out-bound shipments of ethanol and WDG by truck.

 

 
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Substantially all of our feedstock for Dairy Renewable Natural Gas is supplied from dairy operations who lease us land and contract for supply of their dairy flush. Our cost of feedstock is established by lease agreement based upon the value of the environmental attributes and the size of the dairy.

 

Substantially all of our feedstock is for India Biodiesel is procured as crude palm stearin, a non-edible feedstock, from neighboring natural oil processing plants at a discount to refined palm oil or import from international market when prices are viable.  Raw material is received by truck and title passes when the goods are loaded at our vendors’ facilities.  Credit terms vary by vendor. However, we generally receive 15 days of credit on the purchases. We purchase crude glycerin in the international market on letters of credit or advance payment terms.

 

Cost of Goods Sold

Fiscal Year Ended December 31 (in thousands)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

% change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California Ethanol

 

$201,686

 

 

$139,568

 

 

$150,197

 

 

$62,118

 

 

 

44.5%
Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

 

1,933

 

 

 

343

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

1,590

 

 

 

463.6%
India Biodiesel

 

 

719

 

 

 

14,193

 

 

 

39,103

 

 

 

(13,474)

 

 

-94.9%
All other

 

 

1,117

 

 

 

556

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

561

 

 

 

100.9%
Elminations

 

 

(1,445)

 

 

(128)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,317)

 

 

1028.9%
Total

 

$204,010

 

 

$154,532

 

 

$189,300

 

 

$49,478

 

 

 

32%

 

California Ethanol.  We ground 20.9 million bushels of corn at an average price of $7.53 per bushel during the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 21.1 million bushels of corn at an average price of $5.05 per bushel during the year ended December 31, 2020.   In addition, for the year ended December 31, 2021, we incurred $3.3 million more in natural gas costs, $5.0 million related to the California Carbon Allowance accrued and paid in October 2021 for triennial obligation on GHG emissions along with $0.7 million accrued for 2021, and $0.9 million more in chemical costs.

 

Dairy Natural Gas. Cost of Goods Sold expenses relate to dairy manure payments, maintenance on the dairy digesters, production bonuses, and depreciation.

 

India Biodiesel.  The decrease in cost of goods sold during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to December 30, 2020, was attributable to a decrease in the volume of biodiesel feedstock by 97% to 465 metric tons during the year ended December 31, 2021, compared to 16 thousand tons during the year ended December 31, 2020, coupled with a decrease in the average price of biodiesel feedstock by 2% to $619 compared to $630 in the same period in 2020. In addition, the volume of refined glycerin feedstock decreased by 93% to 117 metric tons in the year ended December 31, 2021, partially offset by an increase in the average price of the refined glycerin feedstock by 20% to $619 per metric ton in the same period in 2020.

 

All Other. All other Cost of Goods Sold relates to the write-down of Aemetis Health Products inventory during the year ended December 31, 2021.

 

Gross Profit (loss)

 

Fiscal Year Ended December 31 (in thousands)

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

% change

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

California Ethanol

 

$9,565

 

 

$9,734

 

 

$3,951

 

 

$(169

)

 

 

-1.7%
Dairy Renewable Natural Gas

 

 

(488

)

 

 

(303

)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(185

)

 

 

61.1%
India Biodiesel

 

 

(23

)

 

 

1,602

 

 

 

8,747

 

 

 

(1,625)

 

 

-101.4%
All other

 

 

(1,115

)

 

 

(8

)

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,107

 

 

13837.5%
Total

 

$7,939

 

 

$11,025

 

 

$12,698

 

 

$(3,086

 

 

-28%

 

California Ethanol.  Gross profit decreased by 2% in the year ended December 31, 2021 primarily due to the stronger margin associated with  high-grade alcohol sales coupled with the lower corn price during the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

Dairy Natural Gas. Gross loss relates to incurring more expenses as we begin to ramp up our Dairy Renewable Natural Gas business.

 

India Biodiesel.  The decrease in gross profit was attributable to decrease in the sales volume of biodiesel of 97% to 455 metric tons and refined glycerin of 91% to 130 metric tons.

 

Operating Expenses

 

In 2020, substantially all of our R&D expenses were related to research and development activities in Minnesota.

 

 
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SG&A expenses consist primarily of salaries and related expenses for employees, marketing expenses related to sales of ethanol and WDG in California Ethanol and biodiesel and other products in India Biodiesel, as well as professional fees, other corporate expenses, and related facilities expenses.

 

SG&A expenses consist of employee compensation, professional services, travel, depreciation, taxes, insurance, rent and utilities, licenses and permits, penalties, and sales and marketing fees.  Pursuant to an operating agreement with Gemini, we receive operational support and working capital for our Kakinada Plant. We compensate Gemini with a percentage of the profits generated from operations.  Payments of interest are identified as interest expense while payments of profits are identified as compensation for the operational support component of this agreement.  We therefore include the portion of profits paid to Gemini as a component of SG&A, which will vary based on the profits earned by operations.  In addition, we market our biodiesel and glycerin through our internal sales staff, commissioned agents and brokers.  Commissions paid to agents are included as a component of SG&A.

 

Other (income) expense consists primarily of interest and amortization expense attributable to our debt facilities and those of our subsidiaries and accretion of our Series A preferred units.  The debt facilities include stock or warrants issued as fees.  The fair value of stock and warrants are amortized as amortization expense, except when the extinguishment accounting method is applied, in which case refinanced debt costs are recorded as extinguishment expense.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

% change

 

Research and development expenses

 

$88

 

 

$213

 

 

$205

 

 

$(125)

 

 

-59%

 

R&D expenses decreased in the year ended December 31, 2021 due to decreases in expenses related to research subcontract work of $84 thousand and lab supplies of $19 thousand.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

 % change

 

 Selling, general and administrative expenses

 

$23,676

 

 

$16,882

 

 

$17,424

 

 

$6,794

 

 

 

40%

 

SG&A expenses as a percentage of revenue in the year ended December 31, 2021 increased to 11% in the year ended December 31, 2021 compared to 10% in the year ended December 31, 2020. The increase in SG&A expenses in the year ended December 31, 2021 was primarily due to an increase in salaries and stock compensation of $3.9, insurance of $1.0 million, professional fees of $1.5 million, dues and subscriptions of $0.1 million, termination charges of $0.6 million and marketing fees of $0.5 million, lease expense of $0.3 million, which were partially offset by a decrease in bad debt expense of $1.1 million as compared to the SG&A expenses during the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2021 vs 2020

 

Other expense (income):

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

 

Inc/(dec)

 

 

% change

 

Interest expense

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interest rate expense

 

$20,136

 

 

$22,943

 

 

$21,089

 

 

$(2,807)

 

 

-12%

Debt related fees and amortization expense

 

 

3,921

 

 

 

3,401

 

 

 

4,666

 

 

 

520

 

 

 

15%

Accretion and other expenses of Series A preferred units

 

 

7,718

 

 

 

4,673

 

 

 

2,257

 

 

 

3,045

 

 

 

65%

Loss contingency on litigation

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

6,200

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

0%

Gain on debt extinguishment

 

 

(1,134)

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

(1,134)

 

 

0%

Other expense (income)

 

 

809

 

 

 

548

 

 

 

(797)

 

 

261

 

 

 

48%

 

Interest expense decreased in the year ended December 31, 2021 due to principal debt payments made to Third Eye Capital in the second quarter of 2021. Debt related fees and amortization increased due to debt and extension fees being incurred in 2021. The increase in accretion and other expenses of the Series A Preferred Units was due to the issuance of additional units during the year ended December 31, 2021, coupled with accrued preference payments. Other income related to gain on debt extinguishment was due to the PPP Loans being forgiven. Other expense increased due to termination charges recognized during the year, coupled with a guarantee fee of $0.4 million during the year ended December 2021, while guarantee fees of $0.6 million were added during the same period in 2020. 

 

 
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Liquidity and Capital Resources

 

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

Cash and cash equivalents were $7.8 million at December 31, 2021, of which $6.6 million was held in our North American entities and $1.2 million was held in our Indian entity. Our current ratio was 0.32 and 0.08, respectively, at December 31, 2021 and 2020. We expect that our future available liquidity resources will consist primarily of cash generated from operations, remaining cash balances, borrowings available, if any, under our senior debt facilities and our subordinated debt facilities, and any additional funds raised through sales of equity. The use of proceeds from all equity raises and debt financings are subject to approval by our senior lender.

 

Liquidity

 

Cash and cash equivalents, current assets, current liabilities and debt at the end of each period were as follows (in thousands):

 

 

 

As of

 

 

 

December 31,

2021

 

 

 December 31, 2020

 

Cash and cash equivalents

 

$7,751

 

 

$592

 

Current assets (including cash, cash equivalents, and deposits)

 

 

20,693

 

 

 

8,683

 

Current and long term liabilities (excluding all debt)

 

 

92,302

 

 

 

80,264

 

Current & long term debt

 

 

188,767

 

 

 

229,619

 

 

Our principal sources of liquidity have been cash provided by the sale of equity, operations, and borrowings under various debt arrangements.

 

We launched an EB-5 Phase II funding in 2016, under which we expect to issue $50.8 million in additional EB-5 Notes on substantially similar terms and conditions as those issued under our EB-5 Phase I funding. On November 21, 2019, the minimum investment amount was raised from $500,000 per investor to $900,000 per investor. As of December 31, 2020, EB-5 Phase II funding in the amount of $4.0 million had been released from escrow to the Company. Our principal uses of cash have been to refinance indebtedness, fund operations, and for capital expenditures. We anticipate these uses will continue to be our principal uses of cash in the future. Global financial and credit markets have been volatile in recent years, and future adverse conditions of these markets could negatively affect our ability to secure funds or raise capital at a reasonable cost, or at all.  

 

We operate in a volatile market in which we have limited control over the major components of input costs and product revenues, and are making investments in future facilities and facility upgrades that improve the overall margin while lessening the impact of these volatile markets.  As such, we expect cash provided by operating activities to fluctuate in future periods primarily because of changes in the prices for corn, ethanol, WDG, DCO, CDS, biodiesel, waste fats and oils, glycerin, non-refined palm oil and natural gas. To the extent that we experience periods in which the spread between ethanol prices, and corn and energy costs narrow or the spread between biodiesel prices and waste fats and oils or palm oil and energy costs narrow, we may require additional working capital to fund operations. 

 

As a result of negative capital and negative operating results, and collateralization of substantially all of the company assets, the Company has been reliant on its senior secured lender to provide additional funding. In order to meet its obligations during the next twelve months, the Company will need to either refinance the Company’s debt or receive the continued cooperation of senior lender.  This dependence on the senior lender raises substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern. The Company plans to pursue the following strategies to improve the course of the business.

 

For the Keyes Plant, we plan to operate the plant and continue to improve financial performance by adopting new technologies or process changes that allow for energy efficiency, cost reduction or revenue enhancements, execute upon awarded grants that improve energy and operational efficiencies resulting in lower cost, lower carbon demands and overall margin improvement.

 

For the Biogas Project, we plan to operate the biogas digesters to capture and monetize biogas while building new dairy digesters and extending the existing pipeline in order to capture the higher carbon credits available in California. We plan on funding the construction from obtaining government guaranteed loans and executing on existing and new state grant programs.

 

For the Riverbank project, we plan to raise the funds necessary to construct and operate the Riverbank Carbon Zero 1 plant using loan guarantees and public financings based upon the licensed technology that generate federal and state carbon credits available for ultra-low carbon fuels utilizing lower cost, non-food advanced feedstocks to significantly increase margins.

 

For the India plant, we plan to secure higher volumes of shipments of fuels at the India plant by developing the sales channels and expanding the existing domestic markets or exporting to North America markets.

 

 
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In addition to the above we plan to continue to locate funding for existing and new business opportunities through a combination of working with our senior lender, restructuring existing loan agreements, selling equity through the ATM and other means, selling the current EB-5 Phase II offering, or by vendor financing arrangements.

 

As of December 31, 2021, the outstanding balance of principal, interest and fees, net of discounts, on all Third Eye Capital Notes equaled $121.5 million. The current maturity date for all of the Third Eye Capital financing arrangements is April 1, 2023 as the Company exercised the right to extend the maturity date upon notice and payment of a 1% extension fee, pursuant to Amendment No. 20, subsequent to year end. The GAFI notes were fully repaid in the first quarter of 2021.

 

As of the date of this report, the Company has $40.0 million additional borrowing capacity to fund future cash flow requirements under the Reserve Liquidity Notes due on April 1, 2023.

 

Our senior lender has provided a series of accommodating amendments to the existing and previous loan facilities as described in further detail in Note 4. Debt of the Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements of this Form 10-K. However, there can be no assurance that our senior lender will continue to provide further amendments or accommodations or will fund additional amounts in the future.

 

We also rely on our working capital lines with Gemini and Secunderabad Oils in India to fund our commercial arrangements for the acquisitions of feedstock. We currently provide our own working capital for the Keyes Plant; Gemini and Secunderabad Oils currently provide us with working capital for the Kakinada Plant. The ability of Gemini, and Secunderabad Oils to continue to provide us with working capital depends in part on both of their respective financial strength and banking relationships.

Change in Working Capital and Cash Flows

 

The below table (in thousands) describes the changes in current and long-term debt during the year ended December 31, 2021:

 

Increases to debt:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Accrued interest

 

$20,239

 

 

 

 

Maturity date extension fee added to senior debt and waiver fees

 

 

1,715

 

 

 

 

Sub debt extension fees

 

 

680

 

 

 

 

Financing for equipment term loan

 

 

55

 

 

 

 

Total Increases to debt

 

 

 

 

 

$22,689

 

Decreases to debt:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Principal, fees, and interest payments to senior lender

 

$(23,959)

 

 

 

 

Principal and interest payments to EB-5 investors

 

 

(3,508)

 

 

 

 

GAFI interest and principal payments

 

 

(34,846)

 

 

 

 

PPP loan forgiveness

 

 

(1,134)

 

 

 

 

Change in debt issuance costs, net of amortization

 

 

(89)

 

 

 

 

Term loan payments

 

 

(5)

 

 

 

 

Total Decreases to debt

 

 

 

 

 

$(63,541)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Change in total debt

 

 

 

 

 

$(40,852)

 

Working capital changes resulted in (i) a $1.2 million increase in inventories, (ii) a $0.2 million decrease in accounts receivable, (iii) a $4.8 million increase in prepaid expenses mainly due to $4.0 million dollar prepayment to J.D. Heiskell coupled with a $0.8 million prepayment for natural gas, (iv) a decrease in other current assets of $0.9 million, and (v) a $7.2 million increase in cash due to an increase in ethanol sales and funds raised through the at-the-market offering program.

 

Cash used in operating activities was $20.6 million, derived from a net loss of $47.1 million, reduced by non-cash charges of  $21.1 million, and changes in operating assets and liabilities of $8.8 million. The non-cash charges consisted of: (i) $4.0 million in amortization of debt issuance costs and other intangible assets, (ii) $5.4 million in depreciation expenses, (iii) $3.9 million in stock-based compensation expense, (iv) $7.7 million in preferred unit accretion and other expenses of Series A preferred units, (v) a gain on debt extinguishment of $1.1 million, (vi) an increase in the provision for excess and obsolete inventory of $1.0 million and (vii) an increase in the provision for bad debts of $0.1 million. Net changes in operating assets and liabilities consisted primarily of an increase in (i) inventories of $2.2 million, (ii) prepaid expenses of $4.8 million, and (iii) a decrease in accounts payable of $5.2 million, offset by (iv) an increase in other liabilities of $0.7 million, (v) a decrease in other assets of $2.4 million, (vi) a decrease in accounts receivable of $0.1 million, and (vii) an increase in accrued interest of $14.5 million.

 

 
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Cash used by investing activities was $22.9 million, of which $2.8 million was used for capital projects in the Keyes Plant, $17.7 million was used for capital projects related to Dairy Renewable Natural Gas, $0.1 million for capital projects at the India Plant, and $6.0 million related to all other capital projects. This was partially offset by grant proceeds of $3.8 million.

 

Cash provided by financing activities was $50.7 million, consisting primarily of $103.6 million raised from issuance of common stock in equity offerings, $3.1 million received for issuing Series A Preferred Units, $1.3 million from exercises of stock options, and $0.1 million received for grant matching program partially offset by repayments of borrowings of $55.5 million, Series A Preferred Units redemption of $0.3 million, debt renewal and waiver fee payments of $1.1 million, and payments on finance leases of $0.5 million.

 

In October 2020, we commenced an at-the-market offering program, which allows us to sell and issue shares of our common stock from time-to-time.  During the year ended December 31, 2021, we issued 7,680 thousand shares of common stock under the at-the-market offering program for net proceeds of $103.6 million net of commissions and offering related expenses.  As of December 31, 2021, we had capacity to issue up to $288.2 million of common stock under the at-the-market offering program.

 

Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements

 

We had no outstanding off-balance sheet arrangements as of December 31, 2021.

 

Critical Accounting Policies

 

Our discussion and analysis of our financial condition and results of operations are based on our consolidated financial statements, which have been prepared in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles in the U.S. (“GAAP”).    The preparation of these financial statements requires us to make estimates and judgments that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amount of revenues and expenses for each period.  The following represents a summary of our critical accounting policies, defined as those policies that we believe are the most important to the portrayal of our financial condition and results of operations and that require management’s most difficult, subjective or complex judgments, often as a result of the need to make estimates about the effects of matters that are inherently uncertain.

 

Revenue Recognition

 

In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued new guidance on the recognition of revenue. The guidance stated that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The standard was effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that reporting period. In March and April 2016, the FASB issued further revenue recognition guidance amending principal versus agent considerations regarding whether an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods and services. The Company adopted this guidance on January 1, 2019 using the modified retrospective approach. There was no cumulative impact to retained earnings. We assessed all of our revenue streams to identify any differences in the timing, measurement or presentation of revenue recognition.

 

Revenue Recognition. We derive revenue primarily from sales of ethanol, high-grade alcohol and related co-products in California Ethanol, and biodiesel and refined glycerin in India Biodiesel pursuant to supply agreements and purchase order contracts. We assessed the following criteria under the ASC 606 guidance: (i) identify the contracts with customer, (ii) identify the performance obligations in the contract, (iii) determine the transaction price, (iv) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations, and (v) recognize revenue when the entity satisfies the performance obligations.

 

We have elected to adopt the practical expedient that allows for ignoring the significant financing component of a contract when estimating the transaction price when the transfer of promised goods to the customer and customer payment for such goods are expected to be within one year of contract inception. Further, we have elected to adopt the practical expedient in which incremental costs of obtaining a contract are expensed when the amortization period would otherwise be less than one year.

 

 
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California Ethanol:  Until May 13, 2020, we sold all our ethanol to J.D. Heiskell & Co. (“J.D. Heiskell”) under the Working Capital and Purchasing Agreement (the “J.D. Heiskell Purchasing Agreement”). On May 13, 2020, we entered into an amendment to the Corn Procurement and Working Capital Agreement with J.D. Heiskell (the “Corn Procurement and Working Capital”), under the terms of which we buy all corn from J.D. Heiskell and sell all WDG and corn oil we produce to J.D. Heiskell. Following May 13, 2020, we sold the majority of our fuel ethanol production to one customer, Kinergy Marketing, LLC (“Kinergy”), through individual sales transactions.  We terminated the Ethanol Marketing Agreement with Kinergy as of September 30, 2021. Effective October 1, 2021, we entered into Fuel Ethanol Purchase and Sale Agreement with Murex LLC. Given the similarity of the individual sales transactions with Kinergy and Murex, we have assessed them as a portfolio of similar contracts. The performance obligation is satisfied by delivery of the physical product to one of our customer’s contracted trucking companies. Upon delivery, the customer has the ability to direct the use of the product and receive substantially all of its benefits. The transaction price is determined based on daily market prices negotiated by Kinergy for ethanol and by our marketing partner A.L. Gilbert Company (“A.L. Gilbert”) for WDG. There is no transaction price allocation needed.

 

During the first quarter of 2020, Aemetis began selling high-grade alcohol for consumer applications directly to customers on the West Coast and Midwest using a variety of payment terms. These agreements and terms were evaluated according to ASC 606 guidance and such revenue is recognized upon satisfaction of the performance obligation by delivery of the product based on the terms of the agreement.  Sales of high-grade alcohol represented 15% revenue for the year ended December 31, 2020.

 

The below table shows our sales in California Ethanol by product category:

 

California Ethanol

 

For the twelve months ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Ethanol and high-grade alcohol sales

 

$162,428

 

 

$111,219

 

 

$114,593

 

Wet distiller's grains sales

 

 

41,476

 

 

 

32,048

 

 

 

34,510

 

Other sales

 

 

7,347

 

 

 

6,035

 

 

 

5,045

 

 

 

$211,251

 

 

$149,302

 

 

$154,148

 

 

We also assessed principal versus agent criteria as we buy our feedstock from our customers and process and sell finished goods to those customers in some contractual agreements.

 

In California Ethanol, we assessed principal versus agent criteria as we buy corn as feedstock in producing ethanol from our working capital partner J.D. Heiskell and sell all WDG and corn oil produced in this process to J.D. Heiskell through A.L. Gilbert. We sold all ethanol we produced to J.D.Heiskell until May 13, 2020. We consider the purchase of corn as a cost of goods sold and the sale of ethanol, upon transfer to the common carrier, as revenue on the basis that (i) we control and bear the risk of gain or loss on the processing of corn which is purchased at market prices into ethanol and (ii) we have legal title to the goods during the processing time. The pricing for both corn and ethanol is set independently. Revenues from sales of ethanol and its co-products are billed net of the related transportation and marketing charges. The transportation component is accounted for in cost of goods sold and the marketing component is accounted for in sales, general and administrative expense. Transportation and marketing charges are known within days of the transaction and are recorded at the actual amounts. The Company has elected an accounting policy under which these charges have been treated as fulfillment activities provided after control has transferred. As a result, these charges are recognized in cost of goods sold and selling, general and administrative expenses, respectively, when revenue is recognized. Revenues are recorded at the gross invoiced amount. Hence, we are the principal in sales scenarios where our customer and vendor may be the same.

 

India Biodiesel:  We sell products pursuant to purchase orders (written or verbal) or by contract with governmental or international parties, in which performance is satisfied by delivery and acceptance of the physical product. Given that the contracts are sufficiently similar in nature, we have assessed these contracts as a portfolio of similar contracts as allowed under the practical expedient. Doing so does not result in a materially different outcome compared to individually accounting for each contract. All domestic and international deliveries are subject to certain specifications as identified in contracts. The transaction price is determined daily based on reference market prices for biodiesel, refined glycerin, and Palm Fatty Acid Distillers (“PFAD”) net of taxes. There is no transaction price allocation needed.

 

The below table shows our sales in India Biodiesel by product category:

 

India Biodiesel

 

For the twelve months ended December 31,

 

 

 

2021

 

 

2020

 

 

2019

 

Biodiesel sales

 

$465

 

 

$13,796

 

 

$42,464

 

Refined glycerin sales

 

 

125

 

 

 

1,172

 

 

 

2,809

 

PFAD sales

 

 

-

 

 

 

774

 

 

 

2,557

 

Other sales

 

 

106

 

 

 

53

 

 

 

20

 

 

 

$696

 

 

$15,795

 

 

$47,850

 

 

We also assessed principal versus agent criteria as we buy our feedstock from our customers and process and sell finished goods to those same customers in certain contractual agreements. In those cases, we receive the legal title to feedstock from our customers once it is on our premises. We control the processing and production of biodiesel based on contract terms and specifications. The pricing for both feedstock and biodiesel is set independently. We hold the title and risk to biodiesel according to agreements when we enter into in these situations. Hence, we are the principal in sales scenarios where our customer and vendor may be the same.

 

Recoverability of Our Long-Lived Assets

 

Property and Equipment

 

Property, plant and equipment are carried at cost less accumulated depreciation after assets are placed in service and are comprised primarily of buildings, furniture, machinery, equipment, land, and plants in North America and India. When property, plant and equipment are acquired as part of an acquisition, the items are recorded at fair value on the purchase date. It is our policy to depreciate capital assets over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method.

 

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

Our long-lived assets consist of property, plant and equipment.  We review long-lived assets for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable.  We measure recoverability of assets to be held and used by comparing the carrying amount of an asset to the estimated undiscounted future cash flows expected to be generated by the asset.  If the carrying amount of an asset exceeds its estimated future cash flows, we record an impairment charge in the amount by which the carrying amount of the asset exceeds the fair value of the asset. 

 

 
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The impairment test for long-lived assets requires us to make estimates regarding amount and timing of projected cash flows to be generated by an asset or asset group over an extended period of time.  Management judgment regarding the existence of circumstances that indicate impairment is based on numerous potential factors including, but not limited to, a decline in our future projected cash flows, a decision to suspend operations at a plant for an extended period of time, adoption of our product by the market, a sustained decline in our market capitalization, a sustained decline in market prices for similar assets or businesses, or a significant adverse change in legal or regulatory factors or the business climate.  Significant management judgment is required in determining the fair value of our long-lived assets to measure impairment, including projections of future cash flows.  Fair value is determined through various valuation techniques including discounted cash flow models, market values and third-party independent appraisals, as considered necessary.  Changes in estimates of fair value could result in a write-down of the asset in a future period. 

 

Long-term assets are analyzed below based on their line items on the consolidated balance sheet and the lowest level where the assets are expected to generate cash flow or work as a functional unit. We consider the lowest level Asset Group as one where the value of the asset becomes independent from the other assets and has the ability to operate on an independent basis, and results in a functional unit.  We therefore group the reporting units into the following: the Keyes, California ethanol plant, the Kakinada, India biodiesel plant, the Central California Dairy Digester Network, the Riverbank, California Carbon Zero 1 plant under development, the Goodland Energy Center LLC, which consists of a partially completed dry-mill, and the Carbon Capture Sequestration asset group under development. These asset groups represent our significant long-lived assets. Both plants were operated efficiently and no asset groups showed indicators of impairment, therefore no impairment test was needed for our Company’s long-lived assets.

 

Testing for Debt Modification or Extinguishment Accounting

 

During 2021 and 2020, we evaluated amendments to our debt under the ASC 470-50 guidance for modification and extinguishment accounting and under ASC 470-60 for Troubled Debt Restructuring. This evaluation for modification and extinguishment included comparing the net present value of cash flows of the new debt to the old debt to determine if changes greater than 10 percent occurred.  In instances where our future cash flows changed more than 10 percent, we recorded our debt at fair value based on factors available to us for similar borrowings and used the extinguishment accounting method to account for the debt extinguishment. The evaluation for troubled debt restructuring included assessing whether the creditor granted a concession. To determine this, we calculate the post-restructuring effective interest rate by projecting cash flows on the new terms and calculating a discount rate equal to the carrying amount of pre-restructuring debt, and comparing this calculation to the terms of prior amendments.  If the post restructuring effective interest rate is less than the prior terms effective interest rate, we assess this as having been granted a concession.  We then apply troubled debt restructuring accounting to any debt in which the creditor granted a concession.

 

Recently Issued Accounting Pronouncements

 

Refer to Note 1 of the Financial Statements for a description of new accounting pronouncements.

 

Item 7A.  Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures About Market Risk

 

We are exposed to various market risks, including changes in interest rates, commodity prices and currency translation.  Market risk is the potential loss arising from adverse changes in market rates and prices.  In the ordinary course of business, we enter into various types of transactions involving financial instruments to manage and reduce the impact of changes in commodity prices and interest rates. We enter into no market risk sensitive instruments for trading purposes.

 

At December 31, 2021 we did not have any open firm-price purchase commitments with our feedstock suppliers.  At times in our Indian biodiesel business, we reduce our exposure to fluctuations in feedstock prices and the price of biodiesel by entering into fixed price contracts to buy and sell commodities. At the time we enter into a purchase commitment for feedstock, our goal is to also enter into an off-take arrangement with our customer to purchase the biodiesel at a set price.

 

Commodity Price Risk

 

In our US operations we produce ethanol, distillers grains and corn oil from corn and our business is sensitive to changes in the prices of each of these commodities. The price of corn is subject to fluctuations due to unpredictable factors such as weather; corn planted and harvested acreage; changes in national and global supply and demand; and government programs and policies. We use natural gas in the ethanol production process and, as a result, our business is also sensitive to changes in the price of natural gas. The price of natural gas is influenced by such weather factors as extreme heat or cold in the summer and winter, or other natural events like hurricanes in the spring, summer and fall. Other natural gas price factors include North American exploration and production, and the amount of natural gas in underground storage during both the injection and withdrawal seasons. Ethanol prices are sensitive to world crude-oil supply and demand; crude oil refining capacity and utilization; government regulation; and consumer demand for alternative fuels. Distillers grains prices are sensitive to various demand factors such as numbers of livestock on feed, prices for feed alternatives, and supply factors, primarily production by ethanol plants and other sources. Even though our commodity outputs and input are sensitive to changes in market prices, we only opportunistically pursue fixed contract arrangements on a limited basis with regard to the various commodities used in our business.

 

Ethanol Production

 

A sensitivity analysis has been prepared to estimate our ethanol production exposure to ethanol, corn, distillers grains and natural gas price risk. Market risk related to these factors is estimated as the potential change in net income resulting from hypothetical 10% changes in prices of our expected corn and natural gas inputs, and ethanol and